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| FOR THE PEOPLE 
FOR EDVCATION 
FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





PROCEEDINGS 



ESSEX INSTITUTE. 



VOL. IV. 



1864-5. 



[Issued Quarterly.] 



SALEM: 

PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 

18 6 6/ 



&H~ Ik'SisI ^— c /? 



ERRATA. 

Page vii, line 21, for John H. Bettis read John B. Bettis. 
' x, " 13, for conventieal read conventical. 

" 9, " 14, for Phalssenida? read Phalsenidse. 

" 11. " 12, after Agaristidce insert a comma. 

" 12, " 6, for lignivorus read lignivorous. 

'■ 12, " 30, for strangly read strangely. 

" 13, " 36, for Tortriidse read Tortricidse. 

" 15, heading, for Zygjenidia read Zyg^eniDjE. 

" 15, line 24, for Zyasginidse read Zj'gasnidse. 

" 16, " 8, for maxillary read labial. 

" 22, " 11, for gives read give. 
Plate J. 
The figure of the Imago should be fig. 1, not 16. 



PROCEEDINGS 

O F THE 

ESSEX INSTITUTE 

1864. 



Monday, January 11. Evening meeting. 
The President, A. Huntington, in the chair. 
Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 
Rev. G. W. Briggs occupied the evening in reading a portion 
of a Memoir of the late President of the Institute, Hon. D. A. 
White. 

Adjourned to Thursday evening next, for the continuation 
of the reading of the Memoir. 

Wednesday, January 13. Ordinary meeting. 
J. G. Waters, in the chair. 
E. K. Roberts was appointed Secretary pro tempore. 
Arthur Kemble, and William Neilson of Salem, jvere elected 
Resident Members ; Benjamin Peirce of Cambridge, James B. 
Endicott now in England, and William Endicott now in China, 
Corresponding Members. 

Thursday, January 14. Adjourned evening meeting. 

The President in the chair. 
H. M. Brooks was elected Secretary pro tempore. 
Rev. Dr. Briggs finished the reading of his Memoir of the 
late Judge White. 



II 

The thanks of the Institute were voted to Rev. Dr. Briggs, 
for his valuable and interesting Memoir of our late President, 
and a copy was requested for publication. (See Historical 
Collections, VI, No. I.) 

Monday, January 25. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 

Donations were announced to the Library and Cabinets. 

Letters were read, from G. A. Ward accepting membership ; 
from Corporation of Yale College ; Trustees of the New- 
buryport Public Library ; and New Haven Colony Historical 
Society, acknowledging the receipt of Publications : from R. S. 
Rantoul, in relation to the naming of Forts in Marblehead 
and Gloucester. 

George A. Ward read a communication, giving an account of 
the formation of the Essex Historical Society, forty-two 
years ago last June. 

Allusions having been made in Mr. Ward's communication, 
to the existence of the frame of the original (: First Church/' in 
Salem, on the land of David Nichols, rear of Boston street, 
considerable discussion ensued, as to the proof of the above 
mentioned frame being that of the "First Church." The 
President, Francis Peabody. G. A. Ward, A. C. Goodell Jr., 
and Rev. G. D. Wildes participated in the discussion ; the 
arguments adduced seemed to favor the affimative of the ques- 
tion. 

The thanks of the Institute were voted to Mr. Ward, for his 
valuable communication and a copy was requested for publica- 
tion. (See Historical Collections, VI, No I.) 

Monday, February 8. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 
Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 
Letters were read, from Wm. Neilson accepting membership : 



from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, acknowledging 
the receipt of Publications: from Jonathan Pearson of Schenec- 
tady, in relation to the publications. 

The Secretary read a communication from D. M. Balch, 
" On the Sodalite at Salem. ." Referred to the committee on 
publications. 

F. W. Putnam read a communication from George H. Em- 
erson of Cambridge. " On Magnetite, and an Unknown 
Mineral at NahantP Referred to the publication committee. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes spoke of the thoroughly English aspects 
of several of our olden towns in the County of Essex, noting 
particularly those of Ipswich, as illustrating to the untravelled 
eye, the marked features of the English rural town. Probably 
no County in the State in its local names and physical char- 
acter is more suggestive of associations connected with the 
mother land. 

A. C. Goodell Jr., in presenting to the meeting, one of the 
parts, (viz : the deed to the grantees, Edward Winslow and Robert 
Cushman.) of the original indenture or patent from Lord Shef- 
field, of the territory of Cape Ann, which indenture was depos- 
ited in the archieves of the Institute by J. Wingate Thornton 
Esq., of Boston, gave a brief account of the dates of the several 
voyages of discovery, charters and settlements by Englishmen in 
America ; and specially referred to the earlier grants and char- 
ters of the planters at New Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. 

The instrument deposited by Mr. Thornton, bearing date 
Jan. 1, 1628-4, he declared to be the grant under which the 
New Plymouth people first laid claim to Cape Ann, and began 
that series of settlements by fishermen and planters which laid 
the foundation of this flourishing Commonwealth. 

Mr. Wildes followed Mr. Goodell in some remarks as to the . 
great value of such documents, and alluded to the care taken of 
similar articles in the British Museum, mentioning several very 
valuable historical relics which he had seen in that collection. 



IV 

The thanks of the Institute were voted to Mr. Thornton for 
this valuable contribution. 

Wednesday, February 10. Ordinary meeting. 
H. J. Cross in the chair. 
Charles Creesey and Joshua Safford. of Salem, were elected 
Resident Members. 

Monday, February 22. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets "were announced. 
F. W. Putnam presented a communication by A. S. Pack- 
ard Jr., of Brunswick, Maine, entitled " Notes on the Family 
Zygcenidce." Referred to the Committee on Publications. 

R. S. Rantoul read the following communications which he 
had recently received from the War Department, at Washing- 
ton, accompanying the same with a brief account of his visit to 
Washington and his interview with Mr. Whiting, the Solicitor 
for the Department, in relation to the subject of naming the 
Forts in Gloucester and Marblehead : — 

War Department, ) 

Washington City, Feb. 8th, 1864. j 
Robert S. Rantoul Esq., 
Dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure of enclosing the order of the 
Secretary of War made at my request in accordance with the 
wishes of the Essex Institute, naming Fort Glover and Fort 
Conant. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

William Whiting, 
Solicitor of the War Department. 



War Department, 
Washington City, Feb. 7th, 1864. 
Sir, 

The Secretary of War directs me to acknowledge the 



receipt of Mr. Robert S. Rantoul's communication dated Janu- 
ary 22d, addressed to you and enclosing copy of a resolution 
passed by the ^ Essex Institute" of Salem, Massachusetts, rec- 
ommending that the fortifications'! now erecting in Marblehead 
be named " Fort Glover," and the works designated for the 
"Stage" in Gloucester "Fort Conant." 

In reply, I am instructed to inform you, that the Secretary 
regards the names proposed as suitable designations of these 
defences, and that he has ordered that they be named accord- 
ingly. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Ed. M. Camby, 
Brigadier General, A. A. G. 
Hon. Wm. Whiting, 

Solicitor of the War Department. 

The chair remarked as follows: soon after the publication 
of Mr. W. P. Upham's Memoir of Gen. John Glover of Mar- 
blehead, S. H. Phillips Esq., suggested the propriety of hav- 
ing one of the Forts about to be constructed in Marblehead 
named " Fort Glover." 

At a meeting of the Essex Institute, held on Wednesday, 
Sept. 2, 1863, on motion of Mr. W. P. Upham, a committee, 
consisting of Messrs. W. P. Upham and A. C. Goodell Jr., 
was appointed to cooperate with the town authorities and citi- 
zens of Marblehead in such a manner as may be deemed ap- 
propriate to accomplish this object. 

At a meeting held on Monday evening, Dec. 14, 1863, the 
subject of naming the fortifications designed for the " Stage" 
in Gloucester, "Fort Conant," suggested in a letter to Mr. 
Goodell by J. Wingate Thornton Esq., of Boston, in honor of 
Roger Conant, the founder of the first plantation in Massachu- 
setts Bay, was brought to the notice of the Institute and refer- 
red to the same Committee who had under consideration the 
naming of the Fort at Marblehead. 

Mr. Goodell moreover stated that as the business for which 
the Committee was appointed had been so fully accomplished 
by Mr. Rantoul, he desired to be excused from further duty. 



VI 

This was voted, and also a resolution of thanks to Mr. Rantoul. 
Adjourned to meet on Monday of next week, Feb. 29th, and 
voted that meetings be held on every Monday until otherwise 
ordered. 

Wednesday, February 24. Ordinary meeting. 
H. F. King in the chair. 
Henry R. Stone of Salem, was elected a Resident Member. 
Charles E. Hamlin of Waterville, Me., and S. I. Smith of 
Norway, Me., were elected Corresponding Members. 

Monday, February 29. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 

Donations were announced to the Library and Cabinets. 

Letters were read, from Henry R. Stone, accepting member- 
ship : from B. F. Mudge, of Quindaro, Wyandote Co., Kan- 
sas, in relation to the Geological survey of that State : from 
Trustees of the New York State Library ; Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania; Henry A. Smith of Cleveland, Ohio; J. Henry 
Stickney of Baltimore, Md. ; and N. Paine of Worcester, 
relating to the publications. 

F. W. Putnam made some remarks on Orthopterous Insects, 
suggested by specimens presented to the Institute by Miss Ed- 
mands. 

Mr. Putnam presented a communication from A. E. Verrill 
of Cambridge, entitled " Synopsis of the Polyps collected dur- 
ing the years 1853-6, by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to 
the North Pacific Expedition, commanded by Captains Ring- 
gold and Rogers." deferred to the publication committee. 

The Secretary read the following communication from Geo. 
A. Ward, in regard to the naming of "Fort Lee." 

" While at work in reconstructing the fort on Salem Neck in 
1812 as a member of the Salem Light Infantry, my grandfather 
informed me that it was originally planned by General Charles 
Lee, and that he gave instructions regarding it, and that his 
name was given to it. My said Grandfather was of the Com- 



VII 

mittee of Safety and had considerable to do as to the fortifica- 
tions in the neighborhood of Salem, and I think he could not be 
mistaken as to Fort Lee." 

Extracts from the Town records were read in relation to this 
subject, and remarks were offered by the chair, H. Wheatland, 
W. P. Upham and others. Some suggesting that the Fort was 
named for Colonel W. R. Lee, formerly collector of Salem and 
an active officer in the Revolution: 

The chair presented in behalf of J. V. Browne, a copper 
plate, on which was engraved the likeness of Rev. Joseph 
Sewall of Boston, and gave a brief sketch of the life of Mr. Sewall. 

T. Ropes made some enquiries relative to the old Friends 
Meeting House, on the South side of Essex street, between 
Monroe and Dean streets, which were replied to by the chair. 

John M. Ives spoke of the new silk worms that feed on the 
Ailanthus, and remarks were offered by F. W. Putnam and 
others on silk producing worms. 

The remainder of the evening was occupied by F. W. Put- 
nam, who gave a general view of the geological succession of 
animals, and their geographical distribution at the present time. 

John H. Bettis and Robert Brookhouse 3d, of Salem, were 
elected Resident Members. 

Monday, March 7. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 

Letters were read, from C. E. Hamlin and S. I. Smith, ac- 
cepting membership : from S. Jillson respecting some Birds. 

H. Wheatland read extracts from the Records of the 
Superior Court of Judicature and the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas (1766) relative to one Jenny Slew of Ipswich, Spinster, 
(colored woman) vs. John Whipple Jr. of Ipswich, claiming 
damages for his detention of her as a slave. The judgment of 
the Inferior Court was reversed by the Higher Court and the 
plaintiff recovered her liberty and damages. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes spoke of Domestic Servitude as it existed 



VIII 

in this country prior to the Revolution, and instanced the case 
of a Norwegian girl in his Grandfather's family, whose services 
were purchased for a term of years. 

The chair alluded to a similar case in Manchester. 

Mr. Wildes spoke of Marblehead as presenting a near and most 
interesting field of Antiquarian research for the younger mem- 
bers of the Institute, whose minds might be directed to that de- 
partment. St. Michael's Church, with its ancient Church yard ; 
the old mansions of that formerly flourishing seaport; the 
history of several families identified with Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary history, would be found to present most interesting 
points of enquiry. 

Mr. Wildes also spoke of Christ Church, Cambridge as per- 
haps the best specimen, in this country, of the English Village 
Church of the last Century. It was a question whether the 
frame of this Church was brought from England or not. Mr. 
W. gave an interesting account of the Vassal family, in connec- 
tion with this Church, and of the several old mansions, still 
marking the social life of Cambridge in the Ante-revolutionary 
history of the town. A visit to Cambridge, in connection with 
researches into the history of some of these, even now elegant 
residences of a later generation, would be found to be full of 
interest and instruction. 

Remarks of a conversational character from Messrs. Wildes, 
Beaman, the chair and others, relating to Boston and its vicin- 
ity in Revolutionary times occupied the rest of the evening. 

A Committee consisting of Messrs. F. W. Putnam, J. A. 
G-illis, R. S. Ranteul, W. P. Upham and H. Wheatland were 
appointed to revise the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Monday, March 14. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 
Letters were read from Joseph A. Goldthwait of New Berne, 
N. C, relating to specimens sent to the Institute: from Wm. A. 



IX 

Smith of Worcester, Mrs. P. A. Hanaford of Beverly, S. D. 
Bell of Manchester, N. H., C. M. Tracy and F. E. Oliver of 
Lynn, relating to business matters. 

The Secretary read some extracts from the Records of two 
Aqueduct Corporations, which, though limited in their opera- 
tions, are interesting as relating to the history of the introduction 
of water into this city. (See Historical Collections, VI, No. I.) 

F. W. Putnam exhibited the Pea Hen recently presented by 
F. Peabody and mounted by S. Jillson. This Hen had been 
kept on the grounds of Col. Peabody for seventeen years; about 
two years since she commenced to assume the plumage charac- 
teristic of the male, and had so far accomplished this object that 
at the time of her death she had attained the "train" and the bril- 
liant colors of the male. Mr. Putnam stated that Latham, in his 
Synopsis of Birds, mentioned two such instances that had come 
under his observation. He also said that similar cases had 
been noticed among other birds, and was quite common in the 
English Pheasant. Similar changes in the external appearance 
were known to take place in some species of fishes. 

A. C. Goodell Jr. read a portion of an account, presented by 
George B. Loring, of the houses on Essex street in 1793, writ- 
ten by Col. Pickman who died in 1819. 

Thomas Morong of Gloucester, was elected a Resident Mem- 
ber. Jeremiah L. Hanaford of Watertown, and Benj. F. Mudge 
of Quindaro, Kansas, were elected Corresponding Members. 

Monday, March 21. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Donations to the Library were announced. 
Letters were read, from the Trustees of the New York State 
Library, giving notice of the transmission of books : from 
Trustees of the Boston Public Library, acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of publications : from Wm. A. Smith of Worcester, in 
relation to publications. 

Mr. Goodell concluded the reading of Mr. Pickman's account 



of the old houses on Esses street. Referred to the publica- 
tion committee to be printed in the Historical Collections. 

Some discussion followed relative to the old houses in Salem, 
participated in by Messrs. Ropes, Goodell and others. 

Monday, March 28. Evening meeting. 
Vice President. A. C. Goodell Jr.. in the chair. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinet were announced. 

E. TV. Putnam made some remarks upon the Trilobites from 
the Braintree quarry, presented by A. S. Packard Jr. 

The Rev. Mr. Wildes, presented to the Institute, several 
articles vrhich he had procured in a visit to Newburyport this 
afternoon. One of these was a framed engraving of the body of 
Marshal Ney. as it appeared after being taken to a conventieal 
house in Paris, immediately after his execution. The engrav- 
ing, suppressed by the Allied Commander in the fear that it 
might tend to popular tumult, is supposed to be the only one in 
this country. It presents a most faithful portrait of the Mar- 
shal, and is not the least interesting among the historical objects 
in the collection of the Institute. 

Mr. W. also presented to the Institute, on deposit, the bullet 
by which Capt Greenleaf was wounded in the fight with the 
Indians near Newbury, in 1695. It is hoped, that the buff 
coat, worn on the occasion by Capt, G.. and still in the posses- 
sion of his descendants, may eventually be obtained for the 
Institute. 

A third article presented by Mr. TV. , on behalf of the Misses 
Tracey of Newburyport, was the snuff bos of the eminent mer- 
chant Jeremiah Lee of Marblehead ; the subject of the exquisite 
painting by Copley, now. with that of Madame Lee, in the pos- 
session of the Misses Tracey. 

Another article presented by Mr. TV., in behalf of E. W. 
Rand Esq. of Newburyport, was a pair of very ancient tongs, 
used for the purpose of lighting a pipe, and with various pecu- 



XI 

liar contrivances for securing reasonable comfort in smoking. 
Mr. W. accompanied the presentation with various interesting 
details as to these and other objects of interest, which might 
eventually be procured from the same sources for the collections 
of the Institute. 

F. W. Putnam called the attention of the meeting to a singu- 
lar monstrosity that had been presented by Mr. James Buffing- 
ton of Salem. This was a young duck that had, apparently, 
an extra leg developed from its back. Upon dissection this leg 
proved to be made up in some parts, of two legs closely united. 
The portion joining the pelvis (the femur,) being single, but 
the second segment of the leg (tibia and fibula) was shortened 
and spread out, so as to allow the articulation of tioo tarso-meta- 
tarsal bones, and from this point the foot was nearly double, 
having six toes, the two small hind toes being wanting. 

Mr. William Mansfield presented to the Institute a wooden 
model, used before the city government to illustrate the grade 
and direction of the proposed route of the Eastern Railroad, in 
1837-8, through Washington Street, in Salem. This model 
contains, in miniature, all the buildings then standing on the 
land included in the present Washington Street South of Essex 
Street, except the ''Mafston building." The chair gave an 
historical sketch of these several buildings, and of earlier struc- 
tures in the same locality. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during January ', 
February and March, 1864. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

Bertram, John. Specimen of Malachite. 

Buffington, James. Malformed Young Duck. 

Edmands, Miss A. M. Collection of 24 species of North 
American Orthoptera, named by Mr. Scudder. 250 speci- 
mens of New England Spiders. 

Felt, S. Q. Lime incrustation from Brazil. 



Goldthwait, Capt. J. A., New Berne, N.C. Fossil wood, 
a portion of a large tree, from Neuse River, near Kingston, N. C. 

Hamlin, Prof. C. E., Waterville, Me. 3 Salamanders, 2 
species from Waterville. 

Harrington, Capt. Geo. Fossil Shells from Gibraltar. 

Hartt, C. F., St. John, N. B. Fossil coral, Slderastrea 
siderea Blainv. from Bermuda. 7 species of Minerals from 
Nova Scotia. 

Hartt, J. W., St. John, N. B. Two specimens of Fossil 
Fish from the Albert Coal Mine, N. B. 

King, Capt. H. F. Wood of the Sophora Japonica. 

Lyceum of Natural History ' of Williams College 
(In exchange.) 19 species of Corals from Florida, named by 
Mr. Verrill. 

Museum of Comp. Zoology, Cambridge. ( In exchange. ) 
82 species of corals from various localities. Named by Mr. 
Verrill. 16 specimens, 11 species of Bird's eggs from Florida, 
Grand Menan and Anticosti. 

Neal, Jos. Body of a Fox, for Skeleton. 

Ordway, H. L., Ipswich. 34 specimens, 5 species of Spi- 
ders from Ipswich. 

Packard Jr., A. S., Brunswick, Me. Trilobites from the 
Braintree Quarry. 40 species, 200 specimens of Lepidoptera 
Maryland. 3 species, 8 specimens of Lepidoptera from 
England. 

Peaboly, Francis. A female Pea fowl which had assumed 
the characteristic plumage of the male. 

Putnam, F. W. Iron Ore from Port Henry Mines, N. Y. 
Clay stones from Lake Champlain. 

Putnam, Capt. W. H. A. Copper 'from Chili. Dry shells 
and Echini from Caldera, Chili. Alcoholic specimens of Crabs 
and Starfishes from Caldera. 

Robinson, John. 40 specimens, 12 species of Insects from 
Salem. 

Russell, T. B. Geological specimen of Sand Stone. 



Xlll 

Sanborn, F. G., Boston. 117 specimens, 28 species of 
Spiders from Essex County. 

Smith, Lawrence P. Insects from the Southern States. 

Smith, S. I., Norway, Me. Young Salamanders from Nor- 
way. 

Stevens, C. B. Skin of a Phatagin Manis tetradaciyla 
from Madagascar. 

Stone, W. H , Agent Port Henry Mines, N. Y. Specimen 
of the Cheever Iron Ore from four hundred feet depth. 

to the historical department. 

Barton, Wm. C. Model of a Chinese Vessel. 

Brooks, H. M. Rebel Prayer Book, from a Blockade 
Runner ; Child's book of 1812. 

Brown Jr., Benj. Two United States Buttons. 

Brown, Horace. Feather Cape from India. 

Cole, Mrs, N. D. Bust of Alex. Hamilton, (in plaster, 
bronzed.) 

Cloutman, William R. 3 China, 3 Japanese and 3 Russia 
Coins. Japanese Inkstand. Brick from Captain Kid's Fort, 
and a Stone from the grave of " Paul and Virginia." 

Greenough, W. An old Musket, taken from a Blockade 
Runner. 

Kimball, Capt. Thomas. Model of a Catamaran used on 
the coast of Brazil. 

Mansfield, Wm. Model used to illustrate the route of the 
Salem Tunnel. 

Nichols, Mrs. Andrew. Tile from the old Gov. Winslow 
house, Plymouth. 

Nichols, C. F. Stone from the Hoosac Tunnel, half a mile 
from the entrance. 

Nichols, Capt. James B., 24th Reg. Mass. Vols. Stone 
from an old Spanish Fort at St. Augustine, Fla. 

Ordway, Lieut. A., 24th Reg. Mass. Vols. Rebel Muskei 



XIV 

taken at the Battle of Roanoke Island. Portion of Rebel Flag- 
staff at Washington. N. C. 

Rand, E. W.j Newburyport. Ancient Tongs used for light- 
ing a pipe. 

Robinson, John. War Relics from New Berne. Chinese 
Playing Cards. 

Rogers, Ewb. S. Old Tiles for Fireplace ornaments. 

Russell, A. B. Cane made with a jackknife. 

Smith. Lawrence P. Rebel Sword. 

Ward, G. A. The Waistcoat worn by Capt, Jonathan Har- 
aden during the Revolutionary war. 

Ward, W. R. L., New York. Shaving from a wrought iron 
cannon, made at Falls Village, Conn. 

Wiggin, J. K., Boston. Sword blade, from the cargo of 
the Anglo-Rebel Blockade Runner " Minna." 

Wildes, Rev. Gr. D. (On deposit.) An engraving of the 
body of Marshal Ney. from a drawing made soon after his exe- 
cution. The bullet taken from the body of Capt. Greenleaf, 
wounded in a fight with the Indians near Newbury in 1695. 
The Snuff Box of the eminent merchant Jeremiah Lee of Mar- 
blehead. 

TO THE LIBRARY. 

Chase, George C. Friend"s Review, 20 numbers. 

Cole, Mrs. N. D. Salem Gazette, 1863, 1 vol. folio ; 
Boston Daily Evening Traveller 1868, 2 vols, folio. 

Davis, Charles of Beverly. Files of Beverly Citizen, vols. 
1 and 2, folio, 1850 to 1853. 

Decosta, B. F. of Charlestown. Footprints of Miles Stan- 
dish, by Rev. B. F. Decosta, 12mo, pamph. Charlestown, 1864. 

Dodge, Allen W. of Hamilton. Cushing's Newburyport. 
12mo, 1826; Report on Hoosac Tunnel, Feb. 1863, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Foote. C. Files of several County Papers, for September, 
October, November, and December, 1863. 



XV 

Gillis, James A. Massachusetts State Registers for 1856 
and 1858, 2 vols. 8vo. 25 Pamphlets. 

Hanaford, Mrs. P. A. of Beverly. Several numbers of 
the New Jerusalem Messenger. 

Hodsdon, John L of Augusta, Me. Annual Rep. of Adj. 
Gen. of Maine for 1862, 1 vol. 8vo. Augusta, 1863. 

Holmes, John C. 24th Annual Rep. of Supt. of Public 
Instruction of Michigan, 8vo. Lansing, 1862". 

Johnson, A. B. of Utica, N. Y. Our Monetary Condition, 
by A. B. Johnson, 8vo, pamph. Utica, 1864. 

Johnson Jr., Capt. Daniel H. Enrollment List, 5th 
Dist. Mass., Nov. 1863. 4to. 

Johnson, Mrs. Lucy P. Independent for 1863, fol. New 
York. 

Kilby, W. H. of Eastport, Me. Eighth Annual Rep. 
Sec'y of Maine Board of Agriculture, 8vo. Augusta 1863. 

Langworthy, Isaac P. of Boston. Spirit of Missions, ten 
numbers. Am. Tract Soc. of New York Annual Reports 28, 
30, 32, 33, 34. Am. Tract Society of Boston. Reports 11, 
37, 61, 65, 67. 

Lord, N. J. Boston Post, Dec. 1863 and Jan. 1854. 

Lorlng, George B. Two manuscript volumes containing 
the Expenses of Salem from 1788 to 1802, kept by Benjamin 
Pickman. 

Massachusetts Secretary of State. Mass. Public Doc- 
uments 1862, 3 vols. 8vo ; Census of Mass., 1 vol. 8vo, 1863 ; 
19th and 20th Registration Reports, 2 vols. 8vo ; Acts and 
Resolves for 1863. 

Moore, Geo. H. of New York. The Treason of Chas. Lee, 
by G. H. Moore. 1 vol. 8vo. New York, 1860. Historical 
Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American army 
of the Revolution, by George H. Moore, 8vo, pamph. New 
York, 1862. 

Nichols, Charles F. Collection of Handbills, &c. 

Nichols, George. Christian Inquirer for 1863, 1 vol. fol. 
New York. 



XVI 

Nichols, Henry P. Several pamphlets. 

Oliver. H. K. 27 pamphlets, including Legislative Docu- 
ments and Town Reports. 

Paine. Nathaniel of Worcester. Worcester Directory 
for 1864.' 12mo. 

Putnam, Capt. George D. Regulations of the Army of the 
Confederate States. 12mo. Richmond. 1863. 

Rantoul, R. S. Several pamphlets. 

Short, Joseph. SheparcVs Sound Believer. 12mo. Bos- 
ton, 1762. 

Sibley, John L. of Cambridge. 88th Annual Rep. of Pres. 
and Fellows of Harv. College. 8vo, pamph. Cambridge. 1864. 

Stevens, C. B. Pilot from July to Dec. 1807 and part of 
1809, 3 vols, folio. London. 

Stone, E. M. of Providence, R. I. Report of the Ministry 
at Large, Jan. 24, 1862. 8vo, pamph. Providence, 1864. 

Swett. S. of Boston. Original planning, &c. of Bunker 
Hill Monument, by S. Swett, 8vo, pamph. Albany, 1863. 

Upton, George. Scientific American, several numbers. 

Upton. James. Magazine of Horticulture, vols. 8 to 29, 
22 vols, 8vo, Boston, 1842, &c; Horticulturist for 1863, 1 
vol., 8vo, New York, 1863 ; Littell's Living Age, vols 77, 78, 
79, 3 vols, 8vo, Boston, 1863 ; Am. Bapt. Missionary Maga- 
zine, vol. 43, Boston. 1863; Nautical Magazine, vols. 2 to 6, 
5 vols., 8vo, New York. 1855, &c. Barry's Fruit Garden. 1 
vol., 12mo, New York. 1851 ; Kenrick's Am. Orchardist, 3d 
edition. 1 vol.. 12mo, Boston. 1841 ; Kenrick's Am. Orchardist, 
7th edition, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1844; Johnston's Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, 1 vol., 12mo. New York, 1844 ; Downing's 
Fruit and Fruit Trees. 1 vol., 12mo, New York, 1845; Field's 
Pear Culture, 1 vol., 12mo, NewYork, 1859 ; Liebig's Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, 1 vol, 12mo, Cambridge, 1842; Hoareon Vine 
Roots, 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1844; Hoare on Grape Vines, 1 
vol., 12mo, ' Boston, 1840 ; Manning's Book of Fruits. 1 vol., 
12mo. Salem, 1838 ; Jaques on Fruit Trees, 1 vol., 12mo, 



XVII 

Worcester, 1849; Thomas' Fruit Culturist, 1 vol., 12mo, 
Auburn, 1849; Lindley's Horticulture, 1 vol., 12mo, New- 
York, 1841; Elliott's Fruit Grower's Guide, 1 vol., 12mo, 
New York, 1854; Peter Schlemihl in America, 1 vol., 12mo, 
Philadelphia, 1838 ; Wood's Modern Pilgrims, 2 vols, 12mo, 
Boston, 1855; Lester's Glory and Shame of England, 2 vols., 
12mo, New York, 1841 ; Pamphlets, 23. 

Ward Jr., Charles. New York Journal of Commerce from 
July to Dec, 1863 ; Philadelphia Directory for 1861, 8vo ; 
Bradbury's Historjr of Kennebunk Port, 12mo, Kennebunk, 
1837; Commercial Relations of United States, 5 vols., 4to, 
Washington, (Pub. Doc.) ; Handbook to the Museum of Phil. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., 12mo, pamph., Philadelphia, 1862. 

Waters, J. Linton of Chicago, III. 15th Annual Rep. 
of Trade and Commerce of Chicago, for 1863, 8vo, pamph. 

Wheatland, Mrs. B. Boston Daily Transcript, July to 
Dec, 1863, 1 vol., folio. 

Wheatland, Stephen G. 45 Pamphlets. 

Wyman, T. B. of Charlestown. Genealogy of the Hunt 
Family, 4to, Boston, 1862-3. 

BY EXCHANGE. 

American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings at meet- 
ing, Oct. 21, 1863, 8vo, pamph., Boston, 1863. 

Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, vol. 
ix, Sig. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 ; Journal, vol vn, No. 4. 

Canadian Institute at Toronto. The Canadian Journal 
"for Jan. 1864. 

Chicago Historical Society. Hibbard's Discourse, " A 
Spiritual ground of Hope for the salvation of the country," 
8vo, pamph., Chicago, 1863; Several Reports of the Sanitary 
Commission of Illinois. 

Editors. Historical Magazine for Jan. Feb. and March, 
1864, New York, 1864. 



XVIII 

Editors. The British American for January, February and 
March, 1864, 8vo. Toronto 1864. 

Iowa State Historical Society. Iowa Legis. Doc. ; 
House Journal, 1854, 1856, 1858, 3 vols. 8vo ; Senate Journal, 
1854, 1856, 1858, 3 vols., 8vo; House Journal, Extra Ses- 
sion, .1856, 1 vol., 8vo; Iowa Laws, 1848, 1856, 1860,6 
vols., 8vo ; Iowa Legis. Doc. 1859-60, 1 vol., 8vo ; Iowa 
Journal of Constitutional Con., 1857, 1 vol., 8vo ; Iowa Con- 
stitutional Debates, 1857, 2 vols., 8vo ; Iowa Census Returns, 
1857, 1 vol., 8vo ; 4th An. Eeport of Iowa State Agricultural 
Society, 1858, 1 vol., 8vo; 16 Miscellaneous pamphlets. 

Long Island Historical Society. Clark's Onondaga, 
2 vols., 8vo, Syracuse, 1849 ; Stiles' Supplement to Hist, and 
Geneal. of Ancient Windsor, 8vo, Albany, 1863 ; N. Y. State 
Agr. Soc. Trans. 1861, 8vo; Longworth's Directory of New 
York, 1840-1, 12mo ; William's N. Y. An. Reg., 1831, 1832, 
1833, 1834, 1836, 1837, 6 vols., 12mo ; Brown's History 
of the Shakers. 12mo, Troy, 1862 ; 12 pamphlets. 

Montreal Society of Natural History. The Canadian 
Naturalist and Geologist, Dec. 1863. 

New York State Library, Trustees op. Laws of New- 
York, session 1863, 1 vol. 8vo ; Journal of Senate, session 
1863, 1 vol. 8vo. ; Documents, Senate, session 1863, 5 vols. 
8vo; Journal Assembly, session 1863, 1 vol. 8vo. ; Documents, 
Assembly, session 1863, 9 vols. 8vo ; N. Y. State Agr. Soc. 
Trans. 1862, 1 vol. 8vo. ; N. Y. Med. Soc. Trans. 1863, 1 
vol. 8vo. ; Am. Inst. Trans. 1862, 1 vol., 8vo. ; 16th Annual 
Report on State Cabinet, pamph. 8vo. 

Philadelphia Academy op Natural Sciences. Pro- 
ceedings for August, Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec, 1863. 

Publishers. North American Review for Jan, 1864. 

Monday, April 4. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 
Donations were announced to the Library and Cabinets. 



XIX 

Letters were read, from J. L. Hanaford of Watertown, 
accepting membership ; and from Win. Graves of Newburyport, 
on business matters. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes gave an account of Queen Elizabeth's 
yacbt, and showed, by a drawing on the black board, that in 
model and rigging it very nearly resembled the North River 
Sloops of the present day. 

He suggested that an account of the different kind of vessels 
used from the early settlement of the country to the present 
day would be a valuable contribution to our commercial history. 

A. C. Goodell Jr. called attention to the late discovery of a 
sunken vessel near Yarmouth on Cape Cod, supposed to have 
foundered there in 1623, which illustrated the manner of build- 
ing at that period. 

F. W. Putnam, in reply to questions, described the charac- 
teristic form of the breast bone of swimming birds and the dif- 
ferent modes of progression among fishes. Mr. Putnam alluded 
to the erroneous views in regard to moths, as recently given in 
the newspapers and gave an account of the various species 
■which are so destructive to furs, carpets, cloths, &c. 

Voted ; that the committee, appointed on the 7th of March, 
on the Constitution and By-Laws, be requested to nominate a 
list of officers for election at the annual meeting. 

Monday, April 11. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Adjourned to Monday Evening the 18th inst. 

Monday, April 18. Evening meeting. 

Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets announced. 

Letters were read, from Thomas Morong of Lanesville and 

B. F. Mudge of Quindaro, Kansas, accepting membership ; from 

Long Island Historical Society, Smithsonian Institution, and 

George A. Ward relating to books transmitted to the Library : 



XX 

Messrs. Ticknor and Fields on business matters ; from David 
Choate in reply to queries proposed ; from Miss M. B. Derby 
accompanying a donation of a Burmese Idol sent from India in 
1825, by her brother the late Capt. Alfred F. Derby ; from 
James T. Tucker, of the staff of General Banks, relating to a 
donation to the Historical Department, of the envelope, franked 
by President Lincoln which enclosed his recognition of the 
election of Governer Hahn of Louisiana. 

Rev G. D, Wildes exhibited a piece of stone taken from a 
window sill in Kenilworth Castle, and made some interesting 
remarks about that celebrated place. Mr. W. also exhibited 
several views of the house in which Shakespeare was born and 
of other interesting localities in the vicinity of Stratford upon 
Avon, and gave a description of the same. 

The remarks of Mr. Wildes called forth a general discussion 
upon the life and writings of Shakespeare. 

F. W. Putnam mentioned that Mr. James H. Emerton had 
found'a female Lump Fish Cyclopterus lumpus, having ma- 
tured eggs, just on the point of being laid, and had made an 
estimate of their number, which amounted to 258,872. Five 
hundred eggs weighed 43 grains. 

Col. J. H. Wildes, Asst. Surveyor General of California was 
elected a Corresponding Member. 

Voted to adjourn to Monday evening, the 25th inst. 

Monday, April 25. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 

Donations were announced to the Library and Cabinets. 
Letters were read, from Newburyport Public Library and 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of 
publications ; from Messrs. Crosby & Nichols of Boston, and 
Henry A. Smith of Cleveland, Ohio, on business matters ; 
from Mrs. P. A. Hanaford in relation to holding a Field 
Meeting in Reading. 

F. W. Putnam, from the Committee on the Constitution and 



XXI 

By-Laws, submitted the first reading of the amendments to the 
Constitution to be acted upon at the annual meeting, 

Mr. Putnam read a communication from A. S. Packard Jr. 
of Brunswick, Me., entitled "The Humble Bees of New Eng- 
land, and their parasites, with notices of a new species of An- 
thophorabia, and a new genus of Proctotrupidse." Referred to 
the Publication Committee. 

The subject which occupied a portion of the last meeting, and 
which had engrossed the attention of the Literary and Historical 
Societies during the past week, the ter-centenary birth day of 
Shakespeare, was resumed, remarks being made by the chair, 
Messrs. Wildes, Beaman and others. 

John Kilburn of Salem was elected a Resident Member. 

Monday May 2. Evening Meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Gooclell Jr., in the chair. 

Donations to the Cabinets and Library were announced. 

Letters were read, from Henry Saltonstall of Boston, Justin 
Rideout of Boston, L. Saltonstall of Newton, and the Post- 
master of Boston, on business matters ; from the Misses Derby, 
relating to a donation of books to the Library ; from the Mass. 
Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications ; 
from John Kilburn, accepting membership. 

A variety of May-flowers having been placed upon the table, 
and the subject of May-day festivals having been alluded to, the 
Chair remarked that the return of another May-day, with its 
accompanying festivities, invites us to consider the pleasant 
change now working in the public mind of New England with 
regard to the observance of this ancient holiday of our Mother- 
land. 

The very name of May, not less than the practices used to 
usher in the month, runs- back into the obscurity of antiquity. 
The poet Ovid, whose surmise has been generally adopted, de- 
rives it from the names of several Roman deities, among whom 
is the fair Maia, the mother of Mercury. But there are. on 



XXII 

the other hand, some reasons to support the conjecture that the 
name is of Teutonic origin; and, as this conjecture neither 
■wounds our vanity nor conflicts with history, we may safely 
assume it to be the true one, and so unbridle fancy to carry 
back our May-day festivals beyond the time of the Heptarchy, 
into the woods of Germany, aud among those hilarious wild-men, 
the primitive ancestors of our Saxon stock. 

Whatever gave rise to the ceremonies of May-day — whether 
they are a relic of the early " mythology of the Teutonic peo- 
ples." or a continuation of the Floralia of the Romans, or a 
Christian festival in honor of the Blessed Virgin, as has been 
variously supposed by different investigators of the subject — all 
are agreed that, in England, at least, they are of so ancient 
observance that " the memory of man runneth not to the 
contrary;" and that, universally, they symbolize the joy of 
mankind at the triumph of the Sun over the frosts and barren- 
ness of Winter. 

The celebration of the May-games was extremely distasteful 
to the Puritans and other early reformers in the English 
Church : and. doubtless, the many excesses of the revellers — the 
wantonness and debauchery inseparable from these festivals — 
were sufficiently scandalous to all pious and moral men. Lat- 
imer, who suffered martyrdom in the reign of Mary, discloses 
another objection to these pastimes in a sermon preached before 
the young King Edward against the popular observance of 
Robin Hood's day, which, he complains, sometimes drew all the 
parish away from church. " I thought," he mournfully says, 
concerning an instance of this kind within his own experience, 
" my rochet would have been regarded ; but it would not serve, 
it was faine to give place to Robin Hood's men." 

The Puritans were certainly not steeled against all the sweet 
influences of nature, nor backward in their enjoyment and 
praise of the beauties of Spring : and it was the chief of Puritan 
poets whose u Song on May Morning," remains to this day un- 
approachable in its excellence. 



XXIII 

But the Puritans were not blind to the evils already alluded 
to, and, moreover, it is clear that they considered the May-pole 
to be a relic of those heathen rites performed by the ancients in 
their worship of the goddess Flora : it was for this reason that 
Philip Stubs arraigned the May-games in 1595, in his " Anat- 
omie of Abuses ;" and for this reason sixty years later, Thom- 
as Hall made them the subject of his " Funebria Florai ; or, 
Downfall of May-games," &c. Here, in New England, our 
good old Governor Bradford, of Plymouth, also condemned 
them for the same reason. 

Not long after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth some 
e*vents occurred in their neighborhood, which called forth an 
official denunciation of May-day festivities, by the colonial au- 
thorities ; and the rebuke was administered in so emphatic a 
manner that, • if it has not effectually prevented a repetition of 
these ceremonies for all time, in New England, it has, at least, 
brought upon them a stigma which the lapse of two centuries 
has not wholly removed. 

The Chair then proceeded to give an account of "Thomas 
Morton, of Clifford's Inn, Gent." — as he styles himself in his 
"New English Canaan' 1 — and of the famous May-day revels 
at " Ma-re Mount," now Mount Wollaston, in Quincy, which 
were celebrated under his direction in 1626. 

After detailing the particulars of the action of the colonial 
authorities against Morton, the dispersion of his followers and 
the destruction of his plantation, the Chair narrated the princi- 
pal known facts of his subsequent career down to the time of 
his death at York in Maine, in 1646, and stated that this first 
May-day jubilee continued to be, for generations, the last. 
There had been May-day festivities in Maine before the affair 
at Mt. Wollaston, and there is some reason to suppose that 
Morton was a participant in those revelries ; but, after his ex- 
pulsion, and the destruction of his plantation at ll Mount Dagon" 
no Puritan father was ever offended by the sight of the scanda- 
lous altar of Flora enticingly set up before the innocent eyes 



XXIV 

of his children. But the times are greatly changed since the 
dark and troubled days of the Pilgrims. There is now, hap- 
pily, no need of ceaseless vigilance and the most sensitive jeal- 
ousy in guarding a tender faith from the two-fold danger of 
relapsing into error or being contaminated by new and specious 
fallacies. Around our morals, our faith, our liberties, as their 
great bulwark of safety, modern science has thrown a network 
of invulnerable truths till old besetting evils have lost their 
power of harm forever. 

No prejudices, then, based on the experience of an age 
remote and quite unlike the present, should be suffered to 
interfere with the celebration of the pleasant and pure festivities 
which of late years are beginning to be observed on May-day, 
in some parts of New England. It is to be hoped, rather, that 
we shall add some day in May to the list of legal .holidays, and 
that, from the St. Croix to where " Mine Host of Ma-re Mount" 
sleeps under the brow of Agamenticus, and thence to Mount 
Wollaston, where he held his revels, and so along the entire 
boundary of our Union, May morning will evermore be held 
sacred to the celebration of the sun's return, the bursting of 
green buds and the birth of the flowers. 

The wild flowers exhibited at the meeting, by those who went 
a-maying, were described by G. D. Phippen in the following 
manner : 

Hepatica triloba, which differs but slightly from an ane- 
mone, is one of the earliest plants that has any pretensions to 
beauty, and is found in oaken woods, peeping up among the 
dried leaves, in close proximity with drifts of snow. It was 
mentioned by Higginson in 1629, and described by Josselyn in 
his New England Rarities printed in 1672, as " Noble Liver- 
wort, one sort with white flowers and the other with blew." The 
Rev. Dr. Cutler mentions it in 1784, and Collinson writes to 
Bartram of Philadelphia in 1739, that "out of some mould 
sent with other plants has come up your Hepatica." 

Anemone nemorosa, or Wind Flower. This little flower or 



XXV 

a co-species was described centuries ago by Pliny, and 
long before Gerard wrote " That this floure doth neuer 
open itself but when the wind doth blow." Darwin says — 
the wind " gives its ivory petals to expand." It certainly 
is shy of opening and only occasionally when warmed by 
the sun, not forced by the wind, 

It " looks up with meek, confiding eye, 
Upon the clouded smile of April face," — 

are words beautifully expressed by a poet much nearer 
home. 

JSpigcea repens, called Mayflower, and Forefather's-flow- 
er, is fast becoming well known and much used of late as 
a souvenir present at this season of the year, and is asso- 
ciated historically with the ship Mayflower of Pilgrim 
fame, which however we believe to be of recent applica- 
tion. This flower commends itself both for its delicious, 
spicy fragrance, as well as its beauty, and is destined to 
find a place in literature as well as science. 

Caltha palustris, Marsh Mary gold, grows on the border 
of brooks, has a brilliant golden cup, and first flowers about 
the22d of April. 

" In that soft season when descending showers 
Call forth the greens and wake the rising flowers." 

It is called also May-blouts, or May-blobs, and all the 
poetry of so fine a posy often subsides into a mess of 
greens, as it is a favorite dish with many. 

Old Parkinson says " It joyeth in watery places and 
flowereth somewhat early." All the old botanists describe 
it, such as Clusius, Bauhin, Tournefort, Clayton and some 
with figures. Cutler imputes the yellowness of butter to 
the cows feeding upon it. 

Aquilegia canadensis, or Columbine, was noticed by the 
early travelers to America, and is well described and 
figured by Cornuti soon after the settlement of Canada, 
4 



XXVI 

and through him obtained its specific name ; it has been 
from that day highly prized by the botanists and florists of 
Europe. Parkinson says, "it was brought out of Virginia 
by Master John Tradescant, and flowereth somewhat earlier 
than any of the garden kinds, usually by a month." There 
is a remarkable locality of this showy flower on the hills 
of the Great Pasture on the east side of the road, which 
is much frequented by the young during the vacation of 
this month, who, returning with bunches of them in their 
hands, remind us — 

"That spring is here, the delicate footed May, 
With its slight figures full of leaves and flowers." 

Sanguinaria canadensis, Blood-root, appropriately nam- 
ed, as may be seen by breaking the root, which is rarely 
avoided in digging them up. This fine flower, as large as 
the Ox-eye daisy, has a deserved place in many gardens, 
where it gradually increases and elevates its numerous 
and paper-white flowers in a flat surface over the plant 
about four inches above the ground. Its singular root 
is used extensively in medicine, and probably worthily so, 
and the plant is often figured in medical books. Its large 
and deeply lobed leaves give to the plant, throughout the 
summer, a tropical appearance. It was carried to England 
and cultivated as early as 1680. Linnaeus wrote to John 
Ellis from Upsal in 1765, " If you see Mr. Lee, ask him for 
the Sanguinaria, which I know is to be had in England, 
though I have not received it from any of my correspon- 
dents." 

Violets. Two or three species of this well known genus 
can now be obtained from the fields. They are celebrated 
both by the exact botanists and the idealist. Pliny says. 
" There be some wild and of the field ; others domestical 
and growing in our gardens. Garlands made of violets 
and set upon the head resist the heaviness of the head 



XXVII 

and withstand the overturning of the brain, upon over- 
drinking ; yea, the very smell thereof Avill disperse such 
fumes and vapors, as would trouble and disquiet the 
head." 

Gerard, alluding perhaps to the Pansy, then called Herb 
Trinitie, says they "have a prerogative above others, not 
only because the mind conceiveth a certain pleasure and 
recreation by smelling and handling them, but they bring 
to a liberal and gentle minde the remembrance of hones- 
tie, comelinesse and all kind of virtues." An eastern poet 
has said of this flower, 

"It is not a flower ; it is an 
Emerald bearing a purple gem." 

Houstonia ccerulea, one of the most common of the 
spring flowers, and a universal favorite, often called Vio- 
lets, — a most delicate little biennial plant, its erect and 
very slender stem topped off with starry white or pale 
blue flowers with a yellow eye, and in masses often ap- 
pearing like a thin sprinkling of snow over the fields. 

It does not appear to have been introduced into the 
Kew gardens till 1785. It is figured in Curtis's Magazine 
and elsewhere. 

Saxifraga virginiensis. One of Parkinson's seventeen 
tribes of plants are the " Saxifrages, or Break-stone 
Plants," so called from their habit of growing in the seams 
or crevices of rocks, not inaptly described by Josselyn as 
" The New England Dayzie or Primrose, the second kind 
of Navelwort in Johnson upon Gerard; it flowers in May 
and grows amongst moss upon hilly grounds and rocks 
that are shady." It is an Alpine plant, this and a co- 
species, the S. nivalis, were among the very last flowers 
that greeted the eyes of Kane and his weary voyagers as 
they pressed onward toward the pole, beyond all vegetable 
life. 



XX VI J 1 

Erythronewm amerieanum, most improperly and un- 
happily called ''Dog's Tooth Violet/' a fine locality of 
which can be seen in the low land among bushes near 
Legg's Hill and the Forest River road. It belongs. to the 
Lily tribe, and it has been suggested that it be called May 
Lily. It has elegant glossy leaves, blotched with purple. 
Josselyn, in 1672, calls it " Yellow Bastard Daffodil; it 
flowereth in May ; the green leaves are spotted with black 
spots." It was cultivated in England in 1665, and is 
mentioned in Rea's Flora. 

Feathery Catkins, from the branches of Alders, Willows, 
Poplars and Maples, are now for a brief period shaking 
their pollen to the winds, and in their graceful beauty are 
well worthy of study. They are occasionally mentioned 
with much effect in the poems of Bryant, some of whose 
sweetest inspirations were caught under the swaying 
branches of his native woods. 

Rev. G-. D. Wildes gave an account of a recent celebra- 
tion of May-day in England. 

F. AV. Putnam gave a summary of a paper, presented for 
publication by J. A. Allen of Springfield, entitled a " Cata- 
logue of Birds found at Springfield, Mass., with Notes on 
their Migrations, Habits, &c, together with a List of those 
Birds found in the State not yet observed at Springfield." 
Referred to the Publication Committee. 

The proposed amendments to the Constitution were 
read for the second time. 

Charles D. McDuffie, of Salem, was elected a resident 
member. 

Wednesday, May 11. Annual Meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 
Letters were read, from S. F. Baird, William Stimp- 



XXIX 

sou, J. A. Allen of Springfield and L Trouvelot of 
Medford, relating to the publications and the " Naturalist's 
Directory" ; from J. E. Oliver of Lynn, N. B. Shurtleff of 
Boston, A. W. Dodge of Hamilton and 0. F. Hartt of Cam- 
bridge, on business matters ; from J. T. Rothrock of 
Cambridge transmitting a paper for publication in the 
Proceedings. 

The reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, Cabinet Keeper 
and Curators were read and accepted. 

The Secretary stated that the Society was never in a 
mofe flourishing condition than at present. The receipts 
from the assessments of resident members had been great- 
er than in any preceding year, which was also the case 
in regard to the sales of publications. During the year 
thirty-seven resident, and twelve corresponding members 
have been elected. Six members have died, leaving the 
number of resident members three hundred and sixty-one. 
Biographical notices of the deceased members will be 
printed in the June number of the Historical Collections. 
The Secretary alluded in particular to the late venerable 
botanist, Dr. George Osgood of South Danvers, who had 
always taken an active part in the Field Meetings of the 
Institute, and who was extensively known as one of the 
Linngean school of botanists. 

Five field meetings were held during the past summer, 
in Swampscott, Amesbury, Salem, Newburyport, and Rock- 
port, which were all fully attended, and acknowledged suc- 
cessful in the attainment of their objects. Throughout the 
winter months meetings were held at the Society's rooms 
on Monday evenings, alternating with lectures on Zoology 
from Mr. F! W. Putnam. 

A course of twelve lectures was given under the aus- 
pices of the Institute, at Lyceum Hall during the last win- 
ter, as follows : — two from Prof. C. T. Jackson, on Min- 



XXX 

ing: one each, from Mr. C. W. Tuttle. on Cometery 
Astronomy: Mr. Cleveland Abbe, on Astronomical Instru- 
ments : Capt. X. E. Atwood. on the Habits of our Native 
Fishes; Prof. Benjamin Pierce, on Cosmogony; Mr. Al- 
phens Hyatt, on the Mollusca : Mr. C. M. Tracy, on Ber- 
ries : President Hill, on the Geometrical Curve ; and Mr. 
A. E. Verrillj on Corals and Coral Reefs. 

The publication of the Proceedings and Historical Col- 
lections has been continued during the year. Of the 
former, the first quarterly number of the fourth volume, 
under its new form, is ready for distribution to subscri- 
bers. The Historical Collections have now reached to 
number one of volume six. 

The annual Horticultural Exhibition took place on the 
23d, 24th and 25th of September, but owing to the great 
scarcity of fruit, of all kinds, the tables were not loaded as 
in former years, though many fine specimens were con- 
tributed, particularly of grapes, which included not only 
those varieties grown in the hot-house, but many choice 
seedlings raised by the industry and care of Edward S. 
Rogers, of Salem. The show of vegetables was unusually 
good and in great variety. Heretofore very little atten- 
tion has been devoted in our exhibitions, to this class of 
horticultural products. 

To the Library valuable additions have been made, 
during the year, consisting of 1603 volumes and pamphlets, 
received from one hundred and nineteen individuals and 
thirty-two societies, editors of journals, and the various 
departments of the State and General Government. The 
most valuable of the donations were, one from George 
A. Ward, consisting of 160 volumes in the various depart- 
ments of History, and general reading : «and another from 
the retiring Vice President of the Institute, James Upton, 
comprising 51 valuable volumes, principally relating to 
horticultural subjects. 



XXXI 

The Treasurer presented the following statement of the 
financial condition, for the year ending May, 1864. 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 
Debits. 

Athenaeum Rent, half fuel, &c. . . $491 77 

Lectures, $237 76 ; Publications, $699 25, 937 01 

Collecting Assessments, $16 50; Gas, $8 74, 25 24 
Express and Postage, $24 68 ; Sundries, $30 22. 54 90 

To Historical Account, .... 209 78 

To Natural History and Horticultural Account, 42 47 

Balance in Treasury, . . . 7 04 

11768 21 
Credits. 
Balance of last year's account, . . 39 36 

Dividends Webster Bank, $40 00; Sundries, $15 60, 55 60 
G. Andrews' Legacy, $190 00 ; Lectures, $311 55, 501 55 
Sale of Publications, .... 497 70 

Assessments, . . . . . 674 00 



$1768 21 

NATURAL HISTORY AND HORTICULTURE. 

Debits. 

Preservatives and Taxidermy, $29 22; Cases, $44 97, 74 19 

Books, $30 76 ; Glass, $37 48, . . . 68 24 

Horticultural Exhibition, . . . 42 12 



Credits. 
Horticultural Exhibition, 
Dividends Lowell Bleachery, 

" Portland, Saco & Portsmouth Railroad, 
General Account, .... 


$184 55 

90 08 

- 40 00 

12 00 

42 47 



$184 55 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Debits. 

Binding, $236 08 ; Books, $12 00, . . 248 08 

Repairing picture frames, . . . 13 50 



$261 58 



Credits. 

Dividends Naumkeag Bank, . . . ]3 00 

Coupons Michigan Central Railroad, . 38 80 

General Account, .... 209 78 

$561 58 



XXXII 

The Cabinet Keeper reported that the specimens in the 
Museum were in as safe a condition, as the crowded cases 
of some of the departments would allow. During the 
year, Mr. T. M. Pond has arranged, catalogued, and labelled 
the North American birds, and their nests and eggs. Mr. 
Horace Brown has done the same with the collection of 
Mammalia, and had commenced to catalogue the Osteologi- 
cal collection when other occupations prevented his 
completing the work. Mr. Charles H. Higbee has ar- 
ranged the Mineralogical collection, and by his efforts 
much has been done to increase its value. The Reptiles 
have been partially catalogued and named. The snakes 
which were sent to Professor Jan of Milan have been 
returned in good condition, with his identifications. 
Among the specimens Prof. Jan found several unknown 
species, descriptions of which will appear in his great work 
on Ophidians, in which he will give full credit to the Insti- 
tute for its assistance. 

During the year, an Essex County Collection has been 
commenced with the intention to soon have the Natural 
History of our county fully represented and separately 
arranged. 

The total number of donations to the various sections of 
the Department of Natural History, since the last annual 
meeting, amounts to one hundred and twenty-six, received 
from eighty-six persons ; besides which, several exchanges 
have been made with the Museum of Comp. Zoology at 
Cambridge, and the Lyceum of Nat. History of Williams' 
College. 

Mr. James H. Emerton, curator of Articulata, reported 
that the Insects had been looked over, the worthless ones 
discarded and the others carefully protected from injury. 
The large collection of Brazilian Insects had been arranged, 
according to their orders, in a case by themselves. Tha 



XXXIII 

other pinned specimens have been arranged in tight boxes 
and drawers. The alcoholic specimens of Insects, Crusta- 
ceans, and Worms have been arranged in the central cases 
of the large Hall. The pinned specimens of Coleoptera, 
Orthoptera, and Hemiptera have been catalogued and as 
far as possible named. Of the Coleoptera there are 1212 
species, and over 3000 specimens. Of Orthoptera, 155 
species; Hemiptera, 169 species; Neuroptera, 40 species. 
Several hundred species of Diptera and over 2000 speci- 
mens of Lepidoptera, one* half of which are from South 
America. The Lepidoptera have been partially named by 
Mr. S. H. Scudder while in the Museum of Comp. Zoology. 
The small collection of Bees has been named by Dr. A. S. 
Packard Jr. Several exchanges have been made with 
Messrs. Scudder and Packard. The collection of Spiders 
has been largely increased during the year, and the curator, 
who is specially engaged in studying this order of insects, 
requests contributions of specimens from all parts of the 
country for his work. 

Mr. John Robinson, Curator of the Ethnological De- 
partment, reported that the collection under his charge 
had been rearranged during the year. There had been 
many valuable donations received from fifty-five persons. 
Several sub-departments have recently been commenced, 
and good progress thus far made in rendering them avail- 
able for purposes of study and examination ; the Curators 
request the cooperation of the members and friends of 
the Institution in aid of these objects, trusting that their 
appeal will meet with a hearty response, and that many 
specimens will be contributed, especially such as are 
evanescent in their character, and if not preserved at the 
time, soon disappear, and afterwards are very difficult if 
not impossible to obtain. 

The Constitution and By-Laws as revised by the Com- 
mittee were unanimously adopted. 

5 



XXXIV 
The following officers were elected for the ensuing vear : 

PRESIDENT. 

ASAHEL HUXIIX G T X . 

VICE PRESIDENT?. 

Of Natural History — Samuel P. Fowler. Of History — A. C. Goodell Jr. 
Of Horticulture — J. F. Allen. 

seceetaey and tbea5ceer. 

Heney Wheatland. 

librarian. 

XaTHANIEL J. HuLDEN. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE MUSEUM. 

F. W. PUTNAM. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

J. C. Lee. R. S. Rogers. H. M. Brooks. G. D. Phippen, Jas. Chamberlain. 

LIBEAEY COMMITTEE. 

J. G. Waters, Alpheus Crosby, H. J. Cross, G. A. Ward. G. D. Wildes. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

A. C. Goodell Jr.. G. D. Phippen, Ira J. Patch, C. H. Tracy, 

Win. P. Upham, R. S. Rantoul. F. W. Putnam. 

LECTCEE COMMITTEE. 

A. C. Goodell Jr., Francis Peabody, G. D. Phippen, George Perkins, 
James Kimball, G. W. Briggs, F. W. Putnam. 

FIELD-MEETING COMMITTEE 

A. W. Dodge, C. M. Tracy. S. Barden. S. P. Fowler. J. M. Ives, 
G. D. Wildes, C. C. Beaman, E. X. Walton. 

CCP.ATOR5 OF NATURAL H1STOET. 

Geology— H. F. Shepard: Mineralogy— C. H. Higbee; 

Palaeontology — H. F. King; Botany — C. M. Tracy; 

Comparative Anatomy — Henry Wheatland ; Vertebrate — F. W. Putnam; 

Articulata — J. H. Emerton; Mollusca — H. F. King; 
Radiata. — Caleb Cooke. 

CURATORS OF HISTOBY. 

Ethnology. 

William S. Messervy, M. A. Stickney, John Eobinson, J. A. Gillis. 

Manuscripts. 

W. P. Upham, H. M. Brooks, S. B. Buttrick, G. L. Streeter. G. D. Wildes. 

Fine Arts. 
Francis Peabody, J. G. Waters, G. A. Ward. 

CCEATORS OF HORTICULTURE. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

J. XI. Ives. J. S. Cabot. R. S. Rogers, John Bertram, G. B. Loring, 

S. A. Merrill, W. Maloon. " A. Lackey, G. F. Brown. 

Flowers. 

Francis Putnam, William Mack, C. H. Xorris. Benj. A. West, Geo. D. Glover. 



XXXV 

On motion of Mr. G. A. Ward, a committee, consisting 
of Messrs. G. A. Ward, R. S. Rantoul, George Perkins, 
E. N. Walton, T. M. Stimpson, Charles Davis, G. D. Wildes, 
S. P. Fowler, and W. P. Upham, was appointed to present 
the claims of the Institute upon the public for a more lib- 
eral patronage, so that it may be better enabled to 
accomplish the objects of its organization. 

On motion of Mr. S. P. Fowler a committee was ap- 
pointed to make a collection of card photographs of the 
members of the Institute. Messrs. S. P. Fowler, John 
Robinson, and D. W. Bowdoin were placed on this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. S. P. Fowler was requested to prepare a paper on 
the Ornithologists of America, for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings. 

Thursday, June 9th. Ordinary Meeting. 
J. G. Waters in the chair. 
The following persons, having been nominated at a 
previous meeting, were duly elected Resident Members : 
William B. Parker, James S. Kimball, Edward H. Payson, 
S. W. Davis, Edward L. Perkins, George P. Farrington, 
Mrs. John Clark, J. Ford Smith, A. G. Cornelius, Charles 
Roundy, James F. Hale, E. F. Roberts, J. W. Roberts, 
David Perkins, Jeremiah Page, Henry Morton, Benj. M. 
Chamberlain, A. P. Amidon, all of Salem. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during April, May 
and June, 1864. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

Brookhouse Jr., Robert. Specimens of Glyptemys insculpta from Salem. 
Burt, D. W. Male and female Attacus cecropia. 

Chamberlain, James. Eggs of a Mollusk and an Echinus from Beverly 
Bar. 

Chipman, R. M. Attacus luna from Salem. 



XXXVI 

Cloutman, Capt. W. R. Snake from Yangtse B,iver, Japan. 

Colcord, Mrs. H. M., of South Danvers. A Red-winged Black-bird from 
Danvers. 

Conway, Capt. Mounted specimen of White Owl. 

Cooke, C. Dried Plants, Shells and Echini from Zanzibar, Africa. 

Cross, H. J. Sponge from Marblehead Beach. 

Davis, Charles, of Beverly. Young Eagle taken from the nest in Beverly, 
June 2d. 

Emerton, J. H. Insects, Helix, and 2 Salamanders from an Island off 
Manchester. 125 specimens, 91 species of Insects from Essex Co. 147 
specimens, 32 species of Insects from Salem. A collection of Ants from Sa- 
lem. 6 species of Insects and a Tree Toad from Danvers. Cyclopterus 
lumpus and Raia sp. from Nahant. 

Glover, Geo. D. Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

Hunt, Y. Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

Lake, Eleazer, of Topsfield. A "Little Auk," Phaleris microcerus 
Brandt., female. Shot on Ipswich River in Topsfield, Apr. 8th. 

Lendall, Ed. E., of Manchester. Coral found on Glasshead flats, Man- 
chester. 

Lyceum of Natural History of William's College. (In exchange) Skin 
of a Seal and several Bird's Skins from Greenland. Bird's eggs from 
Florida and Greenland. 

Marks, Capt. T. 2 Saurians from Landana, S. W. C. Africa. 

Museum of Comp. ZooLogy, Cambridge. (In exchange) 17 specimens, 9 
species of North American Turtles. 

Mason, Mrs. G. R., of Lynn. 43 specimens of dried Seaweeds and 3 of 
Hydroids. Native. 

Nichols, H. P. 117 specimens, 40 species of Insects, and a Snake from 
Salem. 

Northend, Miss L. H. 2 specimens Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

Peabody, Alfred S., of Cape Town. Copper Ore from Cape of Good 
Hope. Set of pressed Ferns, Bulb of a plant, Seeds of the Blue Gum 
Tree, Hydroids and Barnacles from Cape Town, Africa. 

Pond, T. M. A Java Sparrow. 

Porter, Edw 3 Salamanders from Salem. 

Putnam, F. W. A Series of Crystal Models. Lime Stone from Williams- 
town , Mass. 

Rantoul, R. S. Portion of an Indian's jaw from West's Beach, Beverly. 

Rowe, Joseph. Specimens of Storeria DeKayi from Salem. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. A collection of 27 specimens 
of Building Stones and Minerals. 

Stone, Frank. A Bird and 2 Reptiles from Essex Co. 
Unknown Donor. 2 Loons from ? 



.XXXV J I 

Verrill, A. E., of Cambridge. 42 species of plants from Anticosti and 
Grand Menan. 

Watson, F. P. Larvae of Wasps from Salem. 

Webster, Mrs. John. Lime incrustation. Seeds of Plants. Eggs of Pyrula. 

West, G. W. A collection of Ants and others Iuseets from Salem. 929 
specimens, 80 species of Insects from Salem. 

Wheatland, H. Iron Ore, Lime Stone and Slag from Allentown, Pa. 
Fishes and Salamanders from River Clarion, Elk Co., Pa. 

Wheatland, Simeon J. Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

White, G. W. 85 specimens of Insects from Salem. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Brooks, H. M. Picture of Gen. Abbot. Cartridge from Alexandria. 
Rebel School-book. 

Brown Jr., Benj. Rebel war relics. 

Cloutman. W. R. Chop Sticks and Japanese Smoking apparatus. 
Brick from the Porcelain Tower of Nankin. 

Curwen, Henry. Ancient Button. Chinese Pipe. 

Farrington Jr., G. P. Rebel Equipments. 

Felt, S. Q. Native Fan from the Philipine Isles. Chinese Chop-sticks. 

Goodell Jr., A. C. Coins from Half-way Rock. 

Higbee, C. H. Rebel War Relics from Port Hudson. 

Kilby, Wm. H., of Eastport, Me. Postage Stamps. 

King, Capt. Jas. B. Silver Ornaments from the ruins of the Inca city 
Kuamachuco. 

Mansfield, Wm. Grape and Canister Shot, Bomb, and Bullet, revolu- 
tionary relics. 

Marks, Capt. Thos. A Ring of Native Copper, wrought by the Natives 
of the W. C. Africa. 

Putnam, F. W. Calcutta Hookah. 

Putnam, G. D. Breastplate of the 38th Staffordshire Reg't. 

Richardson, Fred. Buttons of the Bombay Artillery. 

Robinson, John. Chinese Kites. 

Slocum, Eben. Ancient set of Knives and Forks in a case. Ivory Cane. 

Vanvleck, H. J., of Nazareth, Pa. 7 Bills of New Jersey Continental 
Money, and a number of Ancient Relics relating to the early history of 
Nazareth, Pennsylvania. 

Vent, James. Indian Arrowheads. 

Williams, Israel, (Estate of) Native War Implements of the Fejee 
Islanders. New Zealand Chief's Blanket and Native Basket. Sword taken 
from the Pirates on the coast of South America. 

Williams, Capt. Old Shot from Fort Sewell. Coins, Military Buttons 
and other Revolutionary Relics found at Ft. Pickering. 

Wheatland, H. Relics from the Field of Gettysburg. 5 Catholic- 
Medals. 



XXXVIII 



TO THE LIBRAEY. 



AiiLEy, John B. (M. C.) Message and Documents, 1862—3, 4 vols 8yo; 
Message and Doc. Navy Department, 1862 — 3, 1 vol. 8vo ; Message and Doc. 
Dept. of State, 1863—4, 2 vols. 8vo ; do. Dept. of Interior, 1863—4, 1 vol. 
8vo ; do. P. 0. Dept., 1863—4, 1 vol. 8vo; U. S. Coast Survey, 1861, 1 vol. 
4to ; Patent Office, Mechanical, 1860, 2 vols. 8vo ; do. Agricultural, 1861, 
1 vol. 8vo ; Report of Commissioners of Agriculture, 1862, 1 vol. 8vo ; 
Reports on the Finances 1862 — 3, 2 vols. 8vo ; McClellan on the Army of the 
Potomac, 1 vol. 8vo ; Report on Armored Vessels, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Barnard, James M , of Boston. Scilla de corporibus Marinis Lapidescen- 
tibus, 1 vol., 4to, Romae, 1752; Griffith's Icones Plantarum Asiaticum, part 
iv, 1 vol. 4to, Calcutta, 1854. Griffith's Palms of British India, 1 vol. fol., 
Calcutta, 1850. 
Boston, City of. Boston City Documents for 1863, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Brooks, Henry M The Drum Beat, published by the Brooklyn Fair. 
Feb., 1864. 

Burrows, Thos. H., Supt. of Schools, Penn. Pennsylvania School Reports 
for 1855, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1863, 5 vols., 8vo. 

Cleveland, Miss M. S. Turner's North Carolina Almanac for 1864, 8vo, 
pamph. Also several Newspapers from Newbern, N. C. 

Colburn, Jeremiah, of Boston. Lewis's Address N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc'y, 
Jan., 1864, 8vo, pamph. Albany, 1864. 

Cowles, Warren, Smethport, McKean Co., Penn. Penn. School Reports 
1861, 1862, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Curwen, James B. Scientific American, vol. vm. Pamphlets 25. 
Derby, Miss Caroline R. Wagstaffe's Piety Promoted, 1 vol., 12mo. 
London, 1775 ; Phipps's The Original and Present State of Man, 1 vol., 8vo, 
New York, 1788. Life of Mary Neale, 1 vol., 12mo, Philadelphia, 1796. 
Introduction to English Grammar, 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1782. Penn's 
Primitive Christianity, 1 vol., 8vo, Philadelphia, 1783. Various Almanacs, 
Pamphlets, &c. 

Downie, Mrs. Elizabeth A. 16th Ann. Rep. Pittsburg Mercantile 
Library Association for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Fletcher, Charles. Boston Gazette for 1817, 1 vol., folio. Boston 
Weekly Messenger for 1813, 1 vol., folio. 

Gilman, Daniel C, of Yale College. Several pamphlets relating to Yale 
College. 

Goldthwaite, Joseph A. Carpenter on the Microscope, edited by Smith 
1 vol., 8vo, Phila. 1856. 

Goodell Jr., Abner C. A Manifest Book began Sept. 5, 1774, ended 
Aug. 2, 1775, 1 vol., folio. 
Hanaford, Mrs. P. A., of Beverly. Various Pamphlets and Newspapers. 
Jackson, S. C, of Boston. 17th An. Rep. of Mass. Bd. of Education, 
1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1864. 



XXXIX 

Johnson, Mrs. Lucy P. United States Commercial and Statistical Reg- 
ister — several numbers. 

Kilby, W. H., Eastport, Me. 7th An. Rep. of Maine Bd. of Agri. 1862, 
1 vol., 8vo. New Brunswick Almanac and Register, 1 vol., 16mo. Third An. 
Rep. of Bd. of Agri. of New Brunswick, 8vo. Maine Legis. Register, 1864. 
Memorials of the Centennial Anniversary of Machias, 1 vol., 8vo. 

Kimball, Miss Elizabeth. Liberator for 1863, 1vol., folio. 

Kimball, James. Systems of Building Associations Examined, 1 vol., 
4to. New Haven, 1856. Fisher's Marrow of Modern Divinity, 1 vol., 16mo, 
Boston, 1743. Proceedings of Grand R. Arch Chapter of Mass., from Sept., 
1862 to Sept. 1863, 8vo, pamph. 

King, Misses Hannah and Elizabeth. Winckler, Essai sur 1' Electricite, 
12mo, Paris, 1748. Aldini, Essai sur le Galvanisme, 1 vol., 4to, Paris, 1804. 
Helvetius, Oeuvres completes, vol. i, 12mo, London, 1777. 

King, Henry F. Greeley's Art and Industry of the Crystal Palace, 1 vol., 
12mo. Dana's Lead Disease, 1 vol., 8vo, Lowell, 1848. Clarke on the Mi- 
croscope, 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1758. Ferguson on the Microscope, 1 vol., 
12mo, Edin., 1858. Wood's Common Objects of the Sea Shore, 1 vol., 12mo, 
London, 1859. Gosse's Evenings at the Microscope, 1 vol., 12mo, New York, 
1860. 

Lord, N. J. Boston Post for Feb., March, April, and May, 1864. 

Nason, Wm. A., of Williams' College. Williams' Quarterly, 14 numbers. 
Pamphlets, 11. 

Metcalf, Hiram, of Boston. The Metropolitan Catholic Almanacs, for 
1851, 1853, 1854, 1855, and 1856, 5 vols., 12mo. 

Moulton, Herny W, Specimens of the Blank Forms used in the Provost 
Marshal's office, 5th District, Mass. 

Montague, Wm. L., of Amherst College. Annual and Triennial Catalogues 
for several years. 

Packard, A. S., of Brunswick, Me. Catalogue of Bowdoin College, 
Spring term, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Paine, Nath., of Worcester. 4th An. Report of Worcester Public Library, 
8vo, pamphlet. 

Rhode Island, Sons of. by Henry T. Drowne. Oration and Poems before 
the Sons of Rhode Island in New York, May 29th, 1863, 8vo, pamph. 

Roberts, David. Rhee's Manual of Public Libraries, 1 vol., 8vo, Phila- 
delphia, 1859.. 

Sibley, John L , of Cambridge. Report on Library of Harv. Coll. , Jan., 
1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Slocum, Eben. Boston Patriot for 1812, 1 vol., folio. 

Stone, Benj. W. Manual of New York Legis., 1864, 1 vol., 16mo. 5th 
and 6th An. Report, of Commissioners of Central Park, New York, 8vo 
pamph. An. Report of the Comptroller of New York, Jan., 1864. 4th An 
Report of Com. of Public Charities 8vo, pamph., New York 1864. 



XL 

Souther, Henry, of Ridgway, Elk Co., Penn. Pennsylvania School Rep., 
1860, 1 vol., 8vo. Annual Rail-Road Reports of Pennsylvania for 1864, 
1 vol., Svo. 

Thomas, Abel C, of Hightstown, X. J. The Gospel of Slavery, 8vo, 
pamph., New York, 1864. 

United States Treasury Department. Report on the Finances for year 
ending June, 1863, 1 vol., 8vo. 

Ward, George A Census of the State of New York, 1855, 1 folio vol. 
Documentary Hist, of New York, 8 vols., roy. 8vo. Documents Col. Hist, 
of New York, 10 vols., folio. Colonial Records of Connecticut, 1686 to 1665, 
1 vol., roy. 8vo. American Eloquence, 2 vols., roy. 8vo. Annals of San 
Francisco, 1 vol., roy. 8vo. Ditto of Salem, 2 vols., 12mo. Messages and 
Documents 30th Congress, 1 vol., 8vo. Ditto 1849, 1 vol., 8vo. Prescott's 
Mexico, 3 vols., roy. 8vo. Ditto Ferd. and Isabella 3 vols., roy. 8vo. Ditto 
Peru 2 vols., roy, 8vo. Miscellanies, 1 vol., 8vo. Wilkes' Exploring Expe- 
dition, 5 vols., roy. 8vo. N. E. Genealogical and Historical Register, 12 
vols., 8vo. D'Aubigne's Reformation, 8 vols., 8vo. Morse's Universal 
Geography, 2 vols., 8vo. Graham's Hist, of United States 4 vols., 8vo. 
Wm. Ware's Julian, 2 vols., 12mo. Ditto Zenobia, 2 vols., 12mo. Dewey's 
Works 8 vols., 12mo. Ditto Sermons, 1 vol., 12mo. Headley"s 'Washington 
and his Generals, 2 vols., 12mo. Ditto Two Wars with England, 2 vols., 
12mo. Ditto. Adirondack, 1 vol., 12mo. Miscellanies, 1 vol., 12mo. Han- 
nah Adam's Hist, of Religion, 1 vol., 12mo. Rupp's Hist, of Religion, 1 
vol., 8vo. Covode's Investigation, 1860, 1 vol., 8vo. Coffin's Hist, of New- 
bury, 1 vol , 8vo. Brooks' Hist, of Medford, 1 vol., Svo. Gage's Hist, of 
Rowley, 1 vol., 12mo. Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, 1 vol., 8vo # 
Brazer's Sermons, 1 vol., 16mo. Osgood's Stud, of xn. Religion, 1 vol., 12mo. 
Lee's Memoirs of the Buckminsters, 1 vol., 12mo. Elder Brewster, Chief of 
the Pilgrims, 1 vol., Svo. E. Watson's Men, &e. of the Revolution, 1 vol., 
Svo. Hist, of Portsmouth, 1 vol.,12mo. Thorn's Epistle to the Corinthians, 
1 vol., 12mo. Gospel Visitant, 1 vol., 12mo. Simpson's Journey Round the 
World, 1 vol., 12mo. Frothingham's Sermons, 1 vol., 12mo. Verses by Rev. 
Jas. Flint D. D., 1 vol., 12mo. Sermons, do., 1 vol,, 12mo Sermons by 
Rav. Thos. T. Stone, I vol., 12mo. Ballou on the Atonement, 1vol., 12mo. 
Playfair's Euclid, 1 vol., 12mo. Life of S. Judd, 1 vol., 12mo. Lay Preach- 
ers, 1 vol., 16mo. Beauties of Dr. S. Johnson, 1 vol., 12mo. Capt Canot 
20 Years a Slaver, 1 vol., 12mo. Maj. Sam. Shaw's Journal, 1 vol., 8vo. 
Ralph Izard's South Carolina Revolution, 1 vol., 12mo. Owen's Foot Falls, 
1 vol., 16mo. Chandler's Masonic Addresses, 1 vol., 8vo. Weem's Life of 
Washington, 1 vol., 16mo. Girard's College, 1 vol., 12mo. Patent Office 
Report for 1858, 1 vol., 8vo. Morison's Life of Judge Smith, of N. H., 1 
vol., 12mo. Memoirs, &c. of Rev. W. B. O. Peabody, 1 vol , 12mo. Obse- 
quies of President Monroe, 1 vol., 12mo. Catalogue of N. Y. Soc. Library, 
1 vol., 12mo. Edward's Hist, and Poetry of Finger Rings, 1 vol., 12mo. 



XL! 

Bellsham's Evidence of the xn. Religion, 1 vol., 12mo. Thatcher's Hist, of 
Plymouth, 1 vol., 16mo. E'aste 2d vol. on 1' ami de la Jeaneese, 1 vol. 
The Lost Prince (Louis 17th) Piev. Williams 1 vol., 12mo. European 
Magazine for 1792, 1 vol., 8vo. Memoirs ol Thos. H. Perkins, by Cary, 1 vol., 
8vo. Washington's Farewell Address, (Hist, of) 1 vol., 12mo. Dr. N. L. 
Frothingharo's Metrical Pieces, 1 vol , 12mo. Stockdale's Brit. Peerage, 1 vol., 
12mo. Do. Baronetage, 1 vol., 12mo. Parson's Life of Sir. Wm. Pepperrell, 
1 vol., 12mo Obsequies, &c on Henry Clay, 1 vol., 12mo.* Girard's Will 
Case, 1 vol., 12mo. Eliot's Biographical Diet., 1 vol., 12mo. Memoirs of 
General Chas. Lee, 1 vol., 16mo. John Adams' Cunningham Correspondence, 
1 vol., 12mo. Brazer's Holyoke's Ethical Essays, 1 vol , 12mo. Combe on 
the Constitution of Man, 1 vol-, 16mo. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, 1vol., 
12mo. Newhall's Letters to John Pickering ou the Letters of Junius, 1 
vol., 12mo. Letters to and from John Wilkes, 1762, J. vol., 12ino. Dealings 
with the Dead, L. M. Sargent, 1 vol., 12mo. Emerson's Hist, of the First 
Church Boston, 1 vol., 12rno. Letters and Dispatches of Cortez 1 vol., 12mo. 
Willis's Idlewild, 1 vol., 12mo. The Landing on Cape Ann by Conant, 1 
vol., 8vo. Travels in Holland, 1 vol., 12mo. Map of Holland, 1 map. 
Linda, (Slave) 1 vol., 12mo. Salads for the Solitary, 1 vol., 12mo. 
Notices on Duels by Sabine, 1 vol., 12mo. Memoirs of Lucien Bonaparte, 1 
vol., 12mo. Furness' Discourses, 1 vol., 12mo. Bible News, 1 vol., 16mo. 
Notte's 50 Years in both Hemispheres, 1 vol., 12mo. Memoir of John W. 
Foster of Portsmouth formerly of Salem, 1 vol., 12mo. Life Thoughts of 
Henry Ward Beecher, 1 vol., 12mo. Dr. Farley's Unitarian Lectures, 1 vol., 
12mo. Genealogical Register, 1 vol., 12mo. Irving's Life of Washigton, 5 
vols., 8vo. Lives of American Merchants, 2 vols., 8vo. Quincj T 's Hist, of 
Harv. College, 2 vols., 8vo. Macaulay's Hist, of England, 2 vols., 8vo. 
Gasparin on the American Rebellion, 1 vol., 12mo. — Volumes, 161. 

Waters, J. Linton, of Chicago. Adjutant General's Report, State of 
Illinois, l'vol., 8vo, 1863. War Record of Illinois, to Oct. 1, 1863, 8vo, 
pamph Revised Charter of Chicago, 8vo, pamph. 1863. 

Wildes, J. H., of San Francisco, Cal. 11th An. Rep. of San Francisco 
Mercantile Library Association for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Williams, Estate of the late Israel. Charnock's Biographia Navalis, 
vols. 1 to 5 — 5 vols., 8vo, London, 1794. Stavorinus's Voyage to the East 
Indies, 3 vols., 8vo, London,'1798. Whitman's Travels to Turkey, &c, 1 vol., 
8vo, Philad., 1804. Turnbull's Voyage Round the World, 3 vols., 16mo, 
London, 1805. Naval Trade and Commerce, 2 vols., 8vo. Lathrop's 
Sermons, 1 vol., 8vo, Worcester, 1806. Wayland's Discourses, 1 vol.,12mo, 
Boston, 1833. Malham's Gazetteer, 2 vols., 8vo, Boston, 1797. Eusta- 
phieve's Character of Peter the Great, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1812. Demetrius 
Epick Poem, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1818. Apontamentos Grammaticos e filo- 
logicos, 1 vol., 16mo, Boston, 1787. Voyage in Search of La Perouse, 2 vols., 
8vo, London, 1800. Beatson's view of the War with Tippoo Sultana, 1 vol., 

. 6 



XLII 

4to, London, 1800. Ware's European Pilot, 1 vol., Whitehaven, 1774. 
Woodbury, Ezra J. The Works of Thomas Goodwin, 1 vol., folio, Lon- 
don, 1671. 

BY EXCHANGE. 
American Geographical and Statistical Society. Proceedings, vol. n, 
No 2, 8vo. pamph. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, vol. ix, Nos. 68, 69, 70. 
Buffalo Young Men's Association. 28th An. Rep., 8vo, pamph. 
Canadian Institute. Canadian Journal for Mch. and April. 
Cincinnati Mercantile Library Association. 29th An. Report, 8vo, 
pamph., Cincinnati, 1864. 
Editors. Historical Magazine, for April and May, 1864. 
Editors. Round Table, Nos., 24 to 32. 

Ferelands Historical Society. Firelands Pioneer, vol. 5, 8vo. 
Iowa State Historical Society. Annals, No. 6 for April, 1864. 
Long Island Historical Society. Brooklyn Manual, for 1858-9, 1859-60, 
1860-1, 3 vols., 12mo. Various Documents Relating to the Brooklyn San- 
itary Fair, Feb., 1864. Fifty Pamphlets. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. Annual Report of the 
Trustees, 8vo, pamph., Boston, 1864. 

Peabody Institute. 12th An. Rep , of the Trustees, 8vo, pamph. 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science. Proceedings, Jan., Feb., 
Mch., April. 
Publishers. North American Review, for April, 1864. 
Publishers. Lynn Weekly Reporter. Lawrence American. South Dan- 
vers Wizard. Haverhill Gazette. Essex Banner. Toulumne Courier. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. Rhode Island Colonial Records vols. 1 
to 7, 7 vols., 8vo. 87 Pamphlets. 

San Francisco Mercantile Library Association. 11th An. Rep., 8vo, 
pamph. 

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. iv. 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge vol. xiii. Annual Report, for 
1862. 

Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Frankfort, a. M. Der Zoologischen Garten, 
Nos. 7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12 (1863.) and No. 1 (1864,) 

Wednesday, July 6. Ordinary meeting. 
Francis Peabody in the chair. 
The following persons having been nominated at a pre- 
vious meeting by Messrs. G-. A. Ward, H. Wheatland and 
W. P. Upham, were elected Eesident Members ; Daniel 



XLIII 

Perkins, John Felt, William H. Jelly, John Chapman, 
Francis Boardman, Charles S. Rea, Joseph H. M. Bertram, 
Joseph H. Hanson, Nathaniel Brown, John H. Nichols, 
Edward A. Smith 2d, Francis Choate, Samuel R. Hodges, 
Theron Palmer, William H. Kehew, George G. Creamer, 
John P. Browning, Miss Elizabeth W. Treadwell, Miss 
Elizabeth C. Ward Jr., Thomas M. Saunders, Manuel Fen- 
ollosa, Mrs. John H. Silsbee, F. S. Peck, Jeremiah S. Per- 
kins, Richard D. Rogers, Francis W. Tuttle, W. J. Stickney 
Orrin F. Thompson, Henry Hale, Xenophon H. Shaw, John 
H. Downing, Willard Goldthwaite, John Francis Tucker- 
man, M. H. Hale, W Reith Jr., Jonathan Tucker, George 
C. Lord, George A. Fuller, Augustus Perry, Tristram T. 
Savory, E. A. Simonds, J. F. Almy, George B. Jewett, 
Harriaon 0. Flint, John P. Peabody, Henry Hubon, Henry 
G. Hubon, Ingalls K. Mackintire, Charles Sanders, Miss 
Caroline Saltonstall, James Manning, William B. Ashton, 
Henry K. Oliver, Nathaniel Brown Jr., Joseph F. Walden, 
Daniel C. Haskell, Daniel E. Clough, George P. Daniels, 
Charles Lamson, Peter Silver, Charles H. Glazier, George 
Bowker, Charles Bowker, all of Salem, and Samuel Porter 
of Beverly. 

Wednesday, July 13. Field meeting at East Saugus. 

This meeting was attended by a company who arrived 
by the 10 A. M. train from Salem, Lynn, and other towns, 
and made their rendezvous at " Waverley Hall." From 
thence, dividing into parties, one pursued the route leading 
to " Round Hill" and the " Center," while another took a 
path on the easterly side of the river and visited " Pirates 
Glen" and other interesting spots adjacent. Others pushed 
their travels as far as " Dungeon Rock" in Lynn. At 3 
P. M. the meeting was called to order, and Rev. S. Barden 
of Rockport was invited to preside during the absence of 
the constituted officers. 



XLIV 

The records of the preceding meeting were read, and 
letters were announced from the following : 

A. Agassiz, of Cambridge ; John H. Klippart, Sec'yOhio State Bd. of Agri- 
culture; J. Mayer & Co., of Boston; S. F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; Edward L. Graeff, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; E. T. Cresson, of Philadelphia; 
J. A. Allen, of Springfield; L. Trouvelot, of Medford; Henry White, of New 
Haven, Conn. ; C. B. Puchardson, of New York, relative to the publications. 
From the Maine Historical Society ; Massachusetts Historical Society ; 
Literary and Historical Society, of Quebec ; Lyceum of Natural History, of 
New York ; Corporation of Harvard College ; Trustees of Newburyport Public 
Library ; Trustees of Boston Public Library, severally acknowledging 
receipt of publications. From Jere. Page ; Willard Goldthwaite ; Charles 
Bowker ; Francis Boardman; Geo. P. Daniels; W. J. Stickney; H. K. Oliver ; 
M. Fenollosa ; G. B. Jewett, accepting membership. From C. M. Tracy, of 
Lynn ; Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, of Pleading ; S. H. Scudder, of Boston, relating 
to Field meetings. From Long Island Histoincal Society ; A. S. Packard, of 
Me. Hist. Soc. ; Henry W. Moulton ; Smithsonian Institution, relating to 
exchanges and transmission of books and specimens. From J. Porter, of 
Wenham ; Henry A. Smith of Cleveland, Ohio ; Mrs. Hannah B. Russell ; 
Morris Phillips, of New York ; C. B. Preston, of Danvers ; R. M. Piper, of 
Nahant ; Lowell Bleachery ; Geo. A. Ward, on business matters. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets, were announced. 
The chair proceeded to give an account of the geology of 
the place, as observed by him. He spoke of the "Jasper 
Ledge"' of "Round Hill" and its amygdaloid, and of the fine 
porphyries of this region. At this point Yice President 
A. C. Goodell Jr. arrived and took the chair. 

C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, described a variety of plants and 
flowers gathered during the day. A fine cluster of rhod- 
odendrons being sent to the table he gave some account 
of the family to which it belonged and of its peculiarly 
fine developement among the Alps and Himalayas. Also 
of the other splendid members of this family, the azaleas, 
the kalmias, the heaths, &c. 

Wilbur F. Newhall, of Saugus, gave somewhat extended 
remarks on the more prominent points in the history of 
the town. He remembered the old Newhall Tavern for- 
merly kept here by an ancestor of his, and famous in its 



XLV 

time, and he recollected being carried, when a little boy, 
to see the old building torn down. At this tavern, as he 
had heard the story from an ancient dame, "Washington 
once stopped during his journey, rested awhile, and only 
allowed himself a cup of cold water. Mr. X. also spoke 
of a series of articles on the history of the town, pre- 
pared by his late father Benj. F. Xewhall, and printed in 
the Lynn Reporter, a reprint of which is under consider- 
ation. 

Joseph Dampney, of Lynn, gave some further statements 
in the same direction, particularly as to the first church 
built in Saugus, which was at. the " Center." 

The chair said that Saugus was a place very interesting 
to the antiquary, and historian. Some of the ramblers of 
the day had probably seen the heaps of scoria at the 
" Center" called the " Cinder Bank." At that spot was 
established the first iron foundery in the country, the scene 
of the labors of Joseph Jenks, one of the pioneers of 
American inventors. It was he who first contrived and 
introduced the long stiff scythe now used by mowers ; and 
we also find record to show that he invented an " engine 
for the more spedye cutting of grasse," for which he 
sought legislative encouragement. What this " engine" 
was does not well appear. The foundery was a success, 
it would seem, and a choice relic from it is yet preserved 
in the family of the late Alonzo Lewis, of Lynn, to wit, the 
first article cast, being a small quaintly shaped iron pot. 

Rev. C. C. Beaman, of Salem, gave a brief account of 
the delightful scenery at and about " Pirate's Glen" and 
also adverted to the tribe of Indians who formerly dwelt 
hereabout. It was said that their camps might still be 
traced by the imbedded clam-shells in the soil : and there 
were some who could recollect the last of these easy, 
indolent, fish-eating people, as they lingered awhile among 
their civilized and more powerful successors. 



XLVI 

Rev. A. W. Bruce, of Marblehead, expressed his satis- 
faction at the proceedings of the day, and spoke further 
of the importance of preserving items of local history. 

James H. Emerton, of Salem, made some statements 
as to the large collection of insects received by the Insti- 
tute in the past year, and gave some suggestions on the 
preservation of specimens in this class. 

P. L. Cox, of Lynn, testified to the pleasantness of the 
day's affairs, and paid a just and warm tribute to the 
memory of Benj. F. Newhall, the historian of Saugus. 

Prof. John C. Holmes, of Michigan, gave some descrip- 
tion of the tulip tree as found in that State (allusion 
having been made to the tree by Mr. Tracy.j He 
then spoke of the developement of the agricultural re- 
sources of the West, the transportation eastward of their 
products, and the necessity of increased facilities for this 
purpose. 

W. P. Upham, made some remarks on the jasper and 
porphyry of this region. 

Rev. C. C. Beaman, of Salem, called attention to the 
character and worth of the late Joshua Coffin Esq., the 
historian of Newbury, and on his motion, the Vice Presi- 
ident of History was requested to prepare a memoir of 
that venerable author to be read at a future meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Upham the thanks of the Institute 
were tendered to Messrs. Wilbur F. and Alston Newhall 
for their services as guides and otherwise, to the Proprie- 
tors of Waverley Hall and all our friends in Saugus for 
their kindness this day. Several persons were nominated 
for membership and the Institute then adjourned. 

Thuksday, July 14. Ordinary meeting. 
G. A. Ward in the chair. 
The following persons nominated at the Saugus meet- 
ing by Messrs. G-. A. Ward, R. S. Rantoul and H. Wheat- 



XLVII 

land, were duly elected Resident Members ; Abraham J. 
Stanley, Samuel Carlen, John Mackie, C. W. Richardson, 
W. C. Moulton, Charles Baker, J. M. Rice, Miss Annie 
Tread well, Mrs. Mary Doyle, Mrs. Chas. Hoffman, Charles 
Sewall, Thomas P. Newhall, Robert McCloy, James Tref- 
fren, Fred. Porter, W. D. Northend, Julian A. Fogg, J. S. 
Cross, Andrew H. Lord, Charles Osgood, Mrs. D. A. Neal, 
all of Salem; S. S. McKenzie, of Topsfield; A. W. Bruce, 
of Marblehead ; Wilbur F. Newhall, John W. Newhall, 
Harmon Hall, James S. Oliver, John Westwood, and Miss 
Charlotte M. Hawkes, of East Saugus. 

Wednesday, July 27. Field meeting at North Beverly. 

A small company of those most actively interested 
repaired to the neighborhood of Wenham Pond in the 
morning, taking the early train as far as the little village 
of North Beverly. These spent the forenoon in various 
rambles in the vicinity and being joined by a large addi- 
tional force from Lynn, Salem, and other places, at about 3 
P. M. the regular meeting was organized on the westerly 
margin of the pond under a clump of venerable pines on 
the grounds of Richard P. Waters Esq. Vice President, 
A. C. Goodell Jr., took the chair and made a few remarks, 
explanatory of the objects of the Institute. 

After the reading of the records of the last Field 
meeting, and the announcement of donations to the Li- 
brary and Cabinets, letters were read from the following ; 

Trustees of Boston Public Library, acknowledging receipt of publications; 
W. F. Newhall, of East Saugus ; A. W. Bruce, of Marblehead ; D. C. 
Haskell, J. F. Walden and Mrs. J. H. Silsbee, of Salem, accepting membership ; 
R. M. Piper, of Nahant ; S. Barden, of Rockport, and AVm. Lafavor, of 
Salem, on business matters. 

Robert S. Rantoul, of Salem, read an extended essay on 
the History and Uses of Wenham Pond. In his remarks 
he spoke of the remarkable purity of its water ; its per- 
manency of level ; the enormous crops of ice taken from it 



XLVIII 

and the esteem in which this product is held abroad ; the 
many notable characters associated with it in history, par- 
ticularly Rev. Hugh Peters ; and the singular amount of 
litigation that had marked the adjoining territory in the 
course of years. 

A short but very pleasing poem by Mrs. J. H. Hanaford, 
late of Beverly, but now of Reading, was read by Rev. 
Geo. D. Wildes of Salem who prefaced it with a few re- 
marks. The Poem was descriptive of the emotion felt by 
an American in Europe on meeting with a specimen ot 
the famous ice from these waters. 

Stephen H. Phillips, of Salem, adverted to the very in- 
teresting fact that this was one of those " greate pondes," 
of more than ten acres in extent, whose entire freedom to 
all our people for fishing and fowling is guaranteed for- 
ever, first, by the " Bodye of Libertyes," drawn and pro- 
mulgated by Rev. Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich in 1643, 
then by later enactments of the General Court, and now 
finally made a fixed fact by decision of the Supreme Court 
lately rendered. He read extracts from the manuscript opin- 
ion of the Court in the case of Inhabitants of W. Roxbury 
vs. Stoddard, bearing on this point. Thus, said Mr. P. we 
are in full posession of these lovely waters, for all legiti- 
mate public uses, free of cost and beyond hinderance by 
designing men ; and this more than by all else, by the 
early foresight of Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich, known as 
the " Simple Cobbler of Agawam." 

James Slade, late City Engineer of Boston, gave some 
interesting facts on the subject of furnishing water to 
cities, and said that when a tolerable source was selected, 
it was always found that the quantity provided by nature 
could be much increased by art, by the use of means to 
prevent loss and waste. 

Rev. G. W. Skinner, of Gloucester, made some state- 
ments upon the remarkable ridge, or moraine, which runs 



XL IX 

along the shore of the lake, from near this spot to almost 
the northern end. He discussed its structure very fully 
and concluded that it was formed, during the period of 
drift, by the deposit of stones and gravel brought by 
ice-floes or field-ice, which here, restrained by the high- 
lands, was forced to move for sometime in a kind of eddy. 

C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, made some observations on the 
peculiar structure of the Sarracenia or Huntsman's Cup. 
He favored the idea that its pitchers, which are usually 
partly full of pure water, are reservoirs for the collection 
of clew, which may, by some natural means, be formed 
upon them more readily than upon other objects. The 
specimen before the meeting was from Cape Ann, and, 
despite the severe drought, had been found with its usual 
supply of water. 

Prof. B. 0. Pierce, of Beverly, had also examined the 
moraine spoken of by Mr. Skinner, and gave some con- 
siderations thereon, as also on the mollusca found in 
Wenham Pond. 

Richard P. Waters, of Beverly, said this moraine had 
attracted the notice of Hitchcock who had pronounced it 
a wonderful formation ; but he seemed not to have alluded 
to it in his writings. 

Rev. C. C. Beaman, of Salem, gave some notice of the 
earlier proprietors of this region, and particularly of Rev. 
Mr. Fiske, one of the first clergymen in Wenham ; also 
of the church records of that old parish which are still 
preserved. 

Charles S. Osgood, of Salem, alluded to the kind enter- 
tainment given us this day, and moved the thanks of the 
Institute to the friends who had furnished it. The same 
were voted unanimously. After the nomination of several 
persons for membership the Institute adjourned. 



Thursday, July 28. Ordinary meeting 
Vice President, A. C. Goo-dell Jr , in the chair 
The following persons nominated at the North Beverly 
meeting by A. C. Goodell Jr., and H. Wheatland, were 
elected Eesident Members ; Isaac Appleton, of Beverly ; 
Geo. P. Russell, of Haverhill ; Shadrach M. Gate, Ephraim 
Miller, James C. Stimpson and George Newcomb, of Salem. 
The thanks of the Institute were voted to Mr. Rantoul for 
the reading of his paper, on the " History of Wenham 
Pond" at the meeting of yesterday, and a copy was re- 
quested for publication in the Historical Collections. 

Wednesday, August 10. Field meeting at Gloucester. 

About three hundred persons arrived in the first train 
from Salem, and were escorted to the Town Hall where a 
few remarks of welcome were made by Rev. Mr. Skinner, 
of Gloucester, and the divine blessing was invoked by 
Rev. Mr. Banvard of Worcester. The party was then 
dismissed for rambles and observations. Some visited the 
" Stage Rocks" and " Rafe's Chasm"; others rambled along 
the beach or in the woods in search of plants and animals. 

At one o'clock the party had mostly reassembled at 
the Town Hall, where after appeasing the good appetites 
caused by the morning walks, the meeting was called to 
order by Rev. S. Barden, of Rockport, who made a few 
opening remarks. 

The records of the last Field meeting were read, and 
donations to the Cabinets and Library announced. Letters 
were announced from : 

New Jersey Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications ; 
J. F. Tuckerman, of Salem, accepting membership ; C. M. Tracy, of Lynn; 
A. P. Peabody, of Cambridge, and G. W. Skinner, of Gloucester, respecting 
Field meetings. 

G. D. Phippen, of Salem, gave a brief account of the 
early history of Gloucester, and then spoke of the trans- 



LI 

mutation of species among plants, holding that, while under 
cultivation, plants were by the hand of man, changed, so 
as to produce well marked varieties, yet, if left to nature's 
own laws, every species would remain true to the charac- 
teristics stamped upon it by the Creator, at its first appear- 
ance upon earth. 

Rev. E. C. Bolles, of the Portland Nat. Hist. Society, 
upon being introduced, made a most eloquent, and appro- 
priate speech, advising all to study the works of God in 
the field, and open their eyes to the beautiful gems at their 
feet. Mr. Bolles stated that he had come from Portland 
with his fellow member of the Nat. Hist. Society, Mr. 
Morse, to see how a field meeting was conducted, and 
hoped that his own Society would be able to follow the 
example of the Essex Institute. 

Rev. G. W Skinner, of Gloucester, exhibited, under a 
microscope, some infusorial earth found on the Cape, and 
explained the probable origin of the deposit. 

Prof. Wra. Hinks, of University College, Toronto, C. W. 
was introduced to the meeting, and gave an interesting, 
general account of the lower animals and plants, during 
which he stated that he was inclined, with others, to admit 
a fifth branch to the animal kingdom, in which the sponges 
and allied organisms should be placed. 

Rev. Joseph Banvard, of Worcester, gave an account of 
the Worcester Society which had similar objects with those 
of the Essex Institute, and had commenced to hold field 
meetings. In the Worcester Society, ladies are not only 
admitted as members, but are elected assistant curators, 
and take an active part in all the meetings of the Society, 
reading papers, and discussing the various subjects pre- 
sented. Mr. Banvard stated that he had recently seen the 
ants feeding upon the juices secreted by the aphides, or 
plant lice, and that he had noticed three distinct species 



LIT. 

of ants, each of which lived upon the secretions of a 
peculiar species of aphis. 

Ed. S. Morse, of Portland, whose especial study is the land 
snails, gave an account of the collection made by himself and 
Mr. Bolles during the morning, stating that he had found 
several specimens of two very rare species of minute snails. 
The structure of these little snails, furnished, like most of 
the larger species, with a shell, which is secreted by, and 
is a part of the animal itself, and not a house which it can 
leave at will, as is commonly supposed, was explained by 
drawings. He also showed the position and shape of the 
hundreds of microscopic teeth with which the snail's 
tongue is furnished for the purpose of rasping its food. 

Mr. Morse read the following list of Terrestrial Mol- 
lusca collected at Gloucester during the morning. 

Tebennophorus dorsalis Binney. Helix ferrea Morse. 

Limax campestris Binney. " Binneyana Morse. 

Helix striatella Anthony. " exigua Stimpson. 

" labyrinthica Say. Vertigo ovata Say. 

" arborea Say. Pupa pentodon Say. 

" chersina Say. Succinea Totteniana Lea. 

" lineata Say. " avara Say. 

" milium Morse. Melampus bidentatus Say. 

A. C. Goodell Jr., called the attention of the meeting to 
the little neglected barnacle on the rocks, and after 
giving an interesting description of its structure, which 
he illustrated by a drawing of that portion of the animal 
under the shell, he favored the meeting by reading a few 
stanzas, fou nd in his pocket, relating to the little crusta- 
cean.' 

F. W. Putnam, of Salem, being called upon to explain 
the structure of the lobster and other animals that had 
been collected during the day, gave a brief account of 
the various animals, and by a comparison of the lobster 
with the young barnacle, which for a short period of its 
life, is a free swimming animal, showed how closely related 
were the ^vo, and how erroneous was the common opinion, 



L1II. 

that the barnacle was a rnollusk, on account of its limv 
shell. 

Prof. A. Crosby, of Salem, gave an account of the walk 
taken by his party to the rocks, where many interesting 
things were discovered, and several kinds of minerals 
collected. 

Rev. S. Barden, of Rockport, exhibited a number of 
the minerals that had been collected, and described the 
structure of each. 

George F. H. Markoe, of Boston, explained the various 
properties of the medicinal plants which he had collected, 
and furnished the following list of plants seen during the 
day. 

Drosera longifolia Epilobiuni lineare. 

Drosera rotundifolia. Cornus canadensis, in fruit. 

Leucanthemum vulgare. Scutellaria laterifolia. 

Maruta cotula. Spirasa tomentosa. 

Nymphasa odorata. Spiraea salicifolia, 

Nuphar ad vena. OEnothera biennis. 

Gaultheria procumbens. (Enothera pumila. 

Achillea millefolium. Antennaria margaritacea. 

Asclepias incarnata var. pulchra. Eupatorium purpureum 

Platanthera blephariglottis. Impatiens fulva. 

Sambucus canadensis. Lobelia cardinalis. 

Mitchella repens. Lobelia inflata. 

Leontodon autumnale. Lobelia spicata. 

Arctostapbylos uva-ursi, in fruit. Pontederia cordata. 

Hypericum perforatum. Sagittaria variabilis var. sagittifolia. 

Hypericum sarothra. Vaccinium oxycoccus. 

Elodea virginica. Lythrum salicaria. 

Silene inflata. Xyris bulbosa. 

Statice limonium. Solanum dulcamara. 

Clethra alnifolia. Oxalis stricta. 

Cuscuta Gronovii. Trifolium repens. ■ 

Eupatorium perfoliatum. Trifolium pratense. 

Epilobium angustifolium. 

James H. Emerton, of Salem, exhibited a collection of 
about an hundred species of insects, including many 
species of spiders, the object of his special study, that had 
been collected by him during the day. 

Rev. E. B. Willson, of Salem, made a few general 
remarks upon the usefulness of these meetings in pro- 
moting the study of Nature. 



LIV. 

Henry W. Peabody, of Salem, was nominated for Resi- 
dent Membership by A. C. Goodell Jr. and H. Wheatland. 

On motion of Mr. Goodell the thanks of the Institute 
were voted to the Selectmen of Gloucester, for the use 
of the Town Hall during the day, and to Rev. G. W. 
Skinner and other friends in Gloucester, for kind atten- 
tions. Adjourned. 

Thursday, August 25. Field meeting at Rockville, South 

Danvers. 

A company of pleasant size and character gathered 
this day at the little chapel at " Rockville" for a series of 
refreshing rambles in the neighborhood of our old famil- 
iar " Ship Rock." Some of the party started for Barthol- 
omew's Pond; others proposed to find " "Wildcat Ledge" 
on the declivity of Prospect Hill near the line of Lynn ; 
and some went to Spring Pond and the Aqueduct Foun- 
tains. The largest portion, probably, as generally hap- 
pens, took the shortest walk, and ended their jaunt at 
"Ship Rock." The iron ladder and steps, provided by the 
Institute, are still in good order ; and the shady woods 
around were very refreshing for a hot and dusty day. 

The afternoon meeting was organized in the chapel ; 
Rev? S. Barden, of Rockport, taking the chair. On so 
doing, he remarked that we had brought stones, plants 
and animals, and displayed them on and about the sacred 
desk. It might seem as if this apparent desecration 
needed some apology, but to him, at least, it was evident, 
that no antagonism existed between these elements, but 
most beautiful harmony. True, we seldom see it exem- 
plified in this way. The works of God are never opposed 
to his word ; and Nature teaches nothing in support of 
irreligion or vice. 

Tne records of the last meeting were read and dona- 



LV 

tions to the Library and Museum announced. Letters 
were announced as received from the following persons 
and Societies, since the last meeting : 

Julian A. Fogg ; John P. Browning; George P. Russell, of Haverhill ; 
J. H. Wildes of San Francisco, accepting membership : James D. Dana, of 
New Haven, respecting Ord way's " Tree Protector" : B. Westermann & Co. 
of New York; J. A. Allen, of Springfield ; Raynal Dodge, of Newburyport, 
relating to the publications ; J. D. Dana, of New Haven ; James Hubbert, 
of Toronto; S. F. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution ; James Hall, of 
Albany ; Vincent Barnard, of Chester Co. Pa.; Charles H. Pitman, of North 
Barnstead, N. H. ; Wm. Dawson, of Spiceland, Ind. ; Amory L. Babcock, of 
Sherborn; Geo. C- Huntington, of Kelley's Island, Ohio; James Lewis, of 
Mohawk, N. Y.; John Johnston, of Middleton, Conn.; John Haywood, of 
Kingston, Ohio ; W. M. Beauchamp, Skaneateles, N. Y. ; Wm. Muir, of Fox 
Creek, Mo., relating to the Naturalists' Directory : S. Jillson, of Feltonville; 
E. S. L. Richardson, of Chicago, 111.; P. A. Hanaford, of Reading, on busi- 
ness matters. 

The chair then spoke of the geology of this region ; 
and said that he had been able to-day to verify the ob- 
servation made by Messrs. Alger and Jackson in 1848, 
of scratches and groovings on the ledge under the eastern 
base of Ship Eock. These clearly proved it a bowlder ; 
since there must have been a time when it stood else- 
where, and other materials were doing this grinding work 
in the place it now occupies. Under the well known rock 
in Gloucester called the " Whale's Jaw," similar markings 
are to be seen, proving the same thing. If any "one 
doubted that such rocks had ever been transported, or that 
ice was an adequate agent for such work, he had only to 
visit Cape Cod in the winter, when in one of its harbors 
it might be seen at play, as it were, with a great stone, 
carrying it rods away and back, this way and that, with 
every tide. 

F. W. Putnam exhibited the various animals which 
had been collected and explained the characters of the 
bream, perch and shiner, showing in what way the shiner 
differed from the other two, and how the perch and bream 



LVl. 

belonged to two closely allied families. He stated that the 
three species under consideration had a wide geographical 
range, only equalled by one or two other North Amer- 
ican fishes, being found in almost all the ponds and lakes 
east of the Rocky mountains and south of the Arctic regions. 
He also made some brief statements as to the nature and 
habits of the several kinds of batrachians such as frogs, 
toads, and salamanders. 

C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, made some explanation of the 
plants collected by the explorers, particularly of the 
composite family, which make ten per cent, of the world's 
vegetation, and were well represented to-day, by a pro- 
digious thistle, some six feet high. A few moments were 
spent in considering a variety of plants reputed to cure 
the bite of snakes and other venomous animals. Some of 
them, it was stated, probably possessed a degree of virtue, 
while others would be but idly employed for such a 
purpose. 

Rev. Joseph Banvard, of Worcester, said that he had 
seen to-day, fresh evidences of that grand principle of 
Nature, that all life is nourished by decay. Death and 
dissolution are everywhere before us. The animal dies, 
the plant perishes, and both are turned to mould. The rock 
weathers and disintegrates. Ship Rock itself is crumbling. 
From the dust of all decaying structures, a new order and 
generation of things, sentient and otherwise, springs con- 
stantly up, to fill a place and enjoy a time in the universal 
history. So in all things. In a sense wholly legitimate, 
we have lived for years on the blood and bones of our 
Revolutionary Fathers. To-day we are called to fertilize 
the soil anew with sacrificial blood, that life and enjoy- 
ment may arise for future generations. These things are 
often more literal than we think. When, some time ago, 
there was opened the grave of good old Roger Williams, 
the root of an apple tree was found to have travelled to 



LVJJ 

the head of the coffin and penetrated all along the spine, 
and thence branched down the legs to the feet, being 
thus nourished by the material of the bones. And there- 
fore those who ate of that tree had been unwittingly 
■partaking of the very substance of the old Reformer. Nor 
in all this is there anything abhorrent to a fine and merci- 
ful sense. Nature destroys with sudden stroke, mostly, 
all things that can feel. She saves pain, she shows no 
malevolence, but only kindly transfers the life from one 
form to another. 

Prof. A. Crosby, of Salem, gave some account of the 
operations of the Portland Natural History Society. This 
institution has excellent accommodations, and is about 
commencing a system of Field Meetings, much on the 
plan of our own. A curious feature at their^rooms, is the 
grand table, eleven feet long by six wide, made of a single 
plank from the "Big Tree" of California. Prof. C. also 
spoke of the facilities afforded by these meetings for 
educational purposes, and for acquaintance with things 
around us which are too rarely seen in schools. 

E. N. Walton, of Salem, spoke in continuation of the 
same subject. 

The Secretary read a letter from Rev. Charles Babbage, 
chaplain in the army, in relation to Wenham Pond, giving 
some curious anecdotes of that locality, and the former 
residents thereabout. 

On motion of C. M. Tracy of Lynn, the thanks of the 
Institute were voted to the Proprietors of the Rockville 
Chapel for the use of their premises to-day ; also to the 
friends in the village who have favored us with their 
assistance and encouragement. 

Henry W. Peabody of Salem, nominated at a previous 
meeting, was elected a resident member. 

The Institute then adjourned. 
8 



LVIII 

Friday. September. 16. Field meeting at Newburyport. 

This meeting had been appointed for the previous 
Wednesday, but postponed on account of dull weather. 
The company from the lower towns of the county, arriving 
by the morning train was quite large. 

Under the efficient guidance of the Rev. G. D. Wildes, 
the large company were at once placed upon the route 
for visiting the most interesting objects in Newburyport 
and its neighborhood. A small party of the members 
whose interest was more immediately connected with the 
botanical and mineralogical departments, left the cars at 
the •■ Serpentine Quarry." returning thence in time for the 
collation and public meeting. After a general gathering 
at the City Hall, some of the party went on a delightful 
trip to Plum Island : others chose to stroll over the bridge, 
and enjoy the fine walk and views on the Salisbury side, 
and the remainder proceeded to visit the Church and 
Memorial Chapel of St. Paul's. The latter structure 
attracted special attention, from the connection with the 
memory of a deceased clergyman and his daughter, held 
in affectionate remembrance by many friends in Salem. 
The exquisite memorial windows of the Chapel placed as 
monuments to their dead, by several families of St. Paul's 
parish, may certainly be regarded as among the finest 
specimens of the stained glass to be found in this country. 

From the Chapel, the party were next conducted to the 
beautiful grounds of the Dexter mansion, which were 
thrown open to them through the kindness of the proprie- 
tor. Dr. E. G-. Kelley. In other particulars than tins, the 
Institute, as on previous occasions, found themselves 
greatly indebted to the courtesy of Dr. Kelley. After 
spending some time in these grounds, the party proceeded 
to the Mall, the Putnam School, and thence to the beauti- 
ful Oak Hill Cemeterv. Xone could fail to admire the 



TJX 



new gateway, just erected through the generous gift of 
Mr. Tappan of New York, a native of Newburyport. 
None could fail to be struck with the beautiful inscription 
wrought in the granite entablature. We understand that 
the inscription was furnished by Mrs. Tappan, the daugh- 
ter of the late C. W. Story Esq., of Newburyport, and we 
record it, as itself a testimony to a tasteful and pious cul- 
ture long known to her friends : 

" Until The Day Break, 

And The Shadows Flee Away/' 

From the elevated portions of the cemetery, beautiful 
and extensive views of the surrounding country were 
obtained, embracing on the south and west the hills of 
West Newbury, Rowley, Ipswich, and Old Town ; on the 
east and north the headlands of Cape Ann, the sandy 
shores of Plum Island, Salisbury, and Hampton : the dis- 
tant Isles of Shoals, and the woods and hamlets of Salis- 
bury, Seabrook, with the towns of Aniesbury and West 
Newbury. After leaving the Cemetery, the Copley paint- 
ings were visited at the house of the Misses Tracy, who 
very kindly threw open their mansion to the large party, 
and furnished much valuable information as to the history 
of the portraits of Colonel and Mrs. Lee. Another fine 
portrait by Trumbull of Col. Jackson, the ancestor of the 
distinguished Jackson family of Boston, was seen at the 
same place. From this point, the route was taken to the 
old South Church, passing by the way the old colonial jail 
house in Federal street. Many of the party visited the 
tomb of Whitfield, where the remains of the great preach- 
er, together with those of Prince and Parsons, were seen. 
After testing the quality of the whispering gallery in the 
church, the party proceeded to the old Tracy Mansion, 
once honored by the presence of Washington, Talleyrand, 
Chateaubriand, Louis Philippe, LaFayette and others. 



LX 

This venerable mansion, now occupied, in part by the 
Rev. Mr. Fletcher, the distinguished traveller in Brazil, is 
soon to be used for the purposes of the Public Library ; 
alterations to that effect being now made. We hope to 
see in connection with the valuable Public Library of 
Newburyport, a flourishing branch of the Essex Institute. 

After viewing other localities of interest as connected 
with the literary, professional and commercial history of 
the city, the party returned to the City Hall, where the 
large hospitality of their friends in Newburyport had 
made excellent provisions for a noonday repast. 

The afternoon meeting was called to order in the City 
Hall, about 2 1-2 o'clock, and Rev. George D. Wildes, of 
Salem, was invited to occupy the Chair. On assuming 
that place he made some remarks in explanation of the 
plan and practice of the Institute and the influence 
exerted by its meetings on the community around. 

Donations since the last meeting were announced and 

letters were read from the following: 

A. S. Packard Jr., of Brunswick, Me.; G. C. Huntington, of Kelley's 
Island, Ohio ; J. D Dana, of New Haven ; J. A. Allen, of Springfield ; 
Thomas Barlow, of Canostota, N. Y., in relation to the publications ; 
Smithsonian Institution, acknowledging the receipt of publications ; Lyceum 
of Natural History of New York ; S. Barden, of Rockport ; W. H. Prince, 
of Northampton ; John L. Russell ; Mrs. E. H. Derby, of Auburndale, on 
general business ; A. L. Babcock, of Sherborn ; Thos. Gile, of Washington ; 
Hiram A. Cutting, of Lunenburg, Vt., on exchanges of books and speci- 
mens. 

F. W. Putnam, explained the structure of the galls 
found on the leaves and stems of plants, and the habits of 
the gall flies. He also spoke of the habits of the Aphis, 
Coccus and other insects injurious to vegetation. 

Rev. S. Barden, of Rockport, had been to the " Devil's 
Den. 7 ' But there was nothing there infernal; it was a 
place of unmixed beauty. He was glad to see the clergy- 
men of this place interested in the pursuits of this day ; 



LXI 

they have saved Newburyporfc to the cause of science. 
While laboring with his hammer at the ledge he had been 
cheered by the presence of some of them, and encouraged 
to open more fully the wealth of that spot. There 
were beautiful specimens of serpentine, as well as asbestos, 
or amianthus of a fine description. He exhibited an 
elegant vase made from the serpentine by Mr. Osgood, of 
Newburyport, and pronounced it equal to anything of the 
kind to be seen elsewhere. 

Dr. H. C. Perkins, of Newburyport, said that every boy 
in the place had at some time been to the " Devil's 
Den," which few here know as a serpentine quarry. 
It was opened for lime exclusively and worked for 
some time. It furnished besides serpentine and asbestos, 
some very good steatite and dolomite. The celebrated 
Jacob Perkins, once of Newburyport, made paper from 
this asbestos and printed some bank-notes on it which 
were incombustible and served td surprise his friends. 

Rev. Artemas D. Mussey, of Newburyport, expressed 
his deep satisfaction in the meeting and its purposes. 
He could not doubt its effect on those who attended, 
especially on the young ; and he hoped a branch society, 
or something like it might be formed and sustained in this 
place. 

Rev. J. S. Spalding, of Newburyport, had fortunately 
met the party at the " Den'" and highly enjoyed the 
enthusiastic activity of those who composed it. If all the 
members of the Institute were equally engaged and suc- 
cessful, the best results must follow. There are young- 
men in Newburyport engaged in science and natural his- 
tory. They have made fine collections of birds' eggs 
including many rare kinds and if directed and encouraged 
by some systematic society, they would do much for 
themselves and the cause of knowledge. 



LXII 

Rev. C. C. Beanian, of Salem, thought the Essex Insti- 
tute could not fail to be greatly cheered by such language 
as that of the Newburyport people to-day. The historical 
side of our society well deserves encouragement. We are 
at work to preserve a worthy past by gathering and 
securing every relic of historic value. 

Rev. Mr. Spalding, said that Essex North was rich in 
archeological wealth. Its history was both valuable and 
available. Felt, in his annals, had made some statements 
as to John Barnard, a celebrated teacher of the early 
times ; but recent researches have corrected him in this 
matter and identified parties very differently. 

Rev. John N. Sykes, of Xewburyport, was glad to see 
the activity of the young men who took part in the opera- 
tions of the Institute. The benefit of such employment 
in youth must be great. They would form habits of 
observation, which in after life would be of the greatest 
advantage. 

C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, gave -some explanation of the 
plants gathered by the explorers, alluding in particular to 
the asters, goldenrods and other autumnal flowers, and dis- 
cussing somewhat the relations of the oaks and hickories. 
He also spoke of his visit to the garden of Dr. E. G. 
Kelley, in which were noticed, among the many interest- 
ing objects there found, the beautiful and finely grown 
hedges of hemlock, spruce and other evergreens also one 
of weigelia, this last in the time of flowering must have 
presented a splendid appearance. 

Dr. Perkins said every one ought to study Natural 
History. It was the greatest source of comfort amid 
pain, sorrow and affliction, that he had ever known. 
"When the botanical specimens were just now brought 
forward, they seemed to him like old friends. He remem- 
bered that forty years ago, he left Cambridge with a class- 
mate and botanized from thence to Xewburyport, losing 
the way in the ardor of the pursuit. 



LXI1I 

The Chair added some further thoughts on the Institute 
as a means of education. Such an institution forms the 
best of safeguards for the young and developing minds. 
The love of science will live every where. He had seen, 
in the icy fastnesses of the Alps, the little band of German 
students, on their vacation from the Universities, camping 
in the mountain valleys and enjoying their explorations 
with a zest that made him almost envious. Yet this 
enjoyment is not all, for modern science is not pleasurable 
only ; it is eminently practical and therefore eminently 
useful. Encourage its growth among the people and 
you give them at once both happiness and power. 

Stephen B. Ives, of Salem, offered the following resolu- 
tions, which were unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That the sincere thanks of the Essex Insti- 
tute be presented to the City Council, of Newburyport, 
for the use of the City Hall, for its meeting here this day. 

Resolved, That the most grateful acknowledgements of 
the Institute be presented to those kind friends in New- 
buryport, whose attentions in making the most ample, and 
tasteful arrangements for the field meeting, and, in provid- 
ing bountiful and elegant refreshments, have rendered the 
present meeting among the foremost in interest and encour- 
agement in the history of the Society. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Institute are especially 
offered to Mrs. D. T. Granger, Mrs. Pearson, Mrs. Nourse, 
Mrs. W. Horton, the Misses Tracy, of the ladies ; and to 
the Messrs. G. J. F. Colby, E. S. Moseley, E. G. Kelley, 
D. T. Granger, Charles Wills, C. H. Bailey, J. H. Froth- 
in gham, J. Bogardus, J. Horton, and others who have 
so largely contributed to the gratification of the Institute 
in its present meeting. 

After the nomination of members the meeting adjourned. 

Wednesday, September 21. Ordinary meeting- 
Joseph G. Waters, in the chair. 
William Whitaker, Thomas L. Perkins and William H. 



LXIV 

Einmerton, of Salem, and John S. Allanson, of Marblehead, 
nominated at a previous meeting were duly elected Resi- 
dent Members. 

Friday, September 30. Special meeting. 
The President, A. Huntington, in the chair. 

The president stated that the object of our assembling 
this evening was to take some suitable notice of the re- 
cent sudden decease of our late associate member George 
Atkinson Ward, of Salem. Mr Ward was one of the 
original members and very active in the organization of 
the Essex Historical Society. He removed to New York 
in 1823 to engage in business in that metropolis. He 
returned to Salem, in November last to spend the remainder 
of his life among the scenes and friends of his youth ; 
since that time he has renewed his interest in the doings 
of the Institute and by his zeal and industry has largely 
contributed to its success. 

Rev. George W. Briggs moved that a committee be 
appointed to prepare resolutions and a memoir to be 
presented at some future meetings, accompanying the 
same with appropriate remarks. 

Francis Peabody, in seconding the motion, alluded prin- 
cipally to Mr. Ward's previous residence in Salem, his 
interest in the Institute and in all measures conducive to 
the intellectual and moral culture of his native place. 

Rev. George D. Wildes stated that his acquaintance 
with Mr Ward was recent, but during that time he had 
seen much of him both in his walks and in visits to his 
home, and bore testimony to his worth and character as a 
citizen and a friend. 

A. C. Goodell Jr. followed in remarks of a similar 
import and suggested that the committee consider the 
propriety of providing a portrait of Mr. Ward to be 
placed in the rooms of the Institute. 



l.X V 

The motion of Mr. Briggs, seconded by Mr. Peabody 
and amended by the suggestion of Mr. Goodell, was 
unanimously adopted, and Messrs. C. W. Upham, A. Hun- 
tington, A. C. Goodell Jr., G. W. Briggs and Francis 
Peabody were appointed on said committee. 

On motion of Mr. F. Peabody, Mr. C. W. Upham was 
appointed, in place of Mr. G-. A. Ward deceased, on the 
committee to which was referred the " consideration of 
the authenticity of the tradition that the frame of the old 
Building in rear of Boston street is that of the first 
meeting house in Salem." 

The committee on resolutions was authorized to call 
meetings whenever it may be prepared to report. 
Adjourned. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during July, August 
and September, 1864. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

Allen, J. A., of Springfield. 82 specimens, 9 species Reptiles from Spring 
field. 1 specimen Trout, young. 

Babcock, Amory L. , of Sherborn. (In exchange) Several fresh water 
Shells. Specimens of Gryllotalpa borealis and other Insects and Spiders, 
3 Jumping Mice, Embryos of Native Birds from Sherborn, Mass. Body of 
Little Ant-eater and several Nuts from Surinam. Fossil Coral from Kansas. 

Barden, Rev. Stillmax, of Rockport. Specimens of Pyrhoclose, Smoky 
Quartz, Pyrites, Fluorspar, &c, from Rockport. 

Bolles, Rev. Edwin C, of Portland, Me. 8 Specimens Helix hortensis 
from Broom Corn Island, Casco Bay. 3 valves of Pecten icelandicus, 4 
do. of Mytilus edulis, 3 do. of Saxicava distorta Say, 3 do. of Astarte 
laurentiana Lyell, from the Post Pliocene, Canal St., Portland, Me. 
8 Specimens of Macoma fusca, 4 do. Muscula antiqua Mighels. 11 do. 
Leda portlandica Hitchcock, from the Post Pliocene, Land Slide, West- 
brook, Me. 

Bowditch, Mrs. Rebecca. Specimen of Limax from Salem. 

Briggs, Mrs. Adalixe, of S. Danvers. 2 Specimens Attacus cecropia. 

Brown, Bexj. Fossil coral. 

Browx, Horace. Specimen A. cecropia. 

Byrxes, Clifford C. 2 specimens Slag. Iron found among coal. 

Carlex, Samuel. Brown Bat taken in Salem. 

9 



LXVI 

Chipman, R. Manning. Flowe,r3 of Linnsea borealis from Westford, Mass. 

Creamer, Mrs. F. M. Cones and twigs from the " Great Pine of Cali- 
fornia," also a string giving the exact circumferance of the tree from which 
they were taken. 

Derby, Mrs. M. A., of Auburndale. Deer's horns from Minnesota. 
Specimen of coral. 

Emerton, James H. 112 specimens, 44 species Insects, collected at the 
field meeting in East Saugus, June 13. 28 specimens Insects, 23 specimens 
2 species Ants, 1 larva of Cicindela from Salem. 58 specimens, 34 species 
Insects collected in Beverly. 132 specimens, 74 species Insects collected at 
the Gloucester field meeting. 

Emmerton, W. H. Specimen of Walking-stick, Bacunculus femoratus, from 
Salem. 

Farrington, Miss A. W. B. Specimen of Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

Flint, G. F. Specimens of Eudryas grata. 

Frost, Mrs. L. A. Clay from Talahama, Tenn. 

Goodell Jr., A. C. Nest of Wasps from Ipswich. 

Gkant, Henry. ■ Fossil Mollusks from Lake Champlain. 

Hall, Cai?t. W. H. 6 Starfishes and Embryo Whale from West Coast of 
Africa. 

Hammond, Capt. Joseph. Fishes, Crabs, Starfishes and Mollusks from 
Baker's Isle, South Pacific. Flying-fish, North Atlantic. Several Fishes, 
Crustaceans, &c, from off the coast. 

Hanaford, Mrs. P. A. Specimen of Chauliodes pectinicornis. 

Haskell, Joshua, of Marblehead. 5 specimens of Insects collected at 
the field meeting at Wenham Lake. 

Higbee, Charles H. 3 specimens of Solitary Bees and specimen of 
Attacus Promethea from Salem. 

Kimball, Mrs. Enoch F., of Wenham. Nest of Chimney Swallow. 

King, H. F. 4 specimens, 2 species Coleoptera from Gorham, N. H. 

Lake, Charles H , U. S. V. Specimens of Galena, Blende, Pyrites, Mica, 
Limestone, Tourmaline, Hematite and Fossils from the vicinity of Little Rock, 
Arkansas. 

Leatitt, Mrs. Larva of Cerura borealis from Lexington. 

Lee, John C. Humming Bird from "Worcester. 

Lefavor, Joseph. Specimen of Cicada pruinosa. 

Lewis, I. P. Large Pearl from a Quahaug. 

Lord, George R. Specimen of Monohamnius sp. 

Lowd, Mark. Nest and specimens of Hornets. 

Merchant, Addison, of Gloucester. Barnacles and Shells from Banks of 
Newfoundland. 

Nichols, H. P. 297 specimens, 148 species Insects, 2 malformed Hen's 
eggs, 40 specimens 8 species Salamanders, 20 specimens Fish, collected in 
Bethel, Vt. 73 specimens, 40 species Insects from Salem. 

Osgood, J. C. Nest and eggs of a Wren from Salem. 



LXVI'J 

Pabker, Chas. Specimen of Walking-stick, living female. 

Pease, W. H., of Honolulu, Sandwich Isls. 29 species of Land Shells 
from Tahiti. 71 species of Marine Shells from the Pacific Islands. Several 
specimens of each species, all named and several types of new species. 

Perkins, Henry W. Full grown larvae of Attacus cecropia. 

Putnam, F. W. 2 specimens of a large Aphis, with eggs and cast off skin 
from Salem. "Quartz, Pyrites with gold, from Rangely, Me. 49 specimens 
of Spiders from the northern parts of Maine. 

Putnam, Capt. W. H. A. Collection of over 500 specimens of Coral and 
several Shells from Singapore, E. I. 2 specimens Forficula. Several hundred 
Crustacea and several Fishes from soundings off the coast. 

Robinson, Asa P., Specimen of Nepa from Grafton Lake, Me. 

Robinson, John. 73 specimens, 50 species Insects from Salem. 

Russell, John W. Full grown larvae of Attacus cecropia. 

Safford, Joshua. Coal with -vein of Sulphuret of Iron. 

Savage, Miss. Specimen of Walking-stick, female with eggs, from Salem. 

Silsbee, William. Nest of Hornets with about 1000 specimens in differ- 
ent states of growth. 

Smith, Henry. Specimen of Prionus laticollis. 

Smith, LAwrence P. Specimen of Attacus cecropia. 

Stickney, M. A. Specimens of Pterogorgia and Plexura from the Cape 
Verd Islands. 

Stone, Frank. 85 specimens, 84 species Insects from Salem. Specimen 
of young Turtle from North Reading. 

Stone, Dr. Lincoln R., U. S. A., Gallipolis, Ohio. Specimen of Sphinx 
quinquemaculata from Gallipolis. 

Symonds, S. S. Specimens of Pelecinus sp. and Philampelus satellitia 
from Salem. 

Tracy, C. M., of Lynn. Specimen of Scolopendra sp. 

True, Joseph. 13 specimens, 4 species Hymenoptera from Salem. 

Watson, Frank. Specimen of Monohammus sp. from Salem. 

White, Geo. M. 60 specimens of a Beetle from Milkweed, Salem. 

Wilson, Miss Alice. Specimen of Cicada pruinosa from Salem. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Chamberlain, James. 2 Postage stamps, Cape of Good Hope and Victoria. 

Chipman, R. M. Grains of Corn from the grave of an Indian supposed 
to have been buried 400 years. 

Creamer, Geo. G. Piece of the Stone steps down which Gen. Putnam rode 
when pursued by the British during the Revolution, Greenwich, Conn. 

Felt, S. Q. Piece of Palmetto wood from the Rebel ram Merrimac. 

Hammond, Capt. Joseph. Model of Canoe and Dative Spear Sandwich Is. 

Putnam, Perlky, (Estate of) 3 Weapons from the Feejeo Islands. 



LXVIII 

Putnam VV. H. A. 10 cent Postage stamp of Netherlands India. 

Rantoul R. S. Netherland Copper Coins. 

Waters, R. Palmer, of N. Beverly. Helmet of a British soldier.- 

.Williams, . 4 shot, 2 fragments of shot and 1 fragment of Cannon 

from the old Ft. Pickering, Salem. 

TO THE LIBRARY. 

Adams, Sampson & Co, of Boston. N. Y. State Business Directory, 1 vol. 
8vo, New York, 1859. Fall River Directory, 1864, 1 vol. 16mo. Taunton 
Directory, 1864, 1 "vol. 16mo. Lawrence Directory, 1864, 1 vol. 16mo. 
Manchester Directory, 1864, 1 vol. 16mo. Charlestown Directory, 1864, 
1 vol. 16mo. 

Cloutman, Wm. R. Hoffman's Shopping Dialogues in Japanese, Dutch 
and English, 4to. London, 1861. Van Reed's collection of Phrases in 
English and Japanese, 1 vol. 8vo. 

Drowne, Charles, of Troy, N. Y. Annual Register of the Renssellaer 
Institute, 1864, 8vo, paniph. 

Foote, Caleb. Files of the County Papers for several months. 

Gibb3. J. W., of New Haven. Family Notices by W. Gibbs of Lexington, 
8vo, pamph. 1845. 

Hanaford, P. A., of Reading. Bible Society Record, nine numbers. 
Dwight's Open Converts, 1 vol. 16mo, New York, 1830. Stone, W. L., 
Matthias and his impostures, 1 vol. 16mo, New York, 1835. 22 Pamphlets, 
also several Newspapers. 

Hold en, N. J. Proceedings of Am. Anti-Slavery Society at its 3d decade. 
8vo, pamph. New York, 1864. 

Holmes, John C. 2d Annual Rep. of Secretary of Michigan State Board of 
Agriculture, 1 vol. 8vo. Lansing, 1863. Boston Daily Evening Traveller, 
for 1850, 2 vols, folio. 

Holmes, Thomas, (Estate of) Historie de France par Anquetil, 15 vols. 
16mo, Paris, 1822. Memoires pour Servir a 1' histoire de France sous 
Napoleon, Tom 1 — 6 ; Tom 2, notes — 7 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1823. Gourgaud's 
examen critique de 1' ouvrage de Segur, 1 vol. 8vo, Paris, 1825. Bonnycastle's 
Algebra, 1 vol. 12mo, Phil., 1806. Letellier Grammaire Francoise, 1 vol. 16mo, 
Tournay, 1816. Gilleland's Counting House Assistant, 1 vol. 12mo, Pitts- 
burg, 1815. Spanish Grammar by Jos. Giraldel Pino, 1 vol. 12mo, Phil., 
1795. Veneroni's Complete Italian Master, 1 vol. 12mo, London, 1791. 
Bonnefoux, Seances Nautiques, 1 vol. 8vo, Paris, 1827. Several Log Books. 
Pamphlets, &c. 

Klippart, J. H, Cor. Sect'y Ohio State Bd. of Agric. Ohio Agricultural 
Reports for 1853,1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 8 vols. 8vo. 

Mann, Miss Elizabeth N. Andover Advertiser, from 1857 to 1863 inch 
7 vols, folio. 

Manning, R. C. Cooper's Surgical Dictionary, 2 vols. 8vo, New York, 



LXIX 

1832. Ballou's Candid Review, 1 vol. 12mo. Orton's Discourses, 1 vol. 
12mo, Bostou, 1816. 14 Pamphlets. 

Morse, Edward S., of Gorhaoi, Me. Observations on the Terrestrial 
Pulmonifera of Maine, by E. S Morse, 8vo, painph., Portland, 1864. 

Mudge, B. F., of Quindaro/JKansas. 1st Cat. of Officers and Students of 
Kansas State Agric. College 8vo, pamph. 3d Ann. Rep. of Sup't. of Public 
Instruction of Kansas. 8vo, pamph. Cat. of Baker's University. The 
Rocks of Kansas, by Swallow and Haven, 8vo, pamph., St. Louis, 1858. 

Munsell, Joel, of Albany. Catalogue of Library of Philom. Soc. of 
Union College, 1863, pamph. Baker's Address to Chern. Soc of Union 
Coll. July, 1863. Annual Catalogue of Columbian Coll. 1862—3. Albany 
Female Academy Report of Exam. June, 1863. Twenty^five pamphlets. 

Nason, William A., of Chicago, 111. The Gulielmensian No. 8, May, 1864. 
The William's College Quarterly for June, 1864. 

Packard, A. S., of Brunswick, Me. Catalogus Collegii Bowdoinensis, 
MDCCCLXIV, 8vo, pamph. 

Packard Jr , A. S., of Bi-unswick, Me. Synopsis of the Bombycidse of 
U. S. A., by A. S. Packard Jr. 8vo, pamph. 

Parsons, G. Vi . "The Cartridge Box," printed at U. S. Army Hospital, 
York, Pa, 1864, several numbers. 

Phillips, Stephen H. Proceedings of National Union Convention at 
Baltimore, June, 1864. 

Putnam, Elbridge. The old Franklin Almanac for 1860—64 inclusive, 
8vo, pamph. 

Putnam, Mrs. Eben. Several Pamphlets. 

Putnam, Perley, (Estate of) Nouvel Abecedaire, 1 vol. 12mo, Phil., 
1811. Reuss on the trade between Great Britain and U. S. A., 1 vol. 8vo, 
London, 1833. Duane's Infantry Regulations, 1 vol. 8vo, Phil., 1813. Life 
of Moreau, 1 vol. 12mo, New York, 1806. Rawson's Military Duty, 1 vol. 
8vo, Dover, 1793. Hawney's Measurer, 1 vol. l2mo, Baltimore, 1813. 
Steuben's Regulations 1 vol. 12mo, Boston, 1802. Vose's Astronomy, 1 vol. 
8vo, Concord, 1827. Fisher's Military Tactics, 1 vol. 8vo, New York, 1805. 
Gray on the Revelations 1 vol. 12mo, Newburgh, 1818. Trial of Gen. St. 
Clair, Aug. 25, 1778, 1 vol. fol. Phil, 1778. History of Revolution in 
Fnnce, 1 vol. 8vo, Boston, 1794. 79 Pamphlets. 

Slocum, Eben. Cooper's Naval History, 2 vols. 8vo, Phil., 1810. Ditto 
continued to 1853, 1 vol. 8vo, New York ,1853. Browne's Whaling Cruise, 
1 vol. 8vo, New York, 1846. Frost's Naval Biography, 1 vol. 8vo, Phil., 
1844. 

Stone, Benj. W. Philadelphia Directory, for 1848, 1S55, 1859, 1860, 
1861, 1862, 6 vols. 8vo. 

Swett, John, of San Francisco. 1st An. Rep. of Sup't. of Pub. Instruction 
of California, 8vo, pamph. Sacramento, 1863. 

Symonds, Edward. Several Almanacs. 



Tittle, Miss 8. J., of Beverly. 11^ Pamphlets. 

Irask, Amos. Moore's Navigation Improved, 8to, pamph. Salem, 1S15. 

Tuckee, Col. James T., U. S. Volunteers. Journal and Proceedings of a 
Convention for a Revision of the Constitution of Louisiana, 8vo, pamph. 
New Orleans. 1864. 

Tuckee, Jonathan. Opening Address by the President at Illinois State 
Agrie. Soc Fair at Decatur, 1864, Svo pamph. 

Tuckee, William P., of Portland, Me. Catalogus Collegii Bowdoinensis, 
MDCCCLXIV, Svo, pamph. 

United States, Department of State. Diplomatic Correspondence, 1863, 
2 vols. Svo, Washington, 1864. 

Wade, Misses, of Ipswich. Prisbie's Oration on Restoration of Peace, in 
1788, Svo, pamph. Dana 's Eulogy on Washington, 1800, Svo, pamph. 

Waed, Chaeles. Journal of Commerce Jr. for several months. Essex 
Statesman vol. 1 fol. Salem, 1868 — 4. 

Waed, Geoege A. The Giles Memorial by John A. Vinton, 1 vol. 8vo, 
Boston, 1864. 

Waters, J. Linion, of Chicago. Annual Statement of Receipts -and 
Expend, of Chicago, from Apr. 1, 1863 to Apr. 1 1864, Svo, pamph. Cata- 
logue of Library of Chicago Young Men's Association, Svo pamph. Chicago, 
1856, ditto 1S59. Chicago Revised Charter, Svo, pamph. 1863. 30 Pamphlets. 
Wightmax, W. J., of Reading. 11 School and other Reports of Reading. 

BY EXCHANGE 

American Antiquarian' Society. Lincoln's Address on C. C Baldwin, 
Svo, pamph. Jenks' Address Oct. 23, 1813, 8vo, pamph. Proceedings at 
Meeting April 1, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, vol. lx, No. 71. 

Canadian Institcie. The Canadian Journal for July, 1864, 

Editors. Historical Magazine, for July, Aug., and Sept, 1864. 

Iowa State Historical Society. The Annals of Iowa for July, 1864, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Long Island Historical Society. 1st An. Rep. of Directors, Librarian, 
&c, May, 1854, Svo. pamph. 

Montreal Society of Natural History. Canadian Naturalist and 
Geologist, for Feb., Apr , June and Aug., 1864. 

New Jersey Historical Society. Proceedings vol. rx, No. 6, Svo, pamph. 

New York Lyceum or Natural History. Annals vol. vn, Nos. 13 — 16. 
Vol. vni, No. 1. 

New Yobk Mercantile Libraey Association. 48d Annual Report, July, 
1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science. Proceedings for May, June, 
July and August, 1864. 



LXXI 

Portland Society of Natural History. Proceedings, vol. 1, pages 97 to 
128 incl. 

Publishers. North American Review for July, 1864. 

Quebec Literary and Philosophical Society. Transactions, New Se- 
ries, vol. i, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Wilmington (Del.) Institute. Annual Report April, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Monday, October 10. Evening meeting. 

The President, A. Huntington, in the chair. 

Becords of previous meeting read and donations to the 
Museum and Library were announced. 
Letters were read from the following : 

Chas. H. Lake, of Little Rock, Arkansas; J. A. Allen, of Springfield; W. 
H. Dall, of Marquette Co. Mich., relating to donations of specimens: J. H. 
Hickcox, of the New York State Libraiy, Albany ; S. J. Young, Librarian 
of Bowdoiu College ; Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, Phil- 
adelphia, relating to exchanges of publications : Prof. S. F. Baird ; J. H. 
Thompson, of New Bedford ; Sam'l Clarke, of Milwaukee, Wis., relating to 
the Naturalists'' Directory : Miss Lucy Treadwell, of Salem ; Miss A. L 
-Coffin, of Newbury ; J. E. Oliver, of Lynn ; J. W. Young, of Worcester ; S. 
Tenney, of Cambridge ; James Lewis, of Mohawk, N. Y. ; Rev. E. C. Bolles, 
of Portland, on business matters : A. L. Babcock, of Sherborn ; Dr. A. S. 
Packard Jr., of Brunswick, Me. ; Theo. Gill, of Washington ; W. Hoxie, 
of Newburyport, relating to exchange of specimens. 

Albert B. Russell, and Miss Lucy Treadwell, of Salem, 
and Theodore Attwill, of Lynn, having been nominated 
at a previous meeting were elected Resident Members. 

Mr. Putnam communicated a paper from Mr. Alpheus 
Hyatt Jr., entitled " Remarks on the Polyzoa of New Eng- 
land " In this paper, which was referred to the committee 
on publication, Mr. Hyatt describes and figures several 
new species of Cristatella and JPlumatella from Cambridge, 
Mass., and Norway, Me. For these species he proposes 
the names of C. qpkidioidea, P. hyalina and P. pennisseioas- 
seensis. Mr. Hyatt also describes the anatomy of the 
genera Cristatella and Peetinatella and discusses their 
relations, as naked Polyzoa, to the remaining genera of 
the sub-order Lophopea. 



LXXJ1 

It was voted that meetings be held on the second and 
fourth Monday evenings of each month until otherwise 
ordered, and that all persons interested be invited to attend. 

The President, from a committee appointed at the last 
meeting, reported that the Hon. C. W. Upham had con- 
sented to prepare a memoir of Mr. Ward, and was desirous 
of receiving any contribution that would aid in its prep- 
aration. After a few additional remarks, in which he 
stated that Mr. Ward was born at Salem, March 29, 1793, 
and died at Salem on Thursday evening, September 22, 
1864, he submitted the following resolutions : 

Resolved, that the members of this Institute received 
with deep and unaffected soitoav intelligence of the recent 
and very sudden death of our friend and associate, George 
Atkinson Ward ; and desire, by these proceedings, to ex- 
press our high appreciation of his character and worth as 
a man and citizen, and our very great respect for his 
memory. As one of the original and prominent founders 
of the Essex Historical Society, in Avhose behalf he early 
enlisted with all his accustomed energy and enthusiasm, 
and to whose interests he was strongly committed, and as 
the last survivor of the founders of that institution, since 
merged in our body, it is especially fit and becoming, that 
Ave avIio have thus entered into these his early labors, 
should mark, with suitable testimonials of regard and 
respect, the event of his death, so sudden and startling to 
his friends and to this community, and so much deplored 
by us all. Descended from one of the most ancient and 
honored families of Salem, he was always ready and pre- 
pared, by his accurate and full knoAvledge of her annals 
from the earliest days of the Colony, to vindicate her 
character and good name ; and Avhether at home or abroad, 
he Avas ever steadfast to the traditions, memories, and 
principles of the place of his birth. EncloAved with the 
most genial qualities, with high executive ability, and 
with large practical and business capacities, he early 
sought a fitting sphere for their exercise and developement 
in the commercial metropolis of the country; and after 
walking in the high places of commercial life for more than 



Lxxur 

thirty years, with varying fortunes and success, but always 
with honor and integrity, never too busy to foster and cul- 
tivate the studies aud tastes of his earlier life, or to 
engage in those works, which in all communities are 
required and expected at the hands of men of public 
spirit, and enlarged views, he came back here, but little 
less than one year ago, to a new generation — to die in his 
native and beloved town, and to be here gathered to his 
kindred and fathers. Although suifering from disease 
and infirmity he was still the same genial companionable 
and enthusiastic man as ever, in all good words and works, 
and betook himself at once, with all the zeal of his youth, 
to the care, culture and growth ot this child of his earlier 
days, as one of the departments and functions of the 
Institute. How he labored to extend its means and use- 
fullness, and to enlarge its boundaries ; and how he com- 
mended it to the regards, support and encouragement of 
our people we are all this day his witnesses. He had 
performed the same work on a larger scale, many years 
ago, for the Historical Society of New York, by present- 
ing with great attractiveness, and in his fervent and 
glowing manner, its objects and labors to the culture and 
wealth of that city, thus greatly augmenting its means, 
and largely aiding it in entering on that career of useful- 
ness and renown for which it has since been so much 
distinguished. The hand of our friend and associate was 
strongly in that earlier work of revival $nd reconstruction ; 
and it was only in renewal of similar labors, years before, 
in the formation of the Essex Historical Society. It is an 
affecting incident, that his very last days and thoughts 
were employed in preparing illustrative memorials of the 
first meeting house of the First Church in Salem (and the 
first Congregational Church founded on the Western Con- 
tinent,) the frame of which is now being reerected and 
covered for preservation on the grounds of the Salem 
Athenaeum, in the rear of Plummer Hall, under the direc- 
tion of a committee of the Institute, a work which he had 
undertaken, as a labor of love, and in which he was 
engaged at the very moment of the fatal attack. 

Resolved, That a man of a character so strongly marked 
as that of our deceased friend, and who has so impressed 

10 



LXXIV 

himself in various ways and degrees of usefulness on his 
day and generation, deserves to be held in honored 
remembrance ; and we are happy to have it reported to 
us this evening, that the work of preparing a fitting and 
just memorial of his life, and character, is entrusted to 
entirely competent hands, and that in due time, it will be 
ready for publication in our Historical Collections. 

Resolved, That these Resolutions be entered at length 
on our records, in perpetual remembrance of the respect 
we bear for the memory of our deceased associate and 
friend, and of our grief at his death ; and that an attested 
copy thereof be transmitted by the Secretary to the 
nearest relatives of Mr. Ward. 

The acceptance of the resolutions was moved by Rev. 
G. D. Wildes and seconded by Prof. A. Crosby, and they 
were unanimously adopted. 

Monday, October 24. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 
Letters were read from — 

Maine Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications : Prof. 
S. F. Baird, of Washington, relating to the " Naturalist's Directory": H. L. 
Ordway, of Ipswich, on the habits of the Canker worm : Albert B. Russell 
and Theodore Atwill, 01 Lynn, accepting membership: Department of the 
Interior, Washington, giving notice of the transmission of books : A. L. 
Babcock, of Sherborn, relating to exchange of specimens : Dr. A. S. Pack- 
ard Jr., of Brunswick, Me ; John W. Young, of Worcester ; Miss Mary H. 
Coffin, of Newburyport ; S. Lincoln, of Boston ; S. J. Young, Librarian of 
Bowdoin College ; Joseph Willard, of Boston ; Wm. A. Smith, of Worcester, 
on business matters : James C. Ward, of Northampton, in reply to a com- 
munication containing the resolutions in memory of his father, the late 
G. A. Ward, Esq. 

F. W. Putnam exhibited a skeleton of a Green Turtle, 
which had been prepared from a specimen lately presented 
by Francis Peabody, Esq., and explained the various parts 
of the skeleton, comparing it with that of a bird. He also 
spoke of the different sub-orders and families of Turtles as 



LXXV 

characterized by the skeleton, and exhibited a skeleton of 
the Chelys Matamata from the Amazon, which had been 
in the possession of the Institute for nearly thirty years, 
but had only recently been prepared for exhibition. 

The Secretary presented, in the name of the Heirs of 
the late Perley Putnam, an autograph letter of General 
Lafayette, accepting the invitation to visit Salem in 1824, 
and made some remarks on the visit of Lafayette to this 
country in 1824 — 25. 

The request of the " Picture Committee " of the National 
Sailor's Fair, for the loan of the portraits of John Rogers, 
Andrew LeMercier, Samuel Sewall, William Pinchon, Sam- 
uel Cooper, Benjamin Colman, Thomas Prince and Edward 
Holyoke, was referred to the Board of Directors. 

Wednesday, Novembee 9. Stated meeting. 
Yice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
P. W. Putnam proposed several amendments to the By- 
laws, which were adopted. 

Solomon Lincoln Jr., of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. Edward S. Morse of Gorham, Me., and Edwin C. 
Bolles of Portland, Me., having been nominated by the 
Directors, were elected Corresponding members. 

Monday, November 14. Evening meeting. 
Vice President, A. C. Goodell Jr., in the chair. 
Letters were read from the following : 

Minnesota Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications : 
Major Albert Ordway, 24th Mass. Infantry ; Lt. John S. Allanson, 1st New- 
York Engineers ; Alex. Agassiz, of the Museum of Comp. Zoology ; Alpheus 
Hyatt, of Cambridge, relating to the transmission of specimens : James C. 
Ward, of Northampton ; E. M. Stone, of Providence, R. I., relating to the 
transmission of books : Prof. A. S. Packard, of Brunswick, Me.; J. S. Lewis, 
of Batavia, N. Y.; E. S. Morse, of Gorham, Me.; S. I. Smith, of Norway, 
Me., in relation to the publications. 

F. W. Putnam read a communication from J. A. Allen of 



LXXVI 

Springfield, entitled " Notes on the habits and distribution 
of the Duck Hawk, or American Peregrine Falcon, in its 
breeding season, and description of its eggs," which was 
referred to the Committee on Publications. 

Mr. Putnam presented, in the name of Bev. E. C. Bolles, 
of Portland, a collection of land and fresh water shells 
from Maine and New York. 

Mr Bolles, who was present by invitation, being called 
upon, remarked that he felt like little more than a beginner 
in this department of conchology. He had been attract- 
ed to the study by the examination of the lingual ribbons 
of the land mollusks, organs remarkable for their beauty 
and regular structure, and exhibiting under the micros- 
cope fine specific characters. As yet there are but a few 
American students of these shells. In general, people are 
ignorant of the riches scattered about them in every forest 
and on every hill side. A snail is only a snail to almost 
everybody, and the common belief is that there is only 
one species and that unworthy of a serious man's attention. 
In Maine from which most of these specimens were 
brought, there are fifty species of land and fifty-four of 
fresh water mollusks. Most of these are forms peculiar to 
N. America. One, the Achatina lubrica is a cosmopolite, 
the same in both hemispheres, on islands and on 
continents. Some are analogues of foreign shells, — 
not facsimiles, but built on the same general plan. A few 
were evidently imported — carried by the accidents of 
commerce, as vermin and weeds have been, to make the 
grand tour of the globe. The islands of the Maine coast 
were early colonized. Sometimes old coins and carved 
stones are discovered there. There is another proof of 
European visits. The common snails of England still 
retain their rights of squatter sovereignty upon the soil. 
These shells have never been found far inland. They 
testify like the weeds which follow the pioneer to the 
great tide of nature's migration. 



LXXVII 

These specimens show us another great law of nature. 
Dissimilar as they are, all their differences lay in simple 
modifications of a simple type or plan. Beginning with 
Vitrina there is a loose transparent whorl of organized 
lime to protect the viscera of the mollusk. Through the 
flattened Helices to the turretted Achatina this whorl is 
twisted more or less closely, sculptured or plain, tinted or 
blanched, elevated or depressed, but in all cases repro- 
ducing the original plan in its structure. The animal ex- 
hibited the same fact. Animal and shell must be studied 
together. Here we begin to realize with what economy 
the Divine Wisdom worked. Out of a few simple sub- 
stances and by touches of change almost microscopic in 
their minuteness the living vesture of the globe is made 
so various in its beauty and exhaustless in its forms. 

The study of the anatomy of these mollusks is ren- 
dered somewhat difficult by the softness of their bodies. 
The most wonderful organ is the tongue or lingual 
membrane, — a rasp by which the creature secures its food. 
Each tooth of this rasp seems formed of the clearest 
glass. In some species there are over two thousand of 
these teeth upon the lingual organs. Under the micro- 
scope and especially by polarized light they form beautiful 
objects for examination. Mr. E. S. Morse, to whom the 
Natural History of Maine owes so much, has studied this 
matter scientifically and with fine results. 

In short — Nature at our side everywhere offers us the 
choicest encouragement, whatever our particular tastes. 
The land repeats the wonders of the sea, and any associa- 
tion, like the Essex Institute, to study the lessons of both, 
is an association for mutual enjoyment, education and re- 
finement in the knowledge of the great Creator. 

The donations to the Library and Museum, received 
since the last meeting, were announced. 

Charles Babbidge, of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. 



LXXVIII 

Monday, November 24. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 
Letters were read from the following : 

Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, Me.; Solomon Lincoln Jr., and Charles 
Babbidge, accepting Membership : A. S. Peabody, of Cape Town, Africa ; 
C. H. Jones, of Sun Prairie, Wise, relating to the transmission of specimens : 
A. R. Burton, of Littleton, N. H. ; William Muir, of Fox Creek, Mo., relating 
to exchanges : Rev. James Hubbert, of Toronto, C. W. ; Prof. A. E. Verrill, 
of Cambridge ; Charles W. Felt ; Robert Hamlin, of Bennington, Vt., on 
business matters. 

F. W. Putnam read letters from George C. Huntington, 
of Kelly's Island, Ohio, giving an account of the " Red 
bug " of that Island, specimens of which were presented 
to the Institute by Mr. Huntington. Mr. H. stated that 
the insect was, as far as he could learn, found only on 
Kelly's Island. It is called the "Red bug" on account 
of its bright crimson color when living. It is so minute 
as to be hardly visible to the naked eye, and from its habit 
of penetrating beneath the skin, at the elbow joint, under 
the arms and other tender places, is very annoying to per- 
sons of delicate skin, especially to women and children ; 
of late years however, it has been discovered that alcohol 
applied to the part affected will kill the insect and allay 
the eruption caused by it. Whence this insect comes, 
or where it goes, is still a mystery. They do not 
propagate while under the skin. In many of its habits it 
is similar to the "Jigger" of the Southern States, and it 
is thought by most persons to be the same insect, but by 
its size and structure this is at once disproved. Mr Put- 
nam thought that the insect was allied to the Louse 
(Pediculus) and, as far as he could ascertain, it was as yet 
undescribed. 

William P. Upham- presented in behalf of Mrs. Martha 
Lee late of Manchester, an old Journal kept by Benjamin 
Craft during the siege of Louisburg in 1745, with letters 



LXXIX 

written by him at that time ; also a Journal kept by 
Eleazer Craft in the Revolutionary war, at the period of 
the surrender of Burgoyne, Avhich was presented by Mrs. 
A. H. Trask of Manchester. 

After some remarks upon the subject by A. C. Goodell 
Jr., and Rev. G. D. Wildes, the communication was refer- 
red to the Committee for publication in the Historical 
Collections. 

The Secretary presented in the name of S. H. Phillips, 
a portrait of President William H. Harrison, painted by 
Abel Nichols Jr., of Danvers, who visited North Bend on 
the Ohio, for this purpose, during the Presidential cam- 
paign of 1840. 

The chair made some remarks upon the events connec- 
ted with this campaign, and mentioned several incidents 
illustrative of the character of the late President. 

Two very handsome and large specimens of sponge col- 
lected from the piers of Beverly bridge, in the channel of 
the river, at about ten feet below low water mark, were 
presented by Rev. A. B. Rich of Beverly, who stated that 
these specimens exhibited, in his opinion, the two ex- 
tremes of the species, as he had other specimens in his 
collection from the same locality, having intermediate 
forms. 

Mr Putnam spoke of the structure of sponges and the 
various opinions of Naturalists as to their proper af- 
finities, some holding them to be plants and others the 
lowest form of animal life ; to the latter opinion he was 
strongly inclined. 

R. S. Rantoul stated that the War Department had 
caused surveys to be made for one or two new forts, 
within the limits of our County. One of these is at Bev- 
erly and is intended as a part of the defence of Salem 
Harbor ; for this fort the name of " Hale " would be ap- 
propriate, in honor of Coh Robert Hale, a distinguished 



LXXX 

citizen of Beverly, in the last century ; and if the other 
should be located in Ipswich, it might be designated 
" Fort Dennison," in respect to the memory of Col. John 
Dennison, formerly one of the most noted personages in 
that section of the county. On Mr. Rantoul's motion a 
committee, consisting of Messrs. Davis, Rich and Tuck, 
all of Beverly, was appointed to confer with other parties 
in relation to the naming of the proposed forts, should 
they be erected. 

Mr. Rantoul called attention to the large number of val- 
uable manuscripts that were daily sent to the paper mills, 
and trusted that all present would endeavor to rescue as 
many old papers as possible and have them placed on file 
at the Institute. 

A. C. Goodell Jr., followed Mr. Rantoul, and hoped that 
all the friends of antiquarian research would endeavor to 
save the old manuscripts, books, papers, &c, especially 
those of the Ante-Revolutionary period, from the collec- 
tors of such articles for the paper manufactories. 

G. D. Phippen mentioned that during the past season 
Mr. C. W. Felt had removed his establishment for the man- 
ufacture of the Type-setting and Justifying machine to 
this city. Much interest having been expressed in this 
machine, which bids fair to change the present mode of 
composition in the printing office, Mr. Phippen' moved 
that a committee be appointed to invite Mr. Felt or his 
associates to give an account of the machine at some fu- 
ture meeting of the Institute ; Messrs. Huntington, Phip- 
pen, Goodell and Kimball were appointed on said com- 
mittee. 

James Talant of Concord, N. H., and James Hubbert 
of Toronto, C. W., having been nominated by the Direc- 
tors, were duly elected Corresponding Members. 



LXXXI 

Wednesday, December 7. Special meeting. 
The President in the chair. 

The chair announced that the object of the meeting was 
to listen to an explanation of the Type-Setting, Justi lying 
and Distributing Machine invented by C. W. Felt of this 
city, and now in the course of construction at the manu- 
factory on Bridge street. After some general remarks 
appertaining to the subject, a general explanation of the 
machine, and of the purpose of its various parts, and their 
mode of operation was given by Mr. Win. G. Choate, and a 
more detailed description of particular parts of the machine 
by Mr. John B. Richards, and remarks were made in regard 
to the invention by Mr. A. C. Goodell, Jr., and Mr. James 
Kimball. 

This machine, as its name imports, sets and justifies type, 
and also distributes. The setting is done by the manipula- 
tion of a key board. There are thirty-seven keys for 
setting the type, one for each letter and character of some 
one alphabet, or size of type. While other keys touched 
with the keys of the several letters, turn the letters into 
any required alphabet, or size of type. Thus there is an 
italic key, and a capital key, which touched with the key 
of any letter, turn that letter into a capital or an italic, 
&c. The mechanism is so arranged as to keep pace 
with the most rapid compositor. Consequently if the 
manipulation of a key board is the quickest method of 
communicating motion intelligently to mechanism, as is 
believed, then this machine will enable a compositor to 
set types as fast as in the nature of things it can be done. 
Some idea may be formed of the rapidity with which the 
machine may be operated from the example of printing 
telegraphic machines which are operated by a similar key 
board. Rapid operators can compose on these at the 
rate of 7500 ems an hour, which is seven and a half times 
11 



LXXXII 

as fast as a rapid compositor can set types by the old 
method. By the use of a certain series of combined 
letters, cast in single type, which Mr. Felt has invented 
and which are used in the machine, there will be a further 
gain of about one-third, thus bringing the capacity of the 
machine nearly if not quite up to 10,000 ems an hour in 
the hands of a quick and skillful operator. Besides setting 
the type, this machine spaces and justifies the line, as 
well, or even better than can be done by hand and also 
leads the matter. The operation of justifying which print- 
ers have usually pronounced impossible for machinery to 
accomplish, and which no other type setting machine 
does or attempts to do, is performed by the machine 
automatically, all that the operator does, being to touch a 
key when his line is full, which transfers the line into the 
justifying apparatus and puts it in motion. Nor does the 
justification take the time of the operator. It is performed 
while he is setting the next line. 

Attached to the machine is a register as it is called, 
which makes a complete record of all the operations of the 
machine by punching holes in a strip of paper. The use 
of the register is in resetting and distributing the matter. 
These strips of paper being placed in the machine, and the 
machine set in motion, it will automatically set and justify 
the same matter in the same or a different type at any 
future time. This will obviate the necessity and save the 
expe»se of sterotyping books. The distribution is also 
automatically performed by means of the register, or it 
may be effected by the key board, or by nicks in the type. 

Besides this machine Mr. Felt has invented several very 
simple and ingenious applications of the principles of 
the machine to setting type by hand which will be of 
great value, especially in small offices, where the large 
machines will not be required. 

On motion of James Kimball it was voted — That the 



LXXX1II 

thanks of the Institute be presented to Messrs. Choate and 
Richards for their interesting and instructive remarks 
and explanations of the machine. 

Monday, December 12. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair 
Letters were announced from : 

New Hampshire Historical Society ; Maine Historical Society ; Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications : A. L. 
Babcock, of Sherborn and A. B. Burton, of Bethleham, N. PL, relating to 
exchange of specimens : Dr. Wm. Wood, President of the Portland Society of 
Natural History ; Lt. J. S. Allanson, 1st New York Engineers ; Prof. S. F. 
Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, on business : Rev. Joseph Banvard, 
of the Worcester Society of Natural History ; Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, 
Me.; Prof. A. E. Verrill, of Norway, Me.; J. A. Allen, of Cambridge ; W. 
H. Dall, of Chicago, 111., relating to the publications. 

F. W. Putnam read a letter from William Hoxie, of 
Newburyport, in which Mr. Hoxie stated that he had 
found the following birds breeding in Byfield Parish 
during the past season — Scolecophagus ferrugineus Sw. 
(Rusty Blackbird), Myiodioctes canadensis Aud. (Canada 
Fly-catcher) and Antrostomus vociferics Bonap. (Whip- 
poor-will). 

George D. Wildes read a memoir of the late Captain 
William Nichols^ of Newburyport, a noted Privateersman 
during the war of 1812 and one of the most enterprising 
and daring navigators of that period. 

On motion of Mr. Goodell the thanks of the Institute 
were tendered to Mr. Wildes for his interesting communi- 
cation, and a copy was requested for publication in the 
Historical Collections. 

Mr. Putnam mentioned that in a collection of Reptiles 
received from J. A. Allen, of Springfield during the past 
season, there was a specimen of the Celuta arnoena B. & G. 
(Worm Snake). Mr. Allen had for several years past 
been confident that he had seen this species near Spring- 



LXXXIV 

field, but had never been able to secure a specimen be- 
fore. The only notice of this snake having been found 
in New England is by Dr. Storer who states, in his 
" Report on the Reptiles of Massachusetts/"'' that a single 
specimen was collected by Professor Adams in Amherst, 
Massachusetts. Several authors having doubted the iden- 
tification of Storer's specimen, the present one from Mr. 
Allen places the species beyond doubt in the Massachu- 
setts fauna. Several specimens of Heterodon platyrliinos 
Latr. (Hog-nosed Snake, or Blowing Viper) were also in 
the collection received from Mr. Allen. 

Mr. Putnam made some remarks upon the nest of a 
mouse found in a barberry bush, near Swarnpscott. and 
presented by Edward J. Porter. 

A. C. Goodell Jr. mentioned that the course of Lectures 
on Insects, their habits and structure, b} 7 " F. TV. Putnam, 
would be delivered under the auspices of the Institute as 
soon as the necessary number of tickets were subscribed 
for. 

Donations to the museum and library were announced. 

TV. P. Martin, W. R. Cloutman and E. S. Attwood, of 
Salem, were duly elected Resident Members. 

Monday, December 24. Evening meeting. 
The President in the chair. 
Letters were read from: 

Messrs. Silliman & Dana, of Xew Haven, Conn.; T. A. Cheney, of Havana, 
N. Y., relating to an exchange of publications : Asst. Surgeon A. S. Packard, 
jr., 1st Maine Infantry ; Alpheus Hyatt, jr., of Cambridge; James G.Ar- 
nold, Librarian, Worcester Nat. Hist. Soc, in relation to the publications : 
Edwin Harrison, of Irondale, Mo.; Albert G. Browne, Treasury Department, 
Beaufort, S. C, relating to the transmission of specimens; G. F. Matthew, of 
St John, X. B.; G. W. Tryon, jr., of Philadelphia, relating to the Natural- 
ists' Directory : Prof. L. Agassiz, Director of Museum, Comp. Zoology ; W. Bar- 
ry, Sect'y Chicago Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publica- 
tions: Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, Me.; W. A. Xason, of Chicago, 111.: W. 



LXXXV 

H. Dall, of Chicago, 111.; B. 0. Peirce, of Beverly; 11. Kennicott, Sect'y, Chi- 
cago Acad. Nat. Science ; Dr. J. Bernard Gilpin, of Halifax, N. S.; W. A. 
Smith, of Worcester; N. Paine, of Worcester, on general business. 

F. W. Putnam read a communication from D. M. Balcb, 
" On Native Grapes.'"' In this paper Mr. Balch gives the 
results of his analyses of the following varieties of grapes 
grown in this vicinity, viz : the Delaware, Hartford Pro- 
lific, Concord, Adirondac, Allen's Hybrid, Union Village, 
Clinton, Alvey (Hagar), Franklin, Rogers' Hybrids Nos. 1, 
3, 4, 9, 15, 19, 22, 30, 33, and 41. 

From these analyses, native grapes would seem to be 
divided into three classes : 1st, those in which the propor- 
tion of acid and sugar are well balanced, as the Delaware, 
Rogers' Nos. 4 and 15, Allen's Hybrid, &c; these should 
make good wine. 2d, those in which the acid is deficient, 
as in the Adirondac, Hartford, &c. 3d, those in which 
the great excess of acid overpowers all else, and renders 
the fruit nearly uneatable ; such are the Clinton, Franklin, 
etc. The paper also contained several important practical 
remarks upon the culture of the grape in our climate. On 
motion of Mr. Putnam the communication was referred 
to the Publication Committee. 

Mr. Putnam stated that, since the last meeting, he had 
ascertained that Mr. Samuels, in his report on the Mammals 
of Mass., mentioned that the White-footed, or Deer Mouse, 
Hesperomys leucopus, builds its nest in bushes, and he 
therefore presumes that the nest presented at the last 
meeting by E. J. Porter, was that of this species of mouse. 
In reply to a question from the chair, Mr. Putnam gave 
a brief account of the winter nests of the Musk Rats. 

Charles Davis, in behalf of the committee appointed at 
a previous meeting, submitted a report containing the rec- 
ommendation of the Selectmen of Beverly, that the Fort 
which the Government proposed to erect in Beverly, be 
called Fort Hale, in memory of Col. Robert Hale, formerly 
of Beverly, which was adopted. 



LXXXVI 

Mr. Davis exhibited a fragment of the shell fired from the 
"Alabama" into the " Kearsarge," and which wounded three 
men on board the latter steamer ; also the only piece of the 
" Alabama" remaining above water, and which was taken 
from the leg of one of the crew of the " Alabama" by Sur- 
geon's Steward G-. A. Tittle of the " Kearsarge," a citizen 
of Beverly. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

James P. Kimball, of New York and Felipe Poey, of Ha- 
vana, Cuba, having been nominated by the Directors were 
elected Corresponding Members. 

Miss Susan T. Boynton, of Lynn and Henry W. Putnam, 
of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 



Additions to the Museum and Library during October, 
November, and December, 1864. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

BY DONATION. 

Allanson, Lieut J. S., 1st. N. Y. Engineers. Lignite from the Dutch 
Gap Canal. 

Barker, George. Skin of a Coot from Lake Cupsuptic, Me. 

Barrett, — Miss, of South Danvers. Salamander, Hair Worms, 

and two Insects from South Danvers. 

Bolles, Rev. Edwin C, of Portland, Me. 44 specimens, 25 species of 
Insects and Spiders from Portland, Me., and Mohawk, N. Y. 43 species 
of New England Land and Fresh water Shells. 

Brown Jr., Benj. 12 specimens, 11 species native Insects. 

Brown, Daniel. Fresh specimen of Blue Heron, Ardea herodias 
Linn. 

Dall, W. H., of Chicago. 9 specimens of Reptiles from the vicinity 
of Lake Goodwin, Marquette Co., Mich. 

Day, Albert. Specimen of Scorpion. 

Ejierton, James H. 87 specimens of native Insects. 

Emmerton, Ephraim. A Lizard enclosed in copal. 

Emmerton, W. H. Specimen of Sphinx taken in Salem. 

Hale, Henry. Specimen of Blue Sulpburefof Iron, from which me- 
talic paint is made. 



LXXXVII 

Harrison, Edwin, of Iroudale, Mo. Specimen of the Walking Fern, 
Camptosarus rhizophyllus from Irondale, Mo. 

Haskell, Joshua P., of Marblehead. Cases of Worms resembling the 
shells of helix from Wenhani Pond. 46 species of native Shells. 

Heath, John. A Birds' nest from Marlboro, Mass. 

Horton, N. A. A specimen of very thin veneer. 

Ives, John M. Fresh specimen of Bittern, Bolaurus lentiyinosus . 

Jillson, S.j of Feltonville. Part of a skeleton of a Bald Eagle. 

Jones, C. H., of San Prairie, Dane Co., Wise. A collection of 130 
Fishes from Madison 4th Lake, Wise. 

Kimball, Ed. D. Crown Crane, Balearica pavonina, from W. Africa. 

Lake. Chas. H. , Mass Vols. A ' ' Green Rose" from Little Rock, Ark. 

Lander, Miss E. R. Specimen of Lead from West Hampton, Mass. 

Larrabee, E. L. 4 specimens of the Silver-side, Atherina notata 
captured under Beverly Bridge. 

Lefavor, Joseph. Fresh specimen of a Woodchuck found in Salem. 

Maloon, Wm. Hornets' nest. 

Museum of Compartive Zoology, Cambridge. 40 Specimens, 30 species 
of Fishes from Singapore, collected by Capt. W. H. A. Putnam. 

•Nelson, Sylvanus, of Georgetown, Mass. Fossils from Rock river, 
N. Y. 

Norris, Chas. H. Mud Turtle, Chelydra serpentina, from Salem. 

Osgood, Capt. Charles. Eggs of Pyrula from Coast of Brazil. 

Osgood, John C. Specimen of Crystalized Salt from Atlantic Salt 
Company's Works, Bay City, Michigan. 

Peabodv, A. S.j of Cape Town, Africa. 2 specimens of Callorhynchus 
antarctica from South Africa. 

Peabody, Francis. Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas. 

Phippen, G. D. 12 specimens, 4 species Insects from Salem. 

Porter, Ed. J. Nest of the White-footed Mouse, Hesperomys leucopus, 
found in a barberry bush in Swampscott. 

Putnam, Chas. A. 6 specimens of Frost Fish Morrhua pruinosa, from 
North River. 30 specimens of Unio complanatus from Spring Pond. 

Putnam. F. W. Eggs of the Sheldrake, Merganser, and Black Duck, 
from Oxford Co., Me. 

Rich, Rev. A. B., of Beverly. Two large and handsome specimens of 
Sponge from the piers of Beverly Bridge. 

Safford, Joshua. Ore from the Hecksher Coal Mine. 

Samuels, E. A., of Boston. Egg of Fish Hawk, Pandion carolinensis 
Bonap., from Maine. 

Sanborn, Francis G., of Boston. 227 specimens, 69 species of Spiders 
collected in Massachusetts. 

Shute, James G., of Woburn. 73 specimens, 14 species of Insects from 
Newbern, N. C. 



J 



\/ 



lxxxvjii 

Todd, Mrs. John E. A. Native Silver froin Copiapo, Chilli. 

Tracv, C. M., of Lynn. 2 specimens of Desmocerus palliatus, male 
and female. Butcher Bird. Collyrio borealis, from Lynn. 

Wheatland, Henry. Skull of a Musk Deer. Collection of Flower 
seeds from California . 

Wheatland, Capt. Richard. Specimen of Tobacco grown in Salem. 

BY EXCHANGE. 

Babcock, Amort L., of Sherborn, Mass. 45 Skulls, mostly of native 
birds. Part of skeleton of a Cannibal fish from Surinam. Several 
Minerals from Kansas. Insects and Spiders from Sherborn. 

Packard Jr., Dr. A. S., Brunswick, Me. Skulls of Seal, Esquimaux 
Dog, Black Bear and Squirrel, 13 specimens, 8 species of Fishes, 1 Frog, 
16 species of Crustaceans, 200 specimens, 60 species Fossil Shells from 
the drift. 15 specimens, 3 species dried Echinoderms, from Labrador. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 

BY DONATION. 

Allanson, Lt. J. S., 1st X. Y. Engineers, Bermuda Hundreds. Fossil 
Wood from Dutch Gap Canal. 

Andrews, Wm. P. A piece of one of the timbers of the oldest house 
in America, St. Augustine, Fla. Shells from Fort Wagner. 

Black, Ensign Xath. W., of the gunboat " Mahaska." Rebel Tor- 
pedo from St. John's River, near Jacksonville, Fla. 

Bolles, Rev. Edwin C, of Portland, Me. Rebel Envelopes. Several 
Postage Stamps, Foreign and American. 

Brooks, Henry M. 7 City- Checks for 5 — 25 cents from X. Y. & X. J. 

Browne, Albert G., of Beaufort, S. C Lime blocks from the oldest 
house in America, St. Augustin. Fla. 

Cloutman, Wit. R. A Pike taken from the Chinese rebels by Gen. 
Ward. Japanese Custom House Receipt. Chinese Coin. East Indian 
Copper Coin. 

Damon, , of Marshfield, Mass. Piece of Shell from the " Tennes- 
see". Piece of Wood from the stern post of the " Brooklyn." 

Davis, Chas., of Beverly. Photographs of the new Chapel of the 
Baptist Society in Beverly and of the first Pastor of the society. 

Emerton, J. H. Cincinnati Token. Chinese Cash. 

Emilio, Capt. Locis. Several Fuses of different kinds. 

Fry, . Two Spindles from the railing on the top of a pew in 

the old East Church, built in 1718. 

Miller, Fred. L., Ass't. Eng. L T . S. S. Kearsarge. A piece of the 
shell fired by the " Alabama," and which wounded three men on board 
the " Kearsarge." 

Ordway, Major Albert, 24th Mass., Infantry . 245 Foreign and 
American Coins. 



LXXXIX 

Perkins, Geo. Spoon made of bone by an American prisoner con- 
fined in Dartmoor prison during the war of 1812. 

Phillips, S. H. Portrait of W. H. Harrison, painted by Abel Nichols 
of Danvers. 

Putnam, Capt. W. H. A. Native Sword from Java. 

Ropes, Nath., of Cincinnati, Ohio. 250 specimens, 108 kinds of 
Western Tokens. 

Ropes, Timothy. Image from ancient Thebes. 

Smith, Warren A. Confederate 10 cts. Postage Stamp. 

Stone, Rev. Edwin M., of Providence, R. I. A portion of the Cotton 
from the bale on which David Crowley of Providence floated and was 
saved from the burning " Lexington" Jan. 13,1840. 

Treadwell. Capt. W. A., 14th N. Y. Artillery. Confederate Pass 
taken from the body of Lt. J. B. Gayle, C. S. A., killed at Spottsylvania, 
C. H., May 14, 1864. Spur from the boot of a rebel killed at Bull Run. 

Wheatland, H. Two antique Powder Horns. 

TO THE LIBRARY. 

BY DONATION. 

Briggs, William. Dedication of Forest Dale Cemetery, pamph. 8vo, 
Holyoke, 1862. 2d An. Rep. of New England Freedman's Aid Society, 
pamph. 8vo, Boston, 1864. 

Brooks, Henry M. Roscobel, or the compleat history of the most 
miraculous preservation of Charles n., 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1725. An. 
Rep. of Adj. Gen. of Mass. ,. pamph. 8 vo, Boston, 1862. Ash's Gram- 
matical Institutes, 1 vol., 16mo, Worcester, 1785. Boston Almanac 
1861, 1 vol., 16mo. Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, several numbers. The 
Hive, vol. 1, 16mo, Salem, 1828—9. 22 Pamphlets. 

Chase, George C. Friend's Review, 20 Nos., Philadelphia, 1864. 

Davis, Charles, of Beverly. The Alabama and the Kearsarge by F. 
M. Edge, 8vo, pamph., London, 1864. 

Drowne, Charles, of Troy, N. Y. Annual Register of the Rennselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, 1864-5, 1st term, 8vo, pamph., Troy, 1864. 

Farnum, Joseph. The Brunonian, edited by Students of Brown Uni- 
versity, 1 vol., 8vo, Providence, 1831. 

Gilpin, J. B., of Halifax, N. S. Bernard's Lecture on the Sable, 
Darby's wreck of the Arno, &c, 12mo, Halifax. 1858. Transactions 
of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science, vol. i, pt. 1, and vol., 
n, pt. 1, 8vo, Halifax, 1863-4. 

Green, Samuel A., of Boston. Radicalism in Religion, Philosophy 
and Social life, four papers from Boston Courier, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 
1855. Catalogue of Lawrence Academy, Groton, 8vo, pamph., 1864. 

12 



xc 

Correspondence between Webster and Hulsernan, 8vo, paraph., London, 
1851. 71 Pamphlets. 

Iyes, Henry P. Trial of the Murderers of Mr. "White, 8vo, pamph., 
Salem, 1830. 

Kilby, William H. , of Eastport, Me. Annual Report Adj. Gen. of 
Maine, for 1863, 8yo, 1 vol., Augusta, 1863. 

King, Henry F. Hayden's Science and Revelation. 1 vol., 12mo, 
Boston, 1852. Barrett, the Golden Reed, 1 vol., 12mo, Xew York, 
1855. Wilkinson on War, Cholera, and the Ministry of Health, 1 vol., 
Svo, Boston, 1855. A Portrait of Swedenborg, &c, 8vo, pamph., 
Boston, 1854. 

King, Miss Sarah, of Danvers. TulTs Husbandry, 1 vol., 8vo, London, 
1750. The Gentleman's Jockey, 1 vol., 8vo, London, 1683. Bulkeley 
and Cummin's voyage to the South Seas, 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1757. 
Alingham's Geometry, 1 vol., 12mo, London, 1714. United States 
Register for 1795, 1 vol., 16mo, Philadelphia, 1794. Salem Gazette for 
1799, 1801, 1802, 3 vols., fol. 

Laxgworthy, I. P., of Boston. 43d. 48th, 49th, An. Rep. of Ameri- 
can Tract Society, 8vo, pamph., Boston. American and Foreign Chris- 
tian Union 32 Xos, and 64 Xos of the Christian World. 

Lord, X. J. Files of the Boston Daily Post for June, July, August 
and September, 1864. 

Massachusetts — Sect'y of State. Massachusetts Public Documents 
for 1863, 4 vols., 8vo. Report of Ship Canal, 1864, 1 vol., 8vo. 21st 
Registration Report of Mass., 1 vol., 8vo. Adj. Gen. Report, Mass., 
1863, 1vol., 8vo. 

Xichols, Johx H. Several papers printed at Charleston, S. C, dur- 
ing the year 1864. 

Odell, Charles. Collection of Almanacs. 

Saleii, City. 277 Pamphlets, — principally Town Reports. 

Sibley, Johx L., of Cambridge. Catalogue of Harvard University, 
1864-5, 12 mo, pamphlet. 

Smith, Mrs., Xath'l., of Pembroke. Perin's Meditations, 1 vol., 
16mo, Boston, 1709. 

Sparks, Jared, of Cambridge. Life of John Ledyard, by J. Sparks, 
1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1864. 

Stickney, M. A. 40 Pamphlets. Introduction to Latin Grammar, 
lvol.,12mo. Exeter, 1794. 

Story, Augustus. Herald of Freedom, Railway Times and The Inde- 
pendent, files for several years. 24 Pamphlets. 

Tucker, Jonathan. A collection of Manuscripts from the estate of 
the late G. Tucker. 

Upton, James. Littell's Living Age, vols., 24, 25, and 26, 3d series, 
8vo, Boston, 1864. 



XCI 

United States — Department of tub Interior. Reports of the Pacific 
Railroad, vols, x and xi. 4to. Japan Expedition Report, vols, n and 
in. 4to. 

Valentine, B. E. Catalogue of Haverford College, 1864-5, pamph., 
12mo, Philadelphia. 

Ward, Charles. Journal of Commerce Jr., files for July, August, 
September and October, 1864. 

"Ward, James C, of Northampton. The Journal and Letters of 
Samuel Curwen, edited by George A. Ward, 4th ed., 1 vol., 8vo, 
Boston, 1864. 

Wildes, James H., of San Francisco, Cal. Maps of the Public Surveys 
of California and Nevada, 1863. 

BY EXCHANeE. 

Albany Institute. Transactions, vol. iv, 8vo, Albany, 1858-64. 
Transactions of the Societ}- for the Promotion of the Useful Arts, vol. iv , 
pt. ii, 8voj Albany, 1819. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Proceedings, vol. vi, 
pages 97 to 340 inclusive. 

American Geographical and Statistical Society. Proceedings, vol. 
ii, Nos. 3 and 4, 8vo, pamph., New York, 1864. 

Canadian Institute. The Canadian Journal for Sept. and Nov. 1864. 
Dartmouth ' College Library. Catalogue of Dartmouth College, 
1864-5, 8vo, pamph. 
Editors. The American, Vol. i, No. 1, December, 1864, Salem. 
Essex Banner, Haverhill, Mass. 
Florida Union, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Haverhill (Mass.) Gazette. 
Historical Magazine, New York. 
Lawrence (Mass.) American. 
Lynn Weekly Reporter. 
Salem Observer. 
South Danvers Wizard. 
The Palmetto Herald, Port Royal, S. C. 
The Reader, London, England. 

Tuolumne Courier, Columbia, Tuolumne Co., California. 
Gilman, D. C, Librarian of Yale College. Catalogue of Yale College, 
1864-5, 8vo, pamph., New Haven, 1864. 

Harvard College Library. 130 Pamphlets, principal!} 7 relating to 
the various New England colleges. 

Harvard College Observatory. Safford on the Right Ascension of 
the Pole Star, 8vo, pamph., Cambridge, 1864. 

Iowa State Historical Society. Annals of Iowa for October, 1864, 
8vo, pamph. 



XCII 

Massachusetts Historical Society. Proceedings, 1883-4, 1 vol., 
8vo, Boston, 1864. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Scope and Plan of the 
School of Industrial Science, 8vo, painph., Boston, 1864. 

Missouri State Horticultural Society. Proceedings at Ann, Meet- 
ing, January, 1864, 8vo, pamph. Proceedings of Missouri Fruit Grow- 
ers' Association, for 1859, 8vo, pamph. 

Montreal Society of Natural History. The Canadian Naturalist 
and Geologist for October, 1864. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. Collections, vol. vn, 8vo, Con- 
cord, 1863. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science. Proceedings, Sept. 
and October, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Portland Society of Natural History. Journal Vol. i, No. 1, 8vo, 
pamph. Proceedings, Vol, i, pages 97 to 12S inclusive. 

Providence Athenaeum. 29th Ann. Beport, Sept. 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Publishers. North American Review, Oct. 1864. 

Bhode Island Historical Society. One hundred and fifty pamphlets. 

Young, Stephen J., Librarian of Bowdoin College. 10th Ann. Bep, 
of the Schools in Maine, 8vo, pamph. Ann. Bep. of Adj. Gen. ef Maine, 
for years ending Dec. 1861, and Dec. 1863, 2 vols., 8vo. The Bowdoin 
Bugle, No. xiii, Nov. 1864. 12 Pamphlets relating to Bowdoin College. 

Zoologische Gesellschaft, Frankfurt, a. M. Der Zodlogische Gar- 
ten, Vol. v, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

BY PURCHASE. 

Draper's History of Spencer, 1 vol. , 8vo, Worcester, 1860. Lincoln's His- 
tory of Worcester with Hersey's Continuation, 1 vol. 8vo, Worcester, 1862. 
Meade's Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia, 2 vols. 8vo, 
Philadelphia, 1857. Sewall's Ancient Dominions of Me., 1 vol. 8vo, Bath, 
1859. Moore's Lives of the Governors of New Plymouth and Massachu- 
setts Bay, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1851. Thayer's Family Memorial, parts 1 
and 2, 1 vol., Hingham, 1835. Plumer"s Life of William Plumer, 1 vol., 
8vo, Boston, 1857. Adams, John, The Works of, with a Life of the au- 
thor, Notes, &c, by C. F. Adams, 10 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1850-6. Vallan- 
digham, C. L., The Trial by a Military Commission, 1 vol., 8vo, Cincin- 
nati, 1863. Field's Centennial Address and Historical Sketches, 1vol., 
12mo, Middletown, 1853. Millet's History of tne Baptists in Maine, 1 
vol. 12mo, Portland, 1845, Westcott's Life of John Fitch, 1 vol., 12mo, 
Philadelphia, 1857. Brick Church Memorial, 1 vol. 8vo, New York, 1861. 
Woodworth's Beminiscences of Troy from its Settlement in 1790 to 1807, 
8vo, 1 vol., Albany, 1860. Barne's Settlement and Early History of 
Albany, 1 vol. 8vo, Albany, 1864. Humphrey's Life of Putnam, 1 vol., 
12mo, Hartford, 1850. Hopkins, The Patriot's Manual, 1 vol. 12mo, 
JJtica, 1828. 



XUIII 

Monday, Januaey 9. Regular meeting. 

Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

Letters were read from : 

E. S. Atwo'od of Salem; James S. Tallant of Concord, X. II., ac- 
cepting membership : J. W. Young of Worcester, relating to the pub- 
lications : L. C. Draper, Sec'}- Wisconsin Historical Societ % y ; E. T. 
Cresson, Sec'y, Entomological Society of Philadelphia; W. H. Dall of 
Chicago, 111. ; J. E. Arnold, Libr., Worcester Society of Xatural His- 
tory ; W. C. H. Waddell of the American Geogr. and Statistical So- 
ciety : B. Westermann, & Co. ; James E. Oliver of Lynn ; Waldo Hig- 
ginson of Boston, on Business. 

F. W. Putnam exhibited several colored drawings by 
Dr. J. Bernard Gilpin of Halifax, N. S. 

One of these was a winter scene, representing a moose 
feeding on the tender twigs of a young tree which it had 
pushed over for the purpose, by straddling the tree with 
its fore legs, bearing on it with its chest. Another draw- 
ing was probably that of an undescribed species of Trout 
from Nova Scotia. The remaining were figures of the 
"Nurse" or " Sleeper Shark," Somniosus brevipinna Le Su., 
taken from a specimen captured in seventy fathoms of 
water on Sambro Banks, and brought to Halifax in the 
winter of 1862-3. The specimen was eleven feet three 
inches in length. In the manuscript accompanying the 
drawings, Dr. Gilpin describes the stomach, small and large 
intestines of this shark as being formed of one large sim- 
ple gut from the mouth to the anus, with hardly percepti- 
ble differences in the various parts. He also mentions 
that there was a single ccecal appendage. This shark is 
said to inhabit deep water, never appearing on the surface, 
and its habits are so sluggish as to allow of its being often 
captured with a cod line. The fishermen speak of it as vo- 
racious, and, at some seasons, troublesome about their 
nets. Dr. Gilpin also remarks upon the inaccuracy of the 
published figures, of this species, by Le Sueur, DeKav and 
Yarrell. 

Mr. Putnam spoke of the importance and great value of 
such figures and observations as those made by Dr. Gilpin, 
and called attention to the articles on the habits of the 

13 



XCIV 

Herring by Dr. Gilpin, published in the Transactions of 
the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science. 

Eev. G. D. Wildes presented, in the name of Mrs. John 
Forrester, a Chinese visiting card of the late D. Fletcher 
Webster Esq., used while Secretary of the American Em- 
bassy at China. Also a Hindostanee Poem, written on 
Palm leaves and supposed to be five hundred years old. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

Daniel H. Mansfield, Charles Odell, and Charles B. Fow- 
ler, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 

Monday, January 23. Regular meeting. 
The President in the chair. 

Letters were read from : 

E. S. Morse of Gorham, Me., accepting Membership; Hiram A. 
Cutting of Limenberg, Vt. ; William "Wood & Co. of New York; A. 
Mather of Philadelphia, in relation to the publications : J. A. Allen of 
Cambridge; R. Kennicott, Curator, Chicago Acad, of Sciences ; E. T. 
Cresson, Sec'y, Entomological Society of Philadelphia ; C. W. Eelt ; 
C. P. Preston of Danvers; Wm. Prescott of Concord, N. H.,. on 
business. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes presented, in the name of Elijah 
Haskell, an old Spanish spear head and a gun lock, which 
were found in the Castle of San Juan d' Ulloa, Mexico : 
also the eggs of Pyrula from the Delaware Breakwater. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

The President, after some appropriate remarks on the 
life, character and public services of the late Edward Ev- 
erett, submitted the following resolutions : 

Resolved. That we desire to express, and to place upon 
"our records, in perpetual remembrance, our profound ad- 
miration and respect for the life and character of the 
Honorable Edward Everett, a Corresponding Member 
of the Essex Institute, and to join in the tributes, every- 
where so justly and in such large measure paid to his 
memory, his worth, and his deeds, as the great American 
Scholar, Orator, Statesman and Patriot, and our most 
illustrious citizen. 



xcv 

A. letter from the Hon. C. W. Upham. was read by the 
President as follows : 

Salem, Jan. 23, 1865. 

Hon. Asahel Huntington, 

President of the Essex Institute. 
Dear Sir : 

It is eminently proper for every literary 
and scientific association to participate in the honors paid 
to the memor} T of Edward Everett. I regret not to be 
able to be present at the meeting this evening. 

An uninterrupted friendship, covering a period of more 
than forty .years, frequent and long continued correspon- 
dence, and much personal intimacy, have given me oppor- 
tunity to judge of his character. I can say, with the strict- 
est truth, that every word of encomium in the various 
forms in which the universal public sentiment has been 
expressed on the occasion of his death, finds full support 
in my impressions and recollections. In the combination 
of his natural endowments, the circumstances of his edu- 
cation and history, and the uses to which he put his great 
faculties and advantages, he has always appeared to me 
without a parallel. 

The warmth and tenderness of his heart, his devotion to 
offices of benevolence, and his calm moral courage, are 
the traits which ever most arrested my attention. He 
often encountered vehement hostility, and the tide of 
popular misunderstanding and misrepresentation some- 
times threatened to overwhelm him, but he kept on his 
way patiently and quietly, never yielded to its power, or 
veered from the course marked out by his convictions of 
duty. 

He has been the great teacher of his countrymen of 
two generations, constantly pouring forth from his won- 
derful resources of knowledge and genius, the most useful 
information and the noblest sentiments. An elevating 
influence has pervaded all the productions of his pen, 
and inspired his eloquence. He has pushed forward the 
intelligence, and stimulated the progress of society stead- 
ily for more than half a century. If his unrecorded acts 
of courtesy, kindness, and usefulness in the daily routine, 



XCVI 

and ordinary course of life should be made known by 
those who have experienced them, they would equal in 
amount the extraordinary accumulation of his public 
labors. No one, however humble, ever addressed him 
for information without receiving a prompt and consid- 
erate reply, no one ever sought his aid without receiv- 
ing evidence of his kind endeavor to serve him. He 
was faithful, punctual, and true to every opportunity 
of usefulness. 

The collection of his Orations and Addresses, when 
completed, will be found to possess the elements of 
value and interest that will secure for them a permanent 
place in the highest department of the literature of the 
language. They embrace a wider circle of knowledge 
and a greater variety of subjects, in a style of elegance, 
accuracy, and polish, than any other work, and will stand 
the test of time. 

His career justifies, and his classic grace and dignity of 
countenance and mien would peculiarly adorn the most 
costly monument that a grateful people can rear. All 
coming generations ought to be enabled to behold the 
features and form of the American, who has wrought out, 
by a life of industry, duty and virtue, the most finished 
model of culture and civilization. 

If a portion of the contribution, which wealth and pa- 
triotism are about to make to this object, could be ex- 
pended in giving to the public, in a beautiful form, and at 
a cost within the means of the great body of the people, 
a full collection of his productions, of all kinds, — from his 
first academic efforts to his last expiring strains, pleading 
the cause of country and Christian charity in Faneuil 
Hall, — it would indeed be the grandest monument, and 
render his usefulness perpetual. 
Yours, very truly, 

Charles W. Upham. 

Resolved. That the letter of Mr. Upham be entered at 
length upon the records, and that we cordially concur in 
its sentiments and estimation of the life and character of 
Mr. Everett. 

Resolved. That an attested copy of these proceedings 



XCVII 

be transmitted by the Secretary, to the family of Mr. 
Everett, 

Rev. G. D. Wildes seconded tlie resolutions with ap- 
propriate remarks, and they were unanimously adopted. 

Francis C. Webster of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. 

Monday, February 6. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
Letters were read from : 

Massachusetts Historical Society ; Natural History Society of New 
Brunswick : Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science ; Corporation of 
Brown University, acknowledging receipt of publications : Prof. A. E. 
Verrill of New Haven.. Ct. ; W. H. Dall. of Chicago, 111. : Thomas B. 
Browne: James B. Oliver of Bynn: C. W. Felt; J. Colburn of Boston; 
S. D. Bell of Manchester. N. H.. on business : J. A. Allen of Cam- 
bridge: Trubner & Co. of Bondon, relating to the publications: W. 
W. Stuart of the Bufialo Society of Natural Sciences, on the exchange 
of specimens : Bev. E. C. Bolles of Portland, Me., transmitting spec- 
imens : Prof. Theo. Gill. Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, giv- 
ing the particulars of the destruction by fire of a portion of the Smith- 
sonian Institution: Franklin B. Hough of Albany, N. Y. : Prof. D. C. 
Eaton of Yale College, relating to the Naturalists' Directory : William 
Endicott of Shanghae, China, accepting Membership : Mrs. Mary H. 
Nichols, presenting a portrait of her late husband, Dr. Andrew Nich- 
ols : William Everett of Boston, in reply to a communication contain- 
ing the resolutions passed at the last meeting of the Institute in 
memory of his father. 

Dr. H. Wheatland gave a brief account of the life and 
services of Dr. A. Nichols, who was one of the pioneers 
in the study of Natural History, in this vicinity ; follow- 
ing immediately in the steps of the celebrated Rev. Dr. 
Cutler of Hamilton. His example and precept have done 
much for the promotion of those objects which we now 
possess and enjoy. He was active in the organization of 
the Essex County Natural History Society, and for the 
first twelve years its President. It is well, occasionally, 
to look back upon the days of our infancy, and call to 



XVCII1 

mind those who have laid the ground work of the opera- 
tions of the present day. 

Messrs. J. M. Ives and F. W. Putnam, alluded to the 
various discoveries made by Dr. Nichols in local Natural 
History. 

P. W. Putnam announced the donation of one hundred 
and thirty-five copies of" The Victoria Regia, or the Great 
Water Lily of America,' by John Pisk Allen," from the 
author. This work was published in 1854. It is a folio, 
and contains sixteen pages of text, and six plates repre- 
senting the flower of natural size, in several stages of its 
growth, the structure of the leaf, and the young plant. 
The Institute, is, by this donation, in possession of all the 
remaining copies of the edition, and the only source 
whence the work can be obtained. On motion of Mr. 
Putnam, it was 

Voted. That the copies of the " Victoria Regia," do- 
nated by Mr. Allen, be sold at a price not less than ten 
dollars per copy, or exchanged for works, equal in value, 
on Natural History and Horticulture, and that all monies 
received from this source be expended in the purchase of 
works on Natural History and Horticulture ; and that all 
books received as above be placed in the Library of the 
Institute as donations from Mr. Allen. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 

Albert J. Lowd, Thomas R. Drowne and Benjamin Pear- 
son, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. Win slow 
Lewis of Boston, was elected a Corresponding Member. 

Monday, February 8. Quarterly meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
The following amendments to the By-Laws were 
adopted. 

Chapter I. The following to be added : " Provided, 
however, that any member may, in lieu of the annual as- 
sessment, pay the sum of thirty dollars to be added to 



XC1X 

the funds of the Institute, the annual interest thereof to 
be considered as the paj 7 ment of the annual assessment 
of said member." 

Chapter IV. Lines 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th to be changed 
so as to read ; " No specimen shall be taken from the rooms 
except by permission of the Committee of the Department 
to which it belongs, upon a written application made to 
the Secretary or Superintendent." 

Amos Noyes of Newburyport, John Kinsman, Freder- 
ick Lamson of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 
James C. Ward of Northampton, was elected a Corres- 
ponding Member. 

Monday, Ferruary 20. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
Letters Avere read from : 

Prof. F. Poey of Havana ; Messrs. Triibner& Co. of London ; Prof. A. 
E. Verrill of Yale College ; J. A. Allen of Cambridge, relating to the 
publications : R. Kennicott, Curator, Chicago Acad. Nat. Science ; Lt. 
Col. Ordway, Bermuda Hundred, Va. ; A. L. Babcock of Sherborn, notice 
of the transmission of specimens : Prof. Poey of Havana ; Dr. Winslow 
Lewis of Boston ; F. C. Webster, accepting membership : Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York ; Mass. Historical Society; Boston Society 
of Natural History, acknowledging the receipt of publications : New 
York Chamber of Commerce, giving notice of the transmission of books : 
N. Bouton of Concord, N. H., in reply to questions respecting the Re- 
cords of the Conventions, at Exeter, 1774 — '75: Dr. S. A. Green of Boston, 
J. S. Appleton of Boston, on business : H. G. Jones, Corresp. Sec't. 
Penn. Historical Society," relating to the exchange of publications of the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Putnam read a communication from J. A. Allen, 
entitled, " Notice of a Foray of a colony of Formica san- 
guined Latr, upon a colony of a black species of Formica 
for the purpose of making slaves of the latter." Referred 
to the Publication Committee. 

F. W. Putnam made a few remarks upon the develop- 
ment of the fins of fishes, and the subsequent absorption 
of certain fins in some species. 



He had lately examined young specimens of Achirus lin- 
eatus Cuv., and had discovered that they possessed pecto- 
ral fins, which were situated very near the opercular 
openings and composed of four well developed rays. In 
two specimens, which were nearly three inches in length, 
the pectorals were perfectly developed, except on the left 
side of one specimen where no fin could be traced. In 
another specimen, about four inches in length, both pec- 
torals were present. A number of larger specimens were 
without pectoral fins which has been considered as the 
normal condition of the species of the genus Achirus. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

Voted. That this meeting be adjourned to Tuesday ev- 
en in o- next. 

Tuesday, Februaey 28. Adjourned meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
Hon. C. W. Upham read an interesting memoir of our 
late esteemed member, George A. Ward. 
On motion of Dr. Wheatland, it was 

Voted. That the thanks of the Institute be tendered to 
Mr. Upham for the highly interesting and valuable memoir 
of the life, character and services of our late member, 
George A. W f ard, and that a copy be placed at the disposal 
of the Publication Committee for publication in the " His- 
torical Collections." 

Monday, March G. Regular meeting. 
Yice President Goodell in the chair. 
Letters were read from : 

The Department of the Interior, giving notice of the transmission of 
twenty-eight volumes of Public Documents : S. P. Fowler of Danvers- 
port ; X. Brown of Boston, relating to the publications ; Natural His- 
tory Society of Xew Brunswick, acknowledging the receipt of publica- 
tions : T. A. Cheney of Havana, X. Y., relating to an exchange of pub- 
lications : Prof. James Hall of Albany, X. Y., offering to complete the 
Institute's set of the Reports on the Xew York State Cabinet : W. T\ r . 
Burrage of Boston, relating to the printing of Reports of the Classes 



CI 

of Harvard University ; H. "W. Putnam, City Point, Va.; William L. 
Welch, notice of transmission of specimens and photographs : Messrs. 
Hartman & Laich of Cincinnati, Ohio, on business. 

Captain N. E. Atwood of Provincetown, being present, 
was called upon by the chair and gave an interesting ac- 
count of several species of native fishes as observed by 
him — 

The Cod fish of the Eastern coast of the United States 
is not an inhabitant of the waters south of Cape Hatteras ; 
that cape being the southern limit- of the species. The 
northern limit he could not state, though it was certainly 
far north of the Straits of Belle Isle. In regard to the 
Cod, on our eastern coast, being of one, two, or three spe- 
cies, he could not, as yet, decide, but judging from their 
habits alone there might be three species, and it was his 
greatest desire to devote the rest of his life to the solving 
of this and similar problems in ichthyology, which can 
only be done by a person spending a length of time at 
each of the fishing grounds on the coast ; carefully col- 
lecting facts, examining and comparing a large number of 
specimens from each place. At present, all he could say 
was, that there was a great and constant variation in the 
habits and size of the Cod from the various fishing grounds 
on the coast. The Cod taken by troll lines in the Gulf of 
the St. Lawrence are much larger than those from any 
other place, while those taken by the hand lines are quite 
small. The largest Cod he had ever seen weighed one 
hundred and one-half pounds, and this specimen was taken 
near Provincetown. He had heard of others that were 
supposed to have weighed from one hundred and fifty to 
one hundred and seventy-five pounds, which had been cap- 
tured in the Gulf of St. Lawrence near the shore. On 
the coast of Labrador, he had never seen a Cod that 
would weigh twenty-five pounds ; larger specimens, how- 
ever, were taken on the small banks in the Straits of 
Belle Isle, five miles and upwards from the shore, and on 
George's Bank the fish caught with hand lines average 
larger than from other localities. 

Mackerel come into Provincetown harbor in the spring 
as early as the 15th of Mav, all of full size and with spawn, 
14 



CII 

and are then known as large No. 3's. By the 28th of May 
the spawn is fully developed, and deposited by the first of 
June. About the first of July young Mackerel, not more 
than two and one-half inches in length, are abundant in 
the Bay. These young Mackerel, in the latter part of Oc- 
tober, are about six inches in length, and he has caught and 
packed and sold them as " No. 4 Mackerel." They leave 
the coast earlier in Autumn than the older ones. The 
large Mackerel, which appear first, as before stated, are 
followed by the arrival of small ones, on our coast north of 
Cape Cod about the 15th of June. These are known in the 
market as " Blinks,' 7 and are from last year's eggs. " Tink- 
ers," are of two years growth; "Half-Size," are three years 
old, those older are called "Large ones." When Mackerel ar- 
rive on the coast, being lean, they are all designated as " No. 
3's," but as they feed and improve in condition they are 
called " No. 2's," and when fat, are marked " No. 1," pro- 
vided that they are thirteen inches long : but if less than 
thirteen and over eleven, then they are " No. 2's" if fat ; 
all under eleven inches are marked as " small No. 3's," 
whether fat or poor. Adult Mackerel of four years, or more, 
are the only ones which spawn on our coast, and they will 
not take the hook until they have deposited their spawn, 
when they become lean and voracious. Formerly it was 
supposed that the large Mackerel, which first appear in 
Provincetown harbor, had passed the winter in the mud, 
and many persons would not eat them owing to their sup- 
posed muddy taste. These large Mackerel go further north 
than the smaller ones, returning southward long after the 
others have left the coast, and are even captured in No- 
vember and December in the vicinity of Provincetown. 
Capt. A. was convinced that the Scomber grex was the 
young of the S. vernalis, Mitchill, and not a distinct spe- 
cies. 

After giving an interesting account of the various 
modes of capturing the Mackerel at different times of the 
year, Capt. A. alluded to the Bluefish and the changes 
which had taken place in its habits. This fish, which 
many years ago, was very abundant, and held in high es- 
timation by the Aborigines of our country, wholly disap- 
peared from our coast in 1764, and not a specimen was 



OTII 

seen on the coast, so far as Capt. Atwood knew, for fifty 
years. In 1847 they returned to the North of Cape Cod 
in great abundance, and have since been taken in large 
quantities in weirs and nets, and by the hook, near the 
shore. Now they avoid the shore, and, during the last 
year or two have kept in the Bay, where it is difficult to 
capture them, as they seldom take the hook, though, until 
recently, they were most voracious and game fish. 

The Menhaden, which were formerly so great a pest to 
the fisherman, and considered only fit for manure, appear 
in vast numbers on the coast of Massachusetts during the 
summer, a little later than the Mackerel, and remain until 
late in the season. They are now a valuable source of 
income, being caught for the oil, which is pressed from 
them, and sold for $40 a barrel. The refuse, after the 
oil is extracted, is used as a fertilizer and commands a 
high price. The sides of these fish are also salted, packed 
in barrels, and sold at a good price for Mackerel bait. 
The Menhaden does not spawn while on our coast, and it 
is only in the few, which have been driven into the rivers 
and which do not leave the coast until December or Jan- 
uary, that spawn has been found. In the month of Au- 
gust and September a few of the young Menhaden are 
seen in our harbors ; but further south, along the coast of 
Virginia, the young are seen in countless millions, and in 
heavy storms are driven on shore and left to die. On the 
coast of Virginia, small Menhaden appear after the large 
ones have left for the North. From the fact that the 
Menhaden which visit us during the summer, are either of 
a large and uniform size, or quite young, this species is 
supposed to attain its growth in a single year. 

On motion of Rev. Mr. Wildes, the thanks of the Insti- 
tute were voted to Capt. Atwood, for his interesting re- 
marks. 

Donations to the Library and Cabinets were announced. 

John Dixey, Joseph B. F. Osgood, and Edward H. 
Knight, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 



CTV 

Monday, March 20. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
Letters were read from : 

Lyceum of Natural History of New York, acknowledging the receipt 
of publications : Boston Society of Natural History, acknowledging 
the receipt of a collection of plants, collected in Zanzibar, by Caleb 
Cooke : Amos Noyes of Newburyport, accepting Membership. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

A. C. Goodell Jr. read a paper entitled the " Cavalier 
and the Puritan." This will be published in a separate 
form. 

John Daland of Salem, and Eben F. Stone of Newbury- 
port were elected Resident Members. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during January, 
February, and March, 1865. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

BV DONATION. 

Allen*, Francis R., Hamilton, Fresh specimen of Bald Eagle, Hali- 
tztus leucocephalus , shot in Hamilton, Jan. 20. 

Allen, J. A., Cambridge. Specimens of a Red and of a Black species 
of Ant, and the pupa of the Black species ; taken from an army of the 
Red species, Springfield, Mass., July 30, 1864. 

Babe'idge, Chas. H. Chalcopyrite from Cheticamp, N. S. 

Babcock, A. L., Sherborn, Mass. 9 specimens, 7 species, Insects ; 
Skin of Sciurus hudsonivs ; skeletons and parts of skeletons of 3 species 
of native Birds; specimen of Anodonta fluviatilis, from Sherborn. 

Buttkick, S. B. Portion of the jaw of a Porpoise. Water Beetle, Dy- 
tiscus sp., from South Salem. 

Bolles, Rev. E. C, Portland, Me. 7 specimens of Anodonta edentula 
Lea, A. Ferussaciana Lea, Unio iris Lea and U. calceolus Lea from Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 3 specimens Mya arenaria from the Postpleiocene at 
Gardiner, Me. 3 specimens Coleoptera from Africa. 

Cary, Geo. A. 2 specimens of Tellena from Turk's Island. 

Chamberlain, James A. 2 Holothurians, dry. 

Chicago Academy of Natural Sciences, Chicago, 111. Skins of 8 spe- 
cies of Mammals and 64 species of Birds from the West and North. 36 
species, 51 specimens of Western Bird's eggs. 

Davis, Charles, Beverly. Egg of an African Ostrich. 



cv 

Harrington, Augustus, North Becket. Crystal and massive Emery, 
Iron ore and Margarite, from Chester, Hampden Co., Mass. 

Haskell, Elisha. Eggs of Pyrula from Delaware Breakwater. 

Hatch, Chas. F. Flying fish, Exocee.tus sp., from off the mouth of the 
Amazon. Centipede from near Parahiha River, Brazil. 

Heath, John. Larva of Papilio Turnus Linn, from Lynnfield. 

Heath, N. 5 Insects from Salem. 

Higbee, Chas. II . Malachite from Africa. 

Hoffman, Capt. Chas. Lizard from Bissao, W. C. Africa. 

Kezar, Walter A. Wood perforated by Teredo, from Pensacola, Fla. 

Kneeland, Cvrus A., Topsfield. Living specimen of the Saw-whet 
Owl, Nyctale acadica, captured in Topsfield. 

Lovett, Edmonds. 3 species, 5 specimens of Ophidians; 3 species, 3 
specimens of Saurians ; 1 Bird; 6 species, 21 specimens of Insects ; from 
the South West Coast of Africa. 

Lowd, Mark. Fungus. 

Mack, Dr. Wm. Larvas of (Estrus Boris from a cow. 

Nelson, S. Augustus, Georgetown. Jasper from Winter Island. 

Nichols, Stephen. Fungus. 

Ordway, Col. Albert, 24th Mass. Inf't. Clay from "Dutch Gap 
Canal." 

Palfray, Chas.- W. Specimen of the Mocking Bird, Mimus polyglot- 
tus Boie, 13 years old. 

Patch, W. H. H., "Concord, N. H. Living Opossum, Didelphys vir- 
giniana Shaw, from Virginia. 

Perkins, Ezra, Essex. Nest of Humming bird, Trochilus colubris 
Linn. 

Pond, T. M., Framingham. Nest and eggs of the Meadow Lark, Ster- 
riella magna Swains, from Illinois. 

Porter, Ed. J. Fossils and Minerals from Ohio. 10 Insects, 7*Crusta- 
ceans, from Essex Co. Mantis sp. from Washington. 

Purdie, H. A., Boston. Several Spiders from Boston. 

Putnam, F. W. Cochineal Insects, Coccus cacti, from Mexico. Speci- 
men of Sapphire. Several species of Fishes from Mass. Bay. Claw of 
Lobster (malformation.) 

Putnam, H. W. Infusorial Earth and Marl from near City Point, Ya. 

Quimby, Dr. E. H. Human embryo. 

Roberts, J. W. Fresh specimen of the Great Gray Owl, Syrnium 
cinereum Aud., captured in North Salem. 

Sanborn, F. G., Boston. Specimens of the Potter Wasp, Eunemes fra- 
terna . Plum Weevil, Rhynchanus Nenuphar; Pine Weevil, Curculio 
Pales, from Mass. 

Saunders, Miss Mary. Living specimen of the Acadian Owl, Nyctale 
acadica, captured in South Salem on Jan. 19. 

White, Geo. M. 226 spechnens, 75 species, Insects from Salem. 



OYI 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 

BY DONATION. 

Allen, J. F. Waterproof Japanese Coat made of paper. 

Bolles, Rev. E. C, Portland, Me. One of the first stamped Envel- 
opes issued in England, May 5, 1840. Designed by G. W.Mulready, R. A. 

Buttrick, S. B. The Cockade worn by the late High Sheriff, Joseph E 
Sprague. Indian Relics from Ware's Beach, Marblehead, collected by 
John W. Bartlett. 

Chamberlain, James. 4 Foreign Postage Stamps. 

Cogswell, Brig. Gen'l. A series of Photographic Views taken in At- 
lanta, Ga. 

Edwards, Chas. W., Serg't 2d Mass. Inf't. Piece of the Rebel Flag 
found flying at Atlanta on the capture of the city. 

Fairfield, Capt. James. 3 Coins from Uruguay ; 1 Coin from Bue- 
nos Ayres. 

Felt, S. Q. Native Dress (Sarong) from Java. 5 Photographs of 
Sikhs and other castes of India. 

Forrester, Mrs. John. Chinese Visiting Card of D. F. Fletcher. 

Goodell Jr., A. C. Bill Head of John Hancock. 

Haskell, Elisha. Gun Lock and an ancient Spanish Spear Head from 
the Castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, Mexico. 

Ives, John M. Wooden Images, carved by Alfred Bates, a soldier of 
the war of 1812. 

King, Capt. H. F. Dutch Copper Coin (2 stivers.) 

Lovett, Edmonds. Native Mat from the South West Coast of Africa. 

Perkins, Ezra, Essex. Indian Pipe. 

Phippen, Nath'l. $5 Bank Note of the United States Bank 1828. 

Putnam, Mrs. Eben. Cane made from a timber used in the 2d and 
3d house of the 1st Church. 

Rhodes, Henry W. Rebel Uniform Button. 

Steers, James L. Rebel Uniform Button. 

Symonds, Geo. W. Piece of a Rebel Gunstockfrom the "Wilderness." 

Wilkinson, Mrs. Elizabeth, Beverly. Irish Flax ; such as was used 
in the manufacture of linen cambric. Brought from Ireland in 1791. 

TO THE LIBRARY. 
BY DONATION. 

Allen, Charles A. , Cambridgeport. 1st and 2d Triennial Reports of 
Class of 1858 of Harvard, pamph. 

Allen, John Fiske. Boston Cultivator for 1862, 1863, 1864, 3 vols., 
4to, Boston. 135 copies of the Victoria Regia, folio. 

Ballard, David, Brunswick, Me. Bourne's Address at the Popham 
Celebration, Aug. 29, 1864, pamph. 



CVII 

Bolles, E. C, Portland, Me. Illustrations de Timbres Postes, J. B. 
Moens. 8vo, Liv. 1 to 9. Bruxelles, 1862. 

Boston Public Library, Trustees of. 12th Annual Report, 1864, 
8vo, pamphlet. 

Brooks, Charles T., Newport, R. I. Carriers New Year's Addresses, 
Jan. 1, 1865. 

Brooks, Henry M. Gospel of St. Mark, tr. and arranged by L. A. 
Sawyer, 1 vol. , 12mo. 

Brooks, M. C, James. Speech of J. Brooks in U. S. Congress, Dec, 
1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Burrage, Wm. W., Boston. Reports of Secretary of Class 1856 of 
Harvard for 1860, 1861 and 1865, 8vo, pamphlets. 

Chase, George C. Friends' Review, 16 Nos. 

Chase, George H. The Boatswain's Whistle, National Sailor's Fair, 
Boston, Nov. 1864, 1 vol., 4to. 

Chase, Mrs. George H. The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, Nos. 1 to 
32 inch, 8vo. The Sanitary Reports, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. Nos. 1 to 18, 4to, 
Louisville, Ky, 1863. 30 Miscellaneous publications of the Sanitary Com- 
mission. 

Choate, Wm. G. Rep. Adj. Gen. Mass. 1863, 8vo, 1vol. Report of 
Commissioners of Agric. for 1862, 1 vol., 8vo. Manuals of Mass. Legis. 
for 1860 and 1861, 2 vols., 18mo. Midgley's Sights in Boston and Sub- 
urbs, 1 vol., 18mo. 45 Pamphlets. 

Cole, Mrs. N. D. Salem Gazette for 1864, 1 vol., fol. Boston Daily 
Traveller for 1864, 2 vols., fol. 

Colman, Benjamin. The act of Tonnage and Poundage and rates of 
Merchandise, 1 vol., 8vo, London, 1702. 

Dawson, Henry B., Morrisania, N. Y. Correspondence between 
John Jay and H. B. Dawson, etc., concerning the Federalist, 8vo, 
pamph., New York, 1864. 

Eastern Railroad, Directors. 30th Annual Report, 8vo, pamph. 

Forrester, Mrs. John. The Overland Friend of India, files for 1858, 
59, 60, 61, 62, 63, Serampore. Manuscript of a Hindostanee Poem on 
Palm leaves ; supposed to be 500 years old. 

Goodell Jr., Abner C. Lynn Directories, 1851, 1854, 1856, 1858, 
4 vols., 16mo. Mass. Register, for 1858, 1 vol., 8vo. Boston Almanacs, 
1861, and 1862, 2 vols., 16mo. 20 Pamphlets. 

Green, Samuel A., Boston. Charleston Directory for 1862, 1 vol., 
12mo. 8 Pamphlets. 

Guild, R. A., Brown University. Jackson's account of R. I. Churches, 
1 vol., 8vo. Ann. Cat. of Brown Univ. for 1856, 7, 8, 9, 60, 64. 16 
Pamphlets. 

Hall, James, Albany, N. Y. Account of Fossils of the Niagara Group, 
by J. Hall, 8vo, pamph. 



OvVIII 

Hanaford,, Mrs. P. A., Reading. The Young Captain, a Memorial of 
Capt. Richard C. Derby, by Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, 1 vol., 16mo, Bos- 
ton, 1865. 

Holmes, John C. 25 Pamphlets. 

Hutchinson, T. J. The Country Justice, by M. Dalton, 1 vol., fol., 
London, 1626. 

Ives, Henry P. Robinson's Ancient History, 1vol. Everett, L. S., 
Sacred Songs, 1 vol., 16mo. Jackson's Questions on the Lessons, &c, of 
the Church Service, No. 1, 1 vol., 16mo. Marshall's Public School Ac- 
count Books. Worcester's Historical Atlas. 24 pamphlets. The Amer- 
ican Publishers Circular for 1863. 

Kilby, W. H., Eastport, Me. Address of Gov. Cony to Maine Legis. 
Jan'y 5, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 9th Ann. Rep. of Sect'y Maine Bd. of 
Agric, 1864, 8vo., pamph. Legis. Register of Maine, 8vo. pamph. 

Langworthy, I. P., Boston. 152 Pamphlets, being Reports of vari- 
ous Charitable Societies, Minutes of Congregational Associations, &c. 

Lewis, Winslow, Boston. Address at meeting N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc, 
8vo., pamph., Boston, 1865. Report of Trustees of Mass. Gen. Hospital 
for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Lord, N. J. Files of Boston Post for Oct., Nov., Dec, 1864. 

Loring, George B. Files of Boston Post for 1863 and 1864, and Jan'y 
and Feb'y, 1865. ' _ ' 

Miles, M., Lansing, Mich. Catalogue of Michigan State Agric. Coll. 
for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 2d Ann. Rep. of Sect'ry of Bd. of Agric. of Mich, 
for 1863, 8vo, pamph. 

Nelson, Henry M. , Georgetown. Ann. Rep. of Auditing and School 
Committees for 1865, 2 pamph., 8vo. 

New York Chamber op Commerce. Annual Reports for 1858, 1859, 
1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 6 vols, 8vo. 30 Pamphlets, publications of 
the Chamber. 

Nichols, George. Burnham's Historical Directory at Rindge, N.H., 
Nov. 14, 1861, 8vo, pamph. 1st An. Rep. of Discharged Sailor's Home, 
8vo, pamph., Boston, 1863. Christian Enquirer for 1«64, 1 vol., folio. 

Packard Jr., A. S., Brunswick, Me. Synopsis of Bombycidas of U. 
S. A., 8vo, pamph. 

Paine, Nath'l, Worcester. Worcester Directory, 1865, 1 vol., 12mo. 

Palfray, Charles W. Mass. Legis. Doc. for 1864, 2 vols., 8vo. 30 
pamphlets. 

Parish, A., Springfield. Report of School Comm. of Springfield, for 
1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Pease, Geo. W. Statement of the Account of Danvers from Feb'y 
1864 to Feb'y 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Phillips, W. P. The Savannah Daily Herald and Savannah Rcpub- 



CIX 

Rantoul, R. S. 24th, 25th, 26th Ann. Rep. of Mass State Bd. of Edu- 
cation, 3 vols, 8vo. Report of School Comm. of Boston, 1861. 1 vol., 8vo. 
Code Investigation 1860, U. S. Pub. Doc. 1 vol., 8vo. 7 Pamphlets. 

Sanborn, .Francis G., Boston. Economical Entomology by F. G. S., 
8vo, pamph. 

Sibley, John L., Cambridge. Ann. Rep. of Pres. and Treas. of Har- 
vard College, 1863 — 4, 8vo, pamph. 

Stone, Benj. W. Valentine's Manual of the Common Council of New 
York. 1864, 1 vol., 12mo. 

Stone, Edwin M., Providence. 23d Ann. Rep. of the Ministry at 
Large in Providence, 8vo, pamph. 

Taylor, Samuel L., Philadelphia, Ann. Rep. of Lib. of Penn. Hist. So- 
ciety, 8vo, pamph., Philad. , 1865. 

Upham, Wm. P. Flint's Agriculture of Mass., 1861, 1 vol.,8vo. Mass. 
Railroad Returns, 1863, 1 vol., 8vo. Ann. Rep. of Mass. Bd. of State Char- 
ities, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1865. 

Waters, J. Linton, Chicago. Ann. Rev. of Ti-ade of Chicago in 1864, 
8vo, pamph. Message of R. Yates, Gov. of Illinois, to the General As- 
sembly, Jan'y 2, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 5th Biennial Report of Sup't of 
Public Instruction of Illinois, 1863-4, 8vo, pamph. Address of R. J. 
Oglesby, Gov. of Illinois, to Gen'l Assem., Jan'y 16, 1865, 8vo., pamph. 

Wheatland, Stephen G. 22 Pamphlets. 

by exchange. 
American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings of Annual Meeting, Oct. 
21, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, vol. ix, No. 72. 8vo, 
pamph. List of Members, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 
Canadian Institute. The Canadian Journal for Jan'y, 1865. 
Editors: American Journal of Science and Art, Jan. and Mch., 1865. 

Florida Union. 

Historical Magazine, for Jan. and Feb., 1865. 

Haverhill Gazette. 

Essex Banner, Haverhill. 

Lawrence American. 

Lynn Weekly Reporter. 

The Reader, London, Eng. 

The Newburyport Star. 

The American, Salem. 

Savannah Daily Herald. 

Tuolumne Courier. 

Salem Observer. 
Iowa Historical Society. Annals of Iowa, No. 9, Jan., 1865, 8vo, 
pamphlet. 

15 



ex 

Massachusetts Historical Society. Collections, Vol. VII, 4th ser. 

Massachusetts State Library. Report of the Librarian for the year 
ending September 30th, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

Minnesota Historical Society. Collections for the year 1864, 8yo. 
pamphlet. 

New Brunswick Xatural History Society. Jones on Ocean Drifts 
and Currents, 8yo, pamph. Bailey's Notes on Geol. and Botany of New 
Brunswick, 8yo, pamph. Bailey's Report on_ Mines and Minerals of 
New Bi-unswick, 8yo, pamph. 

Xew England Historic-Geneological Society. Tercentenary cele- 
bration of the Birth of Shakespeare, April 23, 1864, 8vo, pamph. Lewis's 
Address before X. E. H. G. Soc, Jan. 4, 1865, 8yo, pamph. Tribute to 
the memory of Edward Everett, Jan. 17, and Feb. 1, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Xew Jersey Historical Society. Collections, vol. vi, 8vo, New- 
ark, 1864. Proceedings, vol. x, No. 1, 8vo, pamph. 

Xew Iork State Library, Trustees of. Instructions on taking 
Census of Xew York, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Philadelphia Academy of Xatural Sciences. Proceedings for Nov. 
and Dec.,. 1864. 

Philadelphia Mercantile Librarv Company. 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25. 
26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42 Annual Reports. His- 
torical Sketch, 8vo, pamph. Special Report, April, 1863, 8vo, pamph. 

Publishers. Xorth American Review, Jan'y, 1865. 

BY PURCHASE. 

Saint John — The letters from an American Farmer. 1 vol.. 12mo, Phil- 
adelphia, 1793. Sunderland — The testimony of God against Slavery, 1 
vol., 16mo, Boston, 1838. United States, Foreign conspiracy against the 
liberties of, lvoh, 16mo, Xew York, 183-3. Rankin's Letters on Ameri- 
can Slaveiy, 1 vol., 16m >. Boston, 1833. Bourne, The Book and Slavery 
irreconcileable, 1 vol., 12mo, Philadelphia, 1816. Paxton's Letters on 
Slavery, Ivor. , 12mo. Lexington, Ky., 1833. Duncan's Treatise on Sla- 
very, 1 vol., 12mo, Xew York, 1840. Clarkson's Essay on the Slavery 
and commerce of the Human Species-, I vol., 12mo, Philadelphia, 1804. 
Buxton's Remedy for the Slave Trade, 1 vol., 12mo, Xew York, 1840. 
Thatcher's Indian Biography. 2 vols., 16m ), Xew York. 1832. Autobi- 
ography of Henry C. Wright, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1849. Stuart's 
Memoir of Granville Sharp, 1 vol., 13mo, Xew York, 1836. Selections 
from the Writings and Speeches of William L. Garrison, ] vol., 12mo, 
Boston, 1852. Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, 1 vol.,8vo, Philadelphia. 
1831. Morse's system of Modern Geography, lvol.,8vo, Boston, 1814. 
Herrick. — A Genealogical Register of the name and family ol Her- 
rick, 1 vol., 8vo, Bangor, 1846. Secret Instructions of the Jesuits, print- 
ed verbatim from the London copy of 1725. 1 vol., lOmo, Princeton, X. 



CXI 

J., 1831. A. Bradford, New England Chronology, 1 vol., 12mo, Bos- 
ton, 1813. Dowling, John. — The burning of the Bibles, defence of the 
Protestant version of the Scriptures, 1 vol., 16mo, Philadelphia, 1843. 
A Platform of Church Discipline of Synod at Cambridge in 1648, 1 vol., 
12mo, Boston, 1808. A Book for New Hampshire Children in familiar 
letters, 1 vol , 12.no, Exeter, 1823. Edwards, Jonathan — A Treatise 
concerning the Religious affections, lvol., 12mo, Boston, 1768. 



Monday, April 3. Regular meeting. 
Yice President Goodell in the chair. 

Letters were read from : 

Baron Osten Sacken, Russian Consul General, New York ; John Ak- 
hurst, Brooklyn, N Y.; Philip S. Sprague, Quincy ; Chas. M. Wheatley, 
New York; M.S. Bebb, Washington ; Dr. II. C. Wood jr., Philadel- 
phia; Dr. Wm. Wood, East Windsor Hill, Ct ; Wm. S. Vaux, Phila- 
delphia; John Krider, Philadelphia; S. Jillson, Feltonville ; D. G. 
Elliot, New York; T. Mcllwraith, Hamilton, C. W.; John H. Thomson, 
New Bedford ; Chas. J. Sprague, Boston ; Wm. A. Smith, Worcester ; 
B. Billings, Ottawa, C. W.; Dr. John L. LeConte, Philadelphia; Ho- 
mer ~F. Bassett, Waterbury, Ct.;-Nathl. Paine, Worcester; Sanborn 
Tenney, Cambridge ; Isaac Lea, LL.D., Philadelphia; Geo. W. Peck, 
New York; Prof. James Hall, Albany, N. Y.; Dr. Theo. A. Tellkampf, 
New York ; Dr. John W. Greene, New York ; P. W. Sheafer, Potts- 
ville, Pa.; H. A. Cutting, Lunenburg, Yt.; Prof. 0. P. Hubbard, Hano- 
ver, N. H. ; J. 0. Treat, Lawrence; Dr. J. W. Robbins, Uxbridge; 
Thos. Barlow, Canastota, N. Y.; Dr. F.J. Bumstead, New York : W. 
W. Denslow, Inwood Station, N. Y.; Alex. Agassiz, Cambridge; H. F. 
King, Salem; D. M. Balch, Salem; Rev. David Weston; Worcester; 
G. F. & R. Matthew, St. John, N. B.; B. P. Mann, Concord; J. L. Ser- 
geant, Philadelphia ; Thomas Bland, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Chas. L. Bloods 
Taunton; Aliston Bacon, Natick ; Prof. J. Leidy, Philadelphia; E. T- 
Cresson, Philadelphia ; Jacob Ennis, Philadelphia ; F. H. Hough, Alba- 
ny, N. Y.; G. J. Bowles, Quebec, Canada ; Prof. L. Agassiz. Cambridge ; 
James Lemoine, Quebec, Canada ; Geo. E. Brackett, Belfast, Me.; R. H. 
Brownne, New York ; Ewd L. Graef, Brooklyn, N. Y~.; Yincent Barnard , 
Kennett Square, Penn.; T. A. Greene, New Bedford ; Prof. E. D. Cope, 
Philadelphia; J. T. Rothrock, McYeytown, Pa.; J. A. Allen, Cam- 
bridge; Alpkeus Hyatt, Baltimore, Md.; Ed. S. Morse, Gorham,Me.; 
Prof. A. E. Verrill, New Haven, Ct,; T. A. Cheney, LL.D., Havana. 
N. Y.; John G. Hodgins, Toronto, C. W.; Rev. Chester Dewey, Roches- 
ter, N. Y; John Macoun, Belville, C. W ; R. P. Whitfield, Albany, N. 



cxn 

Y.: J. V. C. Nellis, Auburn ; J. P. Haskell, Marblehead; John Ome 
jr., Salem: Rev. Joseph Banvard, Worcester : Prof. T. C. Porter, Lan- 
caster, Pa.; Stephen Salisbury jr.. Worcester : Prof. S. F. Baird. Sniith- 

- inian Institution : L. Satterlee. Xtw Y >rk : Prof. J. L. Russell, Salem : 
William Cooper, Quebec, Canada, relating to the publications : 
N. Bro^vn, Boston; Win. Sampson, Corr. Sect., Chicago Acad. Nat. Sei.; 
A. L. Babcock, Sherborn ; Rev. E. C. Bolles, Portland, Me.; Capt. N. 

E. Atwood. Provineetown, on business : Trustees of Boston Public Libra- 
ry, acknowledging the receipt of publications : E. F. Stone. Xevrbury- 
.:■:. accepting membership. 

The Superintendent called the attention of the meeting 
to the fifty mounted specimens of birds and mammals on 
the table, stating that all the species were new to the 
collection and that they were the skins presented by the 
Chicago Academy of Natural Sciences and the Lyceum of 
Natural History of William's College. 

Gilbert L. Streeter read a communication entitled, "Sa- 
lem one hundred years ago." suggested by a perusal of a 
Dudleian lecture sermon by Bev. Thomas Barnard of 
Salem, delivered in May 1768, and printed in Salem by 
Samuel Hall, who about that time opened a printing office 
in Salem. 

Remarks were offered by Messrs. Wildes, T. Ropes, and 
the chair, and on motion of the Secretary, a copy of the 
paper read by Mr. Streeter, was requested for publication 
in the Historical Collections. 

Edward S. Thayer. Nathaniel Kinsman. Jonathan Ropes 
and Charles H. Pepper of Salem, were elected Resident 
Members. 



Monday, Apeil IT. Regular meeting. 
Rev. Gr. D. Wildes in the chair. 

Letters were read from : 

Prof. J. Henry. Sect. Smithsonian Institution ; Isaac Lea. LED.. 
Philadelphia, Pa.: Prof. C A. Joy, Columbia College. New York ; Dr. 
Wm Stimps..n. Cor. Sect. Chicago Acad. Natural Sciences: Capt. A 



CX1II 

Hyatt, Baltimore, Mel. ; Dr. H. C. Wood jr., Philadelphia: Key. C- J. 
S. Bethune, Sect. Entomological Soc. of Canada; Dr. J. H. Salisbury, 
Cleveland, Ohio ; W. W. Cary, Coleraine, Mass. ; J. G. Sanborn, Cher- 
ryfleld, Me. ; Miss Julia H. Spear, Burlington Vt. ; B. P. Mann, Con- 
cord, Mass. ; Prof. Traill Greene, Easton, Pa. ; D. G. Elliot, New York ; 
S. B. Mead, Augusta, 111. ; Dr ; J. W. Bobbins, Uxbridge, Mass. ; Dr. 
Asa Horr, Dubuque, Iowa; A. X. Prentiss, Lansing, Mich. ; Dr. C. C. 
Abbott, Trenton, X. J. ; J. R. Willis, Halifax, N. S. ; John Kirkpatrick, 
Sect. Cleveland Acad. Natural Sciences; C. A. Emery, Springfield, 
Mass. : Dr. Ezra Michener, Avondale, Pa. ; G. C. Brown, Mt. Holly, N. 
J.; J. E. Knight, Sect. Entomological Society of Philadelphia; A. L. 
Babcock, Sherborn, Mass. ; Rev. J. E. Long, Hublersburg, Pa. ; Isaac 
A. Pool, Chicago, 111.; Erank Stratton, Xatick, Mass.; C. E. Austin, 
Closter, X. Y. : Wm. W. Stewart, Custodian, Buffalo Society Xatural 
.Sciences; Prof. L. W. Bailej', University of New Brunswick; J. P. 
Lesley, Philadelphia; E. Tatnall jr., Wilmington, Del.; J. A. Allen, 
Cambridge; W. H. Xiles, Cambridge; C. F. Hartt, Cambridge; O. H. 
St. John, Cambridge ; Prof. T. C. Porter, Lancaster, Pa. ; H. S. Babbitt, 
Asst. Sect. Ohio State Bd. of Agriculture ; Prof. How, King's College, 
X. S. ; D. Wilkins, Littleton. X. H. ; Saml. P. Fowler, Danvers, Mass. ; 
P. S. Sprague, Quincy, Mass. ; J. D. Sergeant, Philadelphia Acad. Xat. 
Sciences ; Wm. Gossip, Sect. Xova Scotian Institute of Xat. Science ; 
Dr. H. M. Paine, Albany, X. Y. ; H. A. Cutting, Lunenburgh, Vt. ; B. 
S. Lyman, Philadelphia ; Elihu Hall, Athens 111. ; Dr. Daniel Clark, 
Flint, Mich. ; Dr. J. A. Meigs, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Prof. D. S. Sheldon, 
Griswold College, Davenport, Iowa : R. Kennicott, Director, Museum 
Acad. Xat. Sciences, Chicago, 111. ; B. F. Mudge, State Geologist of 
Kanzas, Quindaro, Kanzas ; Wm. S. Sullivant, Columbus, Ohio ; Prof. 
F. Poey, Habana, Cuba; J. G. Arnold, Worcester; Dr. J. C. Draper, 
Xew York; Prof. S. S. Haldeman, Columbia, Pa.; Prof. A. E. Verrill, 
Yale College; C. M. Tracy, Lynn; Wm. S. Vaux, Philadelphia; Dr. 
Tlieo. Tellkampf, Xew York ; E. T. Cresson, Corresp. Sect. Entomolo- 
gical Society of Philadelphia ; Prof. Leo Lesquereux, Columbus, Ohio, 
relatingto the Publications : C. M. Wheatle}', relating to an exchange of 
specimens: Miss Anna L. Coffin, Xewbury; C. M. Tracy, Lynn; Dr. 
Wm. Wood, Portland, Me.; X. Brown, Boston; Capt. X. E. Atwood, 
Provincetown, on business : G. A. Boardinan, Milltown, Me.; W. W. 
Denslow, Xew York, offering to send specimens to the Museum : Al- 
bert G. Browne, Charleston, S. C. ; J. C. Convers ; Mrs. G. H. Chase; 
Blagden & Co., Boston, announcing the transmission of books for the 
Library : Smithsonian Institution, acknowledging the receipt of Pub. 
lications : Charles Henry Pepper, accepting Membership. 

16 



CX IV 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

Professor A. E. Verrill made some remarks upon the 
Iron ores found in the New England States and contig- 
uous part of New York. Two kinds of ore were mention- 
ed, the Hematitic and the Magnetic oxide. The bog ore 
found in our low lands resembled the Hematitic in its 
composition but is usually much inferior in quality. 

Francis C. Butman, and Francis A. P. Rust, of Salem, 
were elected Resident Members. Professor Edward D. 
Cope of Philadelphia, Professor James Hall of Albany, 
and Baron Osten Sacken, Russian Consul General at 
New York, were elected Corresponding Members. 

The Chair stated that at the last meeting, the news of 
the evacuation of Richmond had been received, and that 
on the morning of the Monday following the announce- 
ment of the surrender of Lee's Army was published to the 
Country. This day startling news of a different character 
was received : the death of the President of the United 
States, at Washington, on Saturday, April 15, at 7.20 
o'clock in the morning, occasioned by a bullet wound 
from a pistol in the hands of an assassin on the evening 
previous. These events deserve a place on our records. 

Robert S. Rantoul introduced a series of appropriate 
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted and ordered 
to be placed upon the records of the Institute. Dr. 
George B. Loring, on moving their adoption, paid an 
eloquent and deserved tribute to the memory of the late 
President. Professor A. Crosby followed Dr. Loring with 
suggestive remarks. 



oxv 

Monday, May 1. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
Letters were read from : 

Chas. Stodder, Boston ; Samuel R. Carter, Paris Hill, Me. ; Wm. A. 
Haines, New York; Prof. T. S. Parvin, Iowa City; Asst. Surg. B. G. 
Wilder, 55th Mass. Vols.; Chas. Wright, Wethersfield, Ct. ; Prof. 
Edw. Hitchcock, Amherst College ; Dr. John Gundlach, Habana, Cuba ; 
Tryon Reakirt, Philadelphia; Thomas Meehan, Editor of the Garden- 
er's Monthly; S. I. Smith, Norway, Me.; John Bolton, Portsmouth, 
Ohio; S. D. Poole, Lynn; J. D. Parker, Steuben, Me.; Prof. Dana, 
Yale College; Isaac C. Martindale, Bjberry, Pa.; Prof. D. S. Sheldon, 
Griswold College; Wm. S. Sullivant, Columbus, Ohio; Prof. H. A. 
Thompson, Otterbein University; G. F. Matthew, St. John, N. B. ; Prof. 
A. E. Verrill, Yale College; S. B. Mead, Augusta, 111.; Dr. J. Aitken 
Meigs, Philadelphia; W. J. Howard, Central City, Colorado; Dr. S. A. 
De Morales, Habana, Cuba, relating to the Publications : Wm. Wood & 
Co., New York; Wm. W. Stewart, Custodian, Buffalo Soc. Nat. Scien- 
ces, on business : A. M. Edwards, New York, announcing the forma- 
tion of the American Microscopical Society in New York. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

A large number of native plants, collected by Nathaniel 
Hooper and James PI. Emerton, were placed on the table 
and were explained by Geo. D. Phippen, who had a few 
interesting remarks to make on each of the various speci- 
es. Mr. Phippen thought that the opening of the flowers 
this year, was about ten days in advance of many previous 
years. 

Messrs. Hooper and Emerton gave an account of the 
special locality of several of the rarer species. Mr. Emer- 
ton read a few notes relating to the time of flowering of a 
number of species of plants, the present season, and also 
as to the first appearance of several species of insects this 
spring. 

F. W. Putnam stated that the Toads commenced 
spawning on the 16th of April. He then made some re- 
marks, suggested by those of Mr. Phippen, upon the vari- 
ous theories regarding the origin of species. 



cxyi 

Messrs. F. W. Putnam, Charles Davis, W. P. Upham 
and the Secretary were appointed a committee to nomi- 
nate ofncers»for the ensuing year, and report the same at 
the annual meeting. 

Edward Dean and T. Francis Hunt, of Salem, were 
elected Resident Members. E. T. Cresson of Philadelphia, 
was elected a Corresponding Member. 

Wednesday, May 10. Annual meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

The reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, Superintendent, 
Curators and Committees were read and accepted. From 
these reports the following particulars may be specified. 

The Society is in a good and healthy condition. The 
receipts from the assessments of the Resident Members have 
been greater than in any preceding year, which was also 
the case in regard to the sales of publications. During the 
year one hundred and fifty seven Resident and twelve Cor- 
responding Members' have been elected. Eight Resident 
Members have removed from the county, and the follow- 
ing have died during the year : Wm. B. Brown, Henry 
Hubon, Edward L. Perkins, Charles W. Swasey, Lucy 
Treadwell, George A. Ward, Mary E. Wheatland, Sam- 
uel Webb, all of Salem. The sad intelligence of the de- 
cease of the following Corresponding Members has been 
received : Hon. Edward Everett of Boston, Mass., Pro- 
fessor Benjamin Silliman of New Haven, Conn., Carlton A. 
ShurtlefY of R,oxbury, Mass., and William B. Fowle of 
Medfield, Mass. Biographical notices of the deceased 
Members will be printed in the Historical Collections. The 
present number of Resident Members is five hundred and 
two, of Corresponding, one hundred and thirty-six. 

Five field meetings have been held during the past sea- 
son; at East Saugus, Wenham Pond in Beverly, Glouces- 
ter, Rockville chapel in South Danvers and Xewburyport. 
These meetings have been largely attended, and a greater 
interest than at any previous season has been manifested. 



CX VII 

Evening meetings have been held on the second and 
fourth Mondays of each month for the first part of the 
winter, and the first and third Mondays afterwards, at the 
rooms of the Institute, commencing in October and clos- 
ing with the annual meeting in May. The large number 
attending these meetings calls for a more commodious 
meeting room at as early a day as practicable. 

The Lecture Committee, having adopted the plan of 
having courses of lectures on special subjects and of an 
educational character, delivered to appreciative audiences, 
in lieu of the more extended courses of a miscellaneous 
character of former years, made arrangements with Messrs. 
Putnam and Tracy, who have taken the initiative, and the 
committee trust that this plan will be adopted in other 
branches. 

F. W. Putnam, on the five Thursday evenings in 
March, delivered a course of lectures on "Insects, their 
habits and structure," at Lyceum hall, under the auspices 
of the Institute, which were very instructive and were well 
attended by highly appreciative and intelligent audiences. 
At the close of the course the following resolution, moved 
by Prof. A. Crosby and seconded by Gen. H. K. Oliver, 
was unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved: That we express to Mr. Putnam our high 
appreciation of the valuable and interesting Course of 
Lectures he has just completed; and the personal thanks 
and obligations of our community to him for these labors 
• in the cause of science and public improvement, especially 
in view of his generous appropriation of the greater part 
of the proceeds to the benefit of the Museum of the Essex 
Institute." 

Cyrus M. Tracy of Lynn has delivered two of a series 
of eight lectures on Botany at the rooms of the Institute 
on the two preceding Saturday afternoons. 



CXVIII 



The Treasurer presented the following statement of 
the financial condition, for the year ending May, 1865. 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Debits. 

Athenasum Eent, half fuel, &c. 

Publications, $1001 25 ; collecting assessments, $23 10, 
Postage and Express, $76 90; Gas, $11 90, 
Printing, $26 75 ; Stationery and Books, $33 03, 
Sundries, ...... 

Historical account, . . . . • 

Natural History and Horticultural account, 
Balance in Treasury, .... 

$1964 63 
Credits. 

Balance of last year's account, . . . . 7 04 

Dividends Webster Bank, $60 00 ; Books sold, $180 19, 240 19 

Sale of Publications, ..... 809 40 

Assessments, ...... 908 00 



$535 


53 


1024 


35 


S8 


80 


59 


78 


41 


06 


143 


50 


59 


34 


12 


27 



$1964 63 



NATURAL HISTORY AND HORTICULTURE. 

Debits. 

Preservatives &c, $65 00; Specimens, $34 00, 
Cases, $56 75 ; Bottles, $6 60, . 
Horticultural Exhibition, 



Credits. 

Horticultural Exhibition, 
Dividends Lowell Bleachery, 

" Portland, Saco & Portsmouth Railroad. 

General Account, ..... 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Debits. 
Binding, $100 00 ; Books, $98 50, 

Credits. 

Dividends Naumkeag Bank, 
Coupons Michigan Central Railroad, 
General Account, .... 



99 


00 


63 


35 


53 


10 


$215 


45 


104 


11 


40 


00 


12 


00 


59 


34 



$215 45 



$198 50 



17 


00 


38 


00 


143 


50 



$198 50 



CXIX 



The Library is daily in receipt of additions. A large 
increase is consequent upon the exchanges that have been 
arranged with different societies, and editors or proprietors 
of historical and scientific journals, newspapers, &c. 

The additions during the year, principally by donation 
or exchange, are : 

Octavos and lesser fold, 500 

Quartos 4, Folios 12, 16 

Newspapers, Folios, (files) 88 

Pamphlets and Serials, 1,500 

2,104 

The above have been contributed by one hundred and 
twenty individuals and fifty-seven Societies, Editors of 
Journals and the various departments of the State and 
General Government. 

The publication of the Proceedings and Historical Col- 
lections has been continued during the year: of the for- 
mer, vol. Ill and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of vol. IV have been 
printed ; of the latter, volume VI. 

The annual Exhibition of Fruits, Flowers and Vegeta- 
bles took place on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, 
Sept. 21, 22, 23, and exceeded our expectations after the 
severe unprecedented drought. There were many plates of 
fine pears. The leading feature was the display of out- 
door grapes, which was judged the finest ever exhibited in 
the state. The vegetables were particularly fine. The 
flowers, as usual, were very attractive and contributed es- 
sentially to the general appearance of the rooms. 

The Historical Department has been increased during 
the year by the addition of two hundred specimens to the 
Ethnological section, a large number of valuable manu- 
scripts and several engravings and portraits. The room 
given to this department is much crowded, rendering a 
proper display of the collection impossible and obliging 
the storage of many of the engravings and manuscripts 
for the want of accommodation. 

Two hundred and thirty-seven donations, embracing 
eight thousand five hundred and three specimens, have 
been received for the Natural History Department during 
the year. The work in the various sections of the depart- 



cxx 



ment has been carried on with good results, and several 
are in a forward state of arrangement. Catalogues have 
been commenced and in some of the classes the specimens 
are as far arranged as the limited supply of case room, jars 
and alcohol will allow for the present. We are under great 
obligations to Professor Verrill, of Yale College, for the iden- 
tification and arrangement of the Polyps, and Acalephs. 
These classes have been largely increased by the valuable 
addition of several hundred specimens of East Indian corals, 
collected and presented by Capt. W. H. A. Putnam. By 
the kindness of Professor Verrill, and Mr. Alexander Agas- 
siz, who had previously identified the collection of Echino- 
derms, we have the specimens belonging to the branch of 
Radiata so far identified that it is proposed to publish a 
catalogue of the collection at an early day. We are also 
indebted to Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, for the identi- 
fication of many of our native land and fresh water shells. 

It is to be hoped that the work on the collection will not 
long be impeded by the present insufficient supply of cas- 
es and materials for the proper exhibition of the speci- 
mens. Much larger accommodations are required for the 
various departments of the Museum and these cannot be 
supplied to the extent desired without an addition to the 
present building by which, at least, three times the present 
amount of case room can be obtained. Not more than 
three-fourths of our specimens are now visible to the pub- 
lic, or of use for study, as many are stowed in kegs and 
cans in the cellar and in drawers and boxes in the ball. 
A partial supply of case room could be obtained by the 
construction of a few railing and table cases in the hall 
for the Insects, Fossils and Birds' nests and eggs. The 
cases for the pinned Insects are needed at once, for this 
valuable collection is being destroyed by its insect ene- 
mies, and until more room is given to it this destruction 
cannot be wholty prevented, even by the constant vigilance 
of the Curator 

As the arrangement of the various classes is perfected 
large numbers of duplicate specimens are separated, which 
will be presented to such institutions and individuals as 
will use them for the advancement of science, in accor- 
dance with the rule adopted by the Institute regarding 



CXXI 

the distribution of its duplicates. Though a number of 
collections are now being packed for transmission to vari- 
ous persons and societies the following, only, have been 
sent during the past year. 

To the Cabinet of Yale College : 

40 species, 102 specimens, of Corals. 
25 " 41 " " Echinoderms. 

7 " 20 " " Sponges. 

4 " 5 " " Tunicates. 

To A. L. Babcock, of Sherborn, Mass.: 
168 specimens of South American and 
2 " " African Insects. 

To the Chicago Academy of Science : 

25 species, 110 specimens, of foreign Helices. 

To the Museum of Comparative Zoology : 

1 specimen of Goniaster cuspidatus Gray, from the 
West Coast of Africa. 

To J. G. Shute of Woburn, Mass.: 

28 species, 59 specimens of foreign Shells. 

To Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, Me.: 

73 species, of several specimens each, of foreign and 
American land and fresh water Shells. 

The following estimate of the number of specimens 
(exclusive of a large number of duplicates) in the various 
departments of the Museum presents a general view of the 
character of the collection at the present time. 
Historical Department. 

The section of Ethnology contains about 1400 specimens, illustrating 
the habits, costumes, war and domestic implements of the various races 
and nations. 

In the section of Manuscripts there are a very large number of 
Manuscripts relating to our early civil and ecclesiastical history. 

In the section of Tine Arts there are several hundred Portraits, 
Paintings and Engravings, many of which are of great historical 
value. 

Department of Natural History. 

Specimens. 
Geological specimens, about . . . . 200 

Minerals, 1896 specimens, of which 196 are from 
Essex County. .... . . 1896 

17 



Badiates, 


186 species, 


Mollusks, 


1108 " 


Articulates, 


20 


Vertebrates, 


90 " 


Plants, 


135 



CXXII 

Fossils. 
250 specimens. 
2000 
50 
120 

200 " Fossils, . 2620 

Kecent. 
Plants, about 5000 species, native and foreign, among 
which are nearly all the species found in Essex County, a 
number of specimens of wood, and a large number of seeds 
&c, in all about 6500. Plants, . 6500 

Sponges, 42 species, 100 specimens. Sponges, . 100 

Acalephs, } 

Polyps, > 446 species, 1500 specimens. 

JEchinoderms, ) Badiates, . 1500 

Mollusks, in alcohol, 500 species,' 1000 specimens. 
Shells, 4152 species, 8000 specimens. 

Mollusks, . 9000 

Worms, 110 species, 200 specimens. 

Crustaceans, 150 " dry, 330 species in alcohol, 
about 1300 specimens. 

Insects, 21000 specimens pinned, 5000 specimens in alcohol, 
of these 2000 species of the pinned have been catalogued. 
Nests, 15 species, Articulates, . 27515 

Fishes, 1000 species, 2000 specimens in alcohol, and about 
200 specimens dry and mounted. 

Beptiles, 400 species, 1000 specimens, principally alcohol- 
ic. (A fine collection of Turtles mounted.) 

Birds, 100 species, 150 specimens in alcohol; 411 species, 
500 specimens mounted. 

Birds' nests, 50 species, 80 specimens. 

Birds' eggs, 180 " 425 " 

Mammals, 51 " 75 " in alcohol; 

" 65 " 70 " mounted; 

" 9 " 10 " as skins. 

Vertebrates . 45 10 

Skulls of Mammals, 172 species, 230 specimens, of which 
39 are human. 



Skulls of Birds, 


150 


species, 


200 specimc 


Skulls of Beptiles, 


27 


u 


27 " 


Skulls of Fishes, 


10 


n 


10 


Skeletons of Mammals, 


12 


u 


12 " 


Skeletons of Birds, . 


4 


" 


5 " 


Skeletons of Beptiles, 


6 


cc 


6 


Skeletons of Batrachians, 


10 


" 


30 


Skeletons of Fishes, 


8 


" 


8 


Farts of Skeletons, of 3Ian 


imals, 8 


u 


8 


" " Bird 


s, 10 


it 


10 


Teeth of Mammals, 


14 


a 


80 


Jaws of Fishes, 


15 


n 


20 


Horns and Antlers, 


43 


a 


43 






Osteologi 


cal collection 



639 



CXXIII 



May not the Institute hope that its friends and the pa- 
trons of science will soon give that aid, which is so essen- 
tial to promote its objects and to continue with success 
its usefulness in diffusing a knowledge of the works of the 
Creator and of the History of Mankind ? 

If an addition to our present accommodations and 
means could be obtained and a number of professional 
Naturalists, having the charge of the various branches of 
the department of Natural History, and also several as- 
sistants in the Library, who, in addition to the ordinary 
duties could classify and arrange the manuscripts, pam- 
phlets, newspapers and other materials that appertain to 
the Historical department, be permanently attached to the 
institution, much good would be done to the cause of 
education in our community by well arranged collections 
and libraries, and also by free lectures illustrating the vari- 
ous objects of the Institute. Much could also be accom- 
plished through the medium of our publications in advanc- 
ing the cause of science, and also of historic research 
by the continuation of the printing of abstracts of wills, 
deeds and other documents which are deposited in the 
offices of the county of Essex, and other materials of an 
historical nature that may be obtained from various sources. 

Letters were read from : 

Prof. S. S. Parvin, Iowa City; Asst. Surg. B. G. Wilder, 55th Mass., 
Vol.; W. P. Alcott, Andover; Dr. Wm. Prescott, Concord, N. H. ; J. 
W. P. Jenks, Middleborougli ; John Jenkins, Monroe, N. Y. ; Eev. 
Joseph Blake, Gilmantown, M. H. ; Edwin Harrison, St. Louis, Mo. ; Dr. 
Simeon Shurtleff, Weatogue, Ct. ; W. W. Jefferis, Westchester, Pa. ; 
W. J. Beal, Cambridge ; L. E. Chittenden, New York; Wm. H. Edwards, 
Newburgh, N. Y. ; Wm. E. Hall, Boston; Theodore Howland, Sect. 
Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science; E. Lewis, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Chas. N. 
Hoyt, Providence, E. I.; John C. Trantivine, Philadelphia; Erederic 
Ware, Cambridge; Edward Norton, Earmington, Ct., relating to the 
publications : Elihu Hall, Athens, 111. ; Geo. C. Huntington, Kelley's 
Island, Ohio, relating to the collection of specimens : Prof. S. E. Baird, 
Smithsonian Institution, on business : E. C. Butman, accepting mem- 
bership : A. G. Browne, department of the South, relating to the 
transmission of books for the library : Smithsonian Institution, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of publications : C. W. Eelt, calling attention 
to Mr. Perkins' class in Phonography: A. Huntington, declining to be 
a candidate for the Presidency. 



CXXIV 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 

PRESIDENT. 

FRANCIS PEABODY. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Of Natural History — Samuel P. Fowler. Of History — A. C. Goodell Jr. 

Of Horticulture — J. F. Allen. 

secretary and treasurer. 

Henry Wheatland. 

librarian. 

Charles Davis. 

superintendent of the museum. 

F. W. Putnam. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

J. C. Lee, P. S. Rogers, H. M. Brooks, G. D. Plrippen, Jas. Chamberlain. 

LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 

J. G. Waters, Alpheus Crosby, H. J. Cross, G. D. Wildes, William Sutton. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

A. C. Goodell Jr., G. D. Phippen, Ira J. Patch, C. M. Tracy, 

AVm. P. Upham, R. S. Rantoul, F. W. Putnam. 

LECTURE COMMITTEE. 

Francis Peabody, A. C. Goodell Jr., G. D. Phippen, George Perkins, 
James Kimball, G. W. Briggs, F. W. Putnam. 

FIELD MEETING COMMITTEE. 

Geo. B. Loring, C. M. Tracy, S. Barden, S. P. Fowler. J. M. Ives, 
G. D. Wildes, E. N. Walton, Charles Davis. 

CURATORS OF NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 

Geology — H. F. Shepard ; Mineralogy— C. H. Higbee; 

Paleontology — H. F. King; Botany — C. M. Tracy; 

Comparative Anatomy — Henry Wheatland ; Yertebrata — F. W. Putnam ; 

Articulata — J. H. Emerton ; Hollusca — H. F. King; 
Radiata — Caleb Cooke. 

CURATORS OF HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Etlinology . 

William S. Messervy, M. A. Sticknej , John Robinson. 

Manuscripts. 

W. P. Epham, H. M. Brooks, S. B. Buttrick, G. L. Streeter, 

G. D. Wildes, E. S. Waters. 

Fine Arts. 
Francis Peabody, J. G. Waters, J. A. Gillis. 

CURATORS OF HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

J. M. Ives, J. S. Cabot, R. S. R.ogers, John Bertram, G. B. Loring, 

S. A. Merrill, W. Maloon, A. Lackey, G. F. Brown, 

C. H. Xorris, C. H. Higbee. 

Flowers. 
Francis Putnam, William Mack, Benj. A. West, Geo. D. Glover. 



cxxv 

Voted; That the meetings on the first and third Mon- 
days of each month be held at 4 o'clock P. M. until other- 
wise directed. 

Voted; That the Curators of Horticulture be authorized 
to hold exhibitions of Fruits, Flowers, Vegetables &c, at 
such times and places as may be desirable ; also to offer 
premiums and gratuities for specimens exhibited, under 
such regulations as they may adopt. 

Voted ; That Messrs. Goodell, Rantoul and Upham be 
a committee to prepare suitable resolutions expressive of 
the thanks of the Institute due to A. Huntington, the re- 
tiring President, for his valuable services during the four 
years which he has presided over the Institute. 

On motion of Mr. Putnam, Chapter I, Section VI, 
lines five and six, of the By Laws were so amended as to 
read "make such use of the duplicates as may be benefici- 
al to science." 

George M. "White, James A. Chamberlain, Jonathan 
Ropes and George Fowler, all of Salem, were elected 
Resident Members. 

Monday, May 15. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

R. S. Rantoul, for the committee appointed at the an- 
nual meeting, submitted the following report which was 
adopted and a copy of it ordered to be transmitted to the 
retiring President: — 

Whereas the Honorable Asahel Huntington having de- 
clined reelection to the Presidency of the Essex Institute 
after four years of acceptable service in that capacity, dur- 
ing which the Institute has prospered beyond precedent. 

Therefore, Resolved: That we cannot forego this oppor- 
tunity of putting upon record our appreciation of the vir- 
tues of his private character, and of the usefulness of his 
long professional and public career ; together with the hope 
that he may hereafter look back upon his efforts, while 
President of this body, in behalf of sound learning, the 



CXXVI 

diffusion of useful knowledge and the generous culture of 
letters, science and the arts, as not the least among the 
honorable services of a well spent life. 

John L. Marks, William H. Silsbee, and Henry It. Gard- 
ner, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 

Tuesday, June 6. Adjourned Regular meeting. 
Henry F. King in the chair. 
On motion of the Superintendent it was Voted : That 
the thanks of the Institute be tendered to George C. Hun- 
tington, Esq., of Kelley's Island, Ohio, for the donation of 
a valuable collection of Fishes from Lake Erie, and also 
for his kindness in defraying the necessary expenses at- 
tending the same. 

Wednesday, June 7. Field meeting at Nahant. 
The society opened their series of Field meetings this 
day by a visit to the ever delightful retreats of Nahant. 
The number in attendance reaching over two hundred who 
took the regular conveyances from the Central Station, 
besides many who took other means and different hours 
for the passage. Arriving at the. Methodist Chapel, which 
had been selected as the place of meeting, the company 
deposited their various provisions, and under the guidance 
of John Q. Hammond, Esq., the greater number set out to 
examine the curiosities of the place. Some, in search of 
particular objects, scattered here and there, to fish, or gather 
plants, or break the rocks for specimens of minerals. But 
most of the party made a circuit round the shore, passing 
the summer residences of Gen. Fremont, Prof. Longfellow, 
and that formerly of Prescott, the historian, as well as 
many more. The "Swallow's Cave" received due atten- 
tion, as also those features of the eastern extremity, " Pulpit 
Rock,' 5 "Natural Bridge," "Castle Rock," and the "Spouting 



CXXVII 

Horn." A brief stay was made about the crumbling ruins 
of the old Nahant Hotel, whose scorched and shivered 
stones yet bear up against the elements. Some pursued 
their walk to the "Maolis Gardens," so fancifully laid out 
and bedecked by the late Frederick Tudor, and puzzled 
themselves with his unexplained devices. On returning, 
and after a plentiful repast, the party assembled in the 
Chapel for the formal exercises of the afternoon, when the 
meeting was called to order by A. C. Goodell, Historical 
Vice President. 

Letters were read from : 

Eev. E. C. Bolles, Portland, Me. ; Trubner & Co., London, Eng. ; 
Mrs. B. F. Mudge, Quindaro, Kansas ; E. L. Layard, Director of the 
South. African Museum, Cape Town; Elihu Hall, Athens, 111.; C. M. 
Tracy, Lynn ; Smithsonian Institution ; J. J. Babson, Gloucester ; G. 
B. Loring; A. Lackey, Marblehead; John Howarth, Boston; H. R. 
Stiles, New York; David Choate, Essex; Dr. Win. Prescott, Concord, N. 
H. ; Dr. T. M. Brewer, Boston; Chas. M. Wheatley, Phoenixville, Pa.; 
Prof. Richard Owen, Indiana State University; B. O. Peirce, Beverly; 
A. S. Peabody, Cape Town, Africa; Geo. C. Huntington, Kelley's Isl., 
Ohio ; Prof. A. E. Verrill, Yale College ; Prof. James Hall, Albany, 3S". 
Y. ; W. W. Denslow, Inwoocl, N. Y. ; W. W. Stewart, Custodian, Buf- 
falo Soc. of Nat. Sciences; Brown, Brothers & Co,, Boston, on various 
business matters : Sidney S. Lyon, Jeifersonville, Ind. ; Rev. Samuel 
Lockwood, Keyport, N. J. ; Dr. T. M. Logan, Sacramento, Cal. ; Thure 
Kumlien, Busseyville, Wis. ; D. G. Tompson, Montpelier, Vt. ; Prof. S. 
F. Baird, Smithsonian Institution ; Prof. C. C. Hamlin, Waterville Col- 
lege; H. B. Lord, Ludlowville, N. Y. ; Coclman & Shurtlefl', Boston; 
W. A. Haines, New York; E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me.; W. J. Beal, 
Cambridge ; Dr. Frederick Brendel, Peoria, 111. ; Prof. S. N. Norwood, 
Columbia, Mo.; Rev. E. B. Eddy, Waltham; Dr. John G. Thomas, 
Riviere-du-Loi*p-en-bas, Canada; Prof. Alex. Winchell, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. ; G. A. Boardman, Milltown, Me. ; A. L. Russell, Quebec, Canada; 
Henry Bannister, Evanston, 111., relating to the Publications : Maine 
Historical Society, acknowledging receipt of Publications ; Albert G. 
Browne ; J. Vincent Browne ; F. Cox ; transmission of Specimens : Prof. 
James Hall, Albany; Henry R. Gardner; accepting Membership: F. 
Peabody, accepting the office of President : G. B. Loring, accepting the 
office of Chairman of Field Meeting Committee. 



CXXVII1 



Donations to the Museum and Library were announced. 

Dr. George B. Loring being called upon said that he 
had been surprised in several ways to day. He had found 
evidences of greater antiquity on Nahant than he had sup- 
posed were to be seen on the continent. He had found a 
ruin here, whose worn and tottering stones showed more 
of the ravages of time than the broken arches of the Fo- 
rum. He had been through Rome and many places in 
Europe of the older sort, but nowhere had he seen such 
worn and plainly antiquated piles as appeared on Nahant 
to day. Further on, he had found the very rocks carved 
with inscriptions in forgotten tongues. No one here to day 
could read them, no one could say what meant the ' epinon 
ek tes petiTis* that still endured in the monumental granite 
of Nahant. Statues were here, but beyond the design of 
the old masters; frescoes, but wholly pre-Raphaslite in their 
execution. He was full of wonder at what he had seen. 
He further spoke of the place as formerly a field for the 
simple agriculture of the early time, when the unambi- 
tious farmers drove their flocks here to graze by day and 
brought them home at night. He closed by an eloquent 
allusion to the restoration of peace, under which blessing 
the Institute could come to such delightful spots as this 
and continue its Field meetings. 

John Q. Hammond, Esq., of Nahant, would speak in 
behalf of his townsmen and extend their welcome to the 
Institute in their visit to day. For himself, he felt little 
of the enthusiasm in the study of nature that some exhib- 
ited, but he could appreciate the purposes and the utility 
of the Society, and was glad to lend what help he might 
to promote its interests. A good field was surely here 
for exploration ; students were constantly resorting to it, 
and its rare and curious wealth seemed only partly yet 
discovered. 



CXXIX 



(J. M. Tracy, of Lynn, gave a brief account of some 
points in the botany of the peninsula. A remarkable fact 
appears in the almost total absence of all heath -like plants 
from this place. It is said there are a few huckleberry 
bushes here; but not a pyrola, laurel, lambkill, blueberry, 
swamp-pink, or any such thing could he ever find. On 
the contrary, the field chickweed, a most lovely plant for 
the lawn, grows here abundantly, though rare or wanting 
in all the region round. Formerly, it is said, Nahant had 
heavy forests ; but the settlers destroyed them, and since 
then a tree can scarcely be made to endure the climate. 
Persevering care has, however, partly retrieved the error, 
and the place is growing far greener than for years before. 

F. W. Putnam, of Salem, gave some description of the 
zoological specimens taken during the day. 

Wm. J. Beals, of Union Springs, N. Y., said he had 
been born and brought up in a country where there were no 
rocks, no ocean, no evergreen trees, and he had heard of 
these things in his childhood, as the inventions in a pleas- 
ant story. A few years ago, he had made a pilgrimage to 
New England that he might see these things ; and he had 
set himself down by the sea for half a day at a time, full 
of delight as a child. You who live in the midst of these 
things have no idea of their true beauty. He gave a 
description of the curious plant called the sundew, which 
traps insects by the adhesive drops on its leaves. 

Caleb Cooke, late of Zanzibar, East Africa, excused 
himself from speaking on account of feeble health. He 
had enjoyed the day and its rambles, and at another time 
would be glad to speak. 

Abner H. Davis and Emery S. Johnson, of Salem, were 
elected Resident Members. John da Costa Soares, of 
Mozambique, E. C. A.; George C. Huntington, of Kelley's 
18 



cxxx 

Island, Ohio ; Professor Richard Owen, of New Harmony, 
Ind., and Professor Leo Lesquereux, of Columbus, Ohio, 
were elected Corresponding Members. 

On motion of Mr. Tracy the thanks of the Institute 
were voted to the Proprietors of the Methodist Church for 
the use of their House for the meeting, and to Messrs John 
Q,. Hammond, Edmund Johnson, George A. Perkins and 
other friends in Nahant for their favors on this occasion. 

Monday, June 14. Regular Meeting. 
The President, Francis Peabody, in the chair. 

Letters were read from : 

W. W. Denslow, Inwood, X. Y. ; S. M. Buck, Hancock. Mich. ; A. S. 
Taylor, Sauta Barbara, Cal. ; Prof. J. G. Norwood, Columbia, Mo. ; E. 
S. Morse, Gorhaiu, Me. : Prof. Joseph Henry, Sect. Smithsonian Insti- 
tution; X. Brown, Boston: Geo. C. Huntington, Kelley's Island, Ohio; 
H. W. S. Cleveland, Danvers; Andrew Lackey, Marblehead; Levered; 
Saltonstall, Xewton, relating to general business and the transmission 
of books and specimens: Geo. Scarborough, Sumner, Kansas; Rev. A. 
P. Chute, Sharon, relating to the publications : J. J. H. Gregory, Mar- 
blehead; C M. Tracy, Lynn ; G. W. Skinner, New Bedford; X. E. 
Atwood, Provincetown, relating to the Field meetings : Abner H. 
Davis, accepting membership : G. H. Peirson, containing an invitation 
to join in the celebration of the fourth of July in Salem. 

The Secretary submitted the following resolutions 
which were unanimously adopted. 

The Institute having been invited to join in the celebra- 
tion of the fourth of July in Salem : — 

Resolved: That the coming anniversary of American 
Independence marks an epoch in the progress of civiliza- 
tion and the life of Nations to which no studious observer 
can be indifferent, and that this Historical Body cordially 
unite, in spirit, with the people of this community, in such 
demonstrations as shall impress upon the minds of all the 
character of the crisis through which the Nation has pass- 
ed and the honorable place in history which awaits the 
defenders of their Country. 

Resolved : That, whereas, the Members are widely 
scattered, and many of them will take part in the demon- 



CXXXI 

stration in connection with other bodies, the Institute, 
grateful for the polite invitation, deem it unadvisable to 
take any prominent position ; at the same time they will 
cheerfully render such assistance in their power, consistent 
with their regulations, as may contribute to the interest of 
the occasion. 

The President, as chairman of the committee on the 
"First Church," presented a final report of the doings of the 
committee. The frame of the Church has been removed 
and placed in the rear of Plummer Hall, .encased in an ex- 
ternal structure of suitable strength to which it is bolted 
and is seen projecting from the plastering on the inside of 
the building. The Committee, in giving the key of the 
building to the Institute, do so, with the sincere wish, that 
the Holy House may be preserved to those who come 
after us, and handed down, from generation to generation, 
as a valued trust. 

Rev. G. I). "Wildes, after some appropriate remarks, 
moved that the report be accepted and that the thanks of 
the Institute be tendered to the committee, for the faithful 
and successful performance of their duty, which was 
unanimously adopted. [The report of the Committee will 
be published in full in the Historical Collections.] 

R. S. Rantoul read a memoir of Major Thompson Max- 
well, a soldier in the old French war, the Revolution, and 
the war of 1812. 

On motion of Mr. Putnam, the memoir read by Mr. Ran- 
toul was referred to the publication committee, for publi- 
cation in the Historical Collections. 

The thanks of the Institute were voted to Colonel E. 
F. Miller for the presentation of the original documents, 
from which the memoir of Major Maxwell had been com- 
piled. 

Mr. Putnam communicated, by title, a paper by E. S. 
Morse, on the "Classification of the Mollusca on the Princi- 



pie of Cephalization," accompanied with a plate. Referred 
to the Publication Committee. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 

H. R. Lovett of Beverly was elected a Resident Member. 

Thursday, Juxe 24. Field meeting at Standley's Grove 
in Beverly. 

This second Field meeting of the season was attended 
by a large party from Salem and the adjoining towns, 
who, after a pleasant forenoon's ramble in the woods and 
over the Laurel Ground, and a collation in the grove, 
assembled on the platform, when the meeting was called to 
order by Dr. G. B. Loring, Chairman of the Field meet- 
ing committee, who made a few remarks upon the history 
of the town, alluding to several of the worthy persons who 
once lived within its limits, as the Cabots, Nathan Dane, 
President Willard, of Harvard University, and others. 

After the reading of the records of the last meeting, 
letters were read from the following : 

Thomas Bland, Xew York ; Thomas Mc II wraith, Hamilton, C. W. ; 
Capt. Alpheus Hyatt, Baltimore, Md. ; Thomas M. Peters, Moalton, Ala. ; 
John Bolton, Portsmouth, Ohio; S. I. Smith, Norway, Mc. ; A. L. Bab- 
cock, Sherborn, Mass.; E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me.: Thomas Mechan, 
Germantown, Pa., relating to the publications :Prof. Theo. Gill, Smith- 
sonian Institution, applying for the use of specimens : Prof. Leo Les- 
quereux, Columbus, Ohio, accepting Membership and notice of trans- 
mission of books for the library : Asst. Surg. A. S. Packard, Camp near 
Washington ; C. M. Tracy, Lynn ; Dr. W. Prescott, Concord, N. H. ; Rev. 
S. Barden, Rockport, on business : B. F. Mudge, Quindaro, Kansas, 
stating that he will send fossils to the Institute : W. H. Dall & R. E. C. 
Stearns, San Francisco, relating to an exchange of specimens. 

Donations to the Library an 1 Museum were announced. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes read a poem written for the occasion 
by Mrs. P. A. Hanaford. 

Dr. Henry C. Perkins, of Newburyport, read a paper of 
which the following is an abstract. 



Attempt to explain the formation, or development, of 
the cumulus or thunder cloud on the principles laid down 
by Mr. Espy in his Philosophy of Storms, modified some- 
what as to the principle of the ascent of the air in the tor- 
nado and water spout. 

On the 9th of August, 1852, a large cumulus cloud was 
observed in process of development, the cloud was soon 
capped by a dense, white vapor, (as if by a veil), showing 
that the air above the cloud was being lifted bodily (as it 
were) by the ascending column of hot air, above the dew 
point. 

The dry bulb thermometer stood at 79° F., wet bulb 
at 69° F., the dew point being at 65° F. 

The rain was soon seen to fall and in a few moments 
the lightning was observed, followed, at an interval of 45 
seconds, by a clap of thunder. A heavy shower from this 
cloud fell at Hampton Falls. 

Reckoning a fall in temperature of 1° for every 100 
yards, the base of the cloud was about 1,400 yards above 
the surface of the Earth, and the top of the cloud about 
three times as high, or 4,200 yards. 

If we suppose with Mr. Espy that the air cools in ascen- 
ding at the rate of 1.5° for every hundred yards, the ther- 
mometer in and outside of the cloud would indicate a fall 
of 60° in the temperature in ascending 4,000 yards, unless 
warmed up by the condensation of the vapors in the cloud. 

By the above ratio of descent of temperature, when the 
air has risen 1,700 yards, the temperature will have fallen 
between 25 and 26°, and in so doing, will, (according to 
Dalton's tables) after making due allowance for the in- 
creased space it occupies in ascending three miles, viz.: 
one-third, condense forty-four one hundred and fifteenths 
nearly of its vapor; which would be sufficient to heat up 
the air in the cloud 35°. 

The expansion of the air in the cloud by the giving out 
of this amount of latent heat, viz.: 35,° would equal thirty- 
five four hundred and eightieths or one-fourteenth nearly, 
of its bulk, or of the space occupied by the ascending 
column of hot air. 

Supposing now the base of the cloud to be at one mile 
above the earth, where the barometer rnav ' ie taken as 



CXXXIV 

standing at 30 inches and the density of the air at unit} - , 
or one ; at four thousand two hundred yards, its density 
would be .630, or one third less : or in other words the 
barometer would stand at 20 inches at or' just above the 
cloud, and at 30 inches at its base : one-fourteenth of this 
difference would equal .71 of an inch of barometric pressure, 
which would express the fall of the barometer from expan- 
sion by the heat given out by the condensation of the 
vapors if the expansion was all in an upward direction. 

On the supposition that the column of heated air or the 
cloud ascends to a point where the barometer would stand 
at 20 inches, the amount of rain which would fall would 
be about 1.6 inch, supposing all the vapors to be condens- 
ed and to fall on an area equal to the base of the cloud ; 
and it would occupy about 30 minutes in falling : for when 
the dew point is at 65° the air contains about one seventy- 
seventh of its weight of vapor, and air at 80° dew point 
ascending on the principle of floating bodies, at the rate of 
7 1-2 feet in one second, at 65°, would rise one tenth less 
rapidly, or at about the rate of 6 feet and 9 inches in a 
second. 

Without doubt the Sun may and does, in the daytime, aid 
in the development of the cumulus cloud. We learn from 
Mr. Wise, the Aeronaut, that the air in the base of and on 
the sunny side of the cloud is much warmer than at other 
parts, and these clouds are seldom formed in the night ; but 
we apprehend that the electricity given off by the conden- 
sation of the vapors is, in many of these clouds, especially 
those giving rise to the tempest or tornado and the water 
spout, the great expansive power in their development: in- 
deed, on no other principles but that of the convective dis- 
charge of electricity can be explained the uplifting and re- 
moval to great distances of heavy bodies, the drying up of 
ponds, or the phenomena noticed in the subjoined account 
of the tornado which has so recently occurred in Wisconsin. 

"An awfol tornado nearly destroyed the village of Yiroqua. Wiscon- 
sin. Thursday week. One hundred -and seventeen persons were killed 
and wounded. A correspondent of the N. Y. World gives the follow- 
ing particulars : — 

The southern part of the village, for a strip near eighty rods in width, 
was swept away. Where stood handsome white houses, neat barns, and 
out buildings, nothing now remains but ruins. Gardens, garden fenc- 



cxxxv 

es, orchards, grape vines, floral shubbery, well-curbs, buggies', 
wagons, cutters, &c, &c, were caught up, whirled, shaken, dashed to 
fragments, and the pieces taken for miles beyond. Never was work of 
destruction more rapid or complete. The track of the whirlwind is as 
if some mighty river had rushed over the course, leaving thousands of 
odd fragments strewn with liberal yet spiteful power. 

Trees were torn up by the roots and thrown rods away. Roofs, sides, 
doors, floors, chimneys, underpinning, and furniture of houses were 
pounded together, broken into fragments a,ncl fairly sown over the 
land. Log chains were twisted apart, stoves and plow castings broken, 
ready for the smelter's furnace. Tree tops were loaded with clothing, 
bed-clothes, feather beds, carpets, chairs, harnesses, calves, sheep, 
dogs, cats, and poultry, dead or writhing on points of branches which 
had themselves been broken. Timbers have lodged in the topsof tall 
oaks, or, from their weight, borne saplings to the earth, and the sap- 
lings left covered with fragments of household goods as if hung out to 
dry. Doors, partitions, roofs, and floors of houses are found from live 
rods to three miles from where they belonged. Horses and cattle were 
killed or so badly maimed as to make tneir death an act of mercy. 
Eencc rails, for ten years lying on the earth till imbedded therein, were 
whirled out. Stumps were torn up. Great rocks of twenty tons 
weight, were rolled, lifted, and broken by the mighty power. 

Near the resideuce of John Gardner stands a tall oak rising about 
sixty feet from the ground. The wind whisked every leaf and small 
twig from the tree, leaving it looking as if dead. The house— a large 
white one — was taken so high in the air that it was seen above the tree 
tops, dashed to the ground, lifted again higher than before, whirled 
around aaid dashed roof down upon the earth a few rods from its foun- 
dation, and all but a few timbers borne away. Mrs. Gardner was in 
the house all the time ; was spilled out in the second tumble and but 
slightly hurt, while an infant who was clinging fast in her arms escaped 
without a scratch or bruise! 

In a school house were twenty-four children and a young lady teach- 
er. The building was lifted high into the air, dashed upon the ground 
some distance from its foundation, again lifted about forty feet and 
dashed bottom up to the ground, and the fragments swept away. 
Eight children were killed and every other occupant badly injured. 
One little ten year old girl, whose thigh was lacerated and broken, 
when found in the fields begged the people to look for the others who 
were worse hurt than herself. The school house is not to be found. 

Mr. Bennett was blown from his own demolished residence into a 
cellar near by, from which a house had been torn away. In a few 
seconds a little girl was thrown in by him for company. At the same 
time a horse was hurried in, striking Mr. Bennett and badly breaking a 
leg. The horse kicked and struggled to release himself from the rub- 
bish which was "spilling" in upon the party, when Mr. Bennett tried to 
get a knife from his pocket that he might cut the poor animal's throat, 
and thus save the life of himself and the girl. At this moment a span 
of horses with part of their harness on were hurled in upon him and 
killed. The wagon to which they were attached went — the box to the 
west — the running gear into fragments and away over the field. The 
man who was in the wagon driving when the storm began was thrown 
like an arrow into an oak thicket thirty rods south from where he start- 
ed, with fatal injuries." 



Joseph H. Abbot, of Beverly, offered a few remarks, 
corroborative of the theory advanced by Dr. Perkins relat- 
ing to the formation of thunder clouds, from personal ob- 
servations. 

Rev. Mr. Spaulding, of Newburyport, said a few words, 
expressive of his gratification at being present and of the 
increasing popularity of the study of Nature. 

John I. Baker, of Beverly, welcomed the Institute, and 
thanked them for holding a meeting in the town. 

C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, explained the plants which had 
been collected during the day, interspersing his remarks 
with many pleasant allusions, especially in respect to 
the Laurel found in such profusion, as though "to the 
Manor born," and thought that the reputation of Beverly 
could well "rest upon her laurels." 

F. W. Putnam spoke of the nest of a Red-eyed Vireo, 
which he had found on a small oak in a swamp. The 
nest contained two eggs of the Cowbunting and none of 
the Vireo, having evidently been deserted as soon as the 
Cowbunting's eggs had been laid. 

Joseph D. Tncke of Beverly presented a Lieutenant's 
commission given by Gov. Dudley of Massachusetts to 
Thomas Whittridge of Beverly, April 2o, 1707. 

R. S. Rantoul read a few extracts from the memoir of 
Thomas Maxwell, a Revolutionary hero. 

Rev. G. D. Wildes offered some reminiscences of the 
brave young men who had achieved our National Inde- 
pendence. 

The Secretary read the following communication:— 

"C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, one of our esteemed Members 
and Curator of Botany, delivered on Saturday last the clos- 
ing lecture of a course of ei<?ht on Botanv. This course 
gave great satisfaction and was much admired by an ap- 
preciative audience. Before separating a meeting was 
called to order and Professor Crosby was invited to pre- 



CXXXVII 

side. James Upton, after a few appropriate remarks, in- 
troduced the following resolutions, which were unani- 
mously adopted: — 

Resolved; That we have listened with much satisfac- 
tion to the course of lectures by Mr. C. M. Tracy, of which 
the concluding one has been delivered this afternoon, and 
that the subject has been presented by him with a discrim- 
ination of thought and felicity of language as to demand 
some special token of our appreciation ; we therefore ten- 
der to Mr. Tracy the thanks of this audience for his very 
successful efforts to interest us in his favorite study, the 
science of Botany. 

It was then Voted, that a notice of these lectures with 
a copy of this resolution be communicated at a meeting 
of the Essex Institute with a request that the same be en- 
tered upon the records." 

On motion of the Secretary it was Voted: That the 
above communication be entered upon the records. 

George W. Pousland and J. Vincent Browne Jr., of 
Salem, were elected Resident Members. 

On motion of C. M. Tracy it was Voted: That the thanks 
of the Institute be tendered to Charles Davis Esq., Miss 
Sarah J. Tittle and other citizens of Beverly, for the kind 
interest they have manifested and the assistance they have 
afforded in carrying out this meeting. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during- April, May, 
and June, 1865. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 
By Donation. 
Adams, Samuel, Hamilton. Attacus cecropia from Hamilton. 
Allen, J. P., Salem. Larva? and Imago of Lepidopterous Insects 
from the Grape vine. 

Baker, David, Andover. Cast off skin of a Black Snake, 5 feet 2 in- 
ches in length. 

Bennett. Mns. A., Salem. Flying fish from Atlantic Ocean. Teeth 
of a Squid, Crustacean and Centipede from the East Indies. 
Bolles, Rev. E. C, Portland, Me. Several Insects from Portland. 
Brooks, H. M., Salem. Attacus polijphemus from Salem. 
Brown Jr., Bex.t., Salem. Papilio Turnus from Salem. 
19 



CXXXVIII 

Buffalo Society of Natural Science.?, Buffalo. X. Y. Collection 
of 180 species of Plants from the vicinity of Buffalo. 

Buttrick. S. B., Salem. Several Minerals. 

Carlen, Samuel, Salem. Papilio Turnus from Salem. 

Carlton, Feazer, Salem. Attacus cecropia from Salem. 

Colcord. Mrs. Helen M., South Danvers. Male, female, and young 
Bed-winged Blackbird from Sonth Danvers. 

Conway, Mrs., Salem. Nuts from South America. 

Cooke, Caleb, Salem. Collection of Plants from Zanzibar, Africa. 
Ophidian from a well in Zanzibar, Africa. Young Partridge from Salem. 
Parasites from the Cod, Haddock, and Skate, from Salem Harbor. 

Crosby, Mrs. A., Salem. Cocoon of Attacus cecropia containing a 
gram of com between the two layers of the cocoon. 

Dbnslow, W. W., Xew York. Si species of Plants, mostly collected 
by Audubon on his trip to the Rocky Mountains. 

Eaglkston, Capt. J. H., Salem. Sulphur from IsL of Pormosa. 

Eaton. Peter E., South Danvers. Head of a Barbyroussa Hog kill- 
ed on the Coast of Xew Zealand in 1845, by Charles H. Ingalls. 

Emerton, James H., Salem. Gall flies and their parasites from Oak 
galls. Aquatic larva; and larva of a Beetle from Swampscott. 

Pelt. John G., Salem. Meloe angusticalis from Salem. 

Flint, C. H., Salem. Bombus pennsylvanicus from Salem. 

Hammond, J. L., Salem. Musk gland of the Musk Deer from China. 

Hathaway, Benj. P., Salem. Chicken with four legs. 

Heath. X.. Salem. Collection of Insects irom Salem. 

Hill, Benj. D., South Danvers. Barnacles from the Ship "Said 
Bin Sultan." 

Hobart, Miss, Salem. Hymenopterous Insect and a Centipede from 
Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. 

Hooper. Nath'l., Salem. Seeds from South America. 

Huntington, Geo. C, Kelley's Island, Ohio. 25 species, 38 speci- 
mens of Pishes from Lake Erie. 

Ives, J. M.. Salem. Lepidopterous Insect from Salem. 

Ives, J. S., Salem. Surf Duck from Salem Harbor. 

Janes, Joseph P., Topsfield. Attacus Luna from Topsfield. 

Jones, E. TV.. Salem. Collection of Insec's and Spiders from Salem. 

Ktttredge, Miss, Beverly. Attacus cecropia from Beverly. 

Mack, Miss Harriet O., Salem. Id species of Shells. 

Marks, J. L., Salem. Pudding stone from Long Island Sound. 
Breckenridge Coal from Kentucky. 

Morgan, Miss Rebecca, Salem. Twig of a Clove tree with the 
leaves and fruit. 

Nelson, S. A., Xewburyport. Minerals fromDedham, Boxford, and 
Xewburyport. 



CXXXIX 

Ordway, Col. Albert, 24th Mass. Inft. Specimen of Madrepora 
from Florida. 

Perley, Thomas W., Topsfield. Attacus cecropia from Topsfleld. 

Pickman, H. D., Salem. Several Fishes from Massachusetts Bay. 
Parasites from a Sculpiri. 

Porter, E. J., Salem. 25 species of Insects from Salem. 

Pousland, George, Salem. Skate from Salem Harbor. 

Putnam, Mrs. Ebex, Salem. Several Insects and Cells of the Mud 
wasp from Providence, R. I. 

Putnam, E. L., Salem. 2 Cockroaches from Santa Cruz, British 
Honduras. 

Putnam, F. "W.j Salem. Nest of the Red-eyed Vireo, containing 
two eggs of the Cow Bunting, from Beverly. 

Ropes, T., Salem. Larvae of an insect very destructive to the 
Tartarian Honeysuckle. 

Safford, Joshua, Salem. Malformed Claw of a Lobster. 

Sanborn, Francis G., Salem. Collection of Spiders from St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Saunders, Miss Mary, Salem. Eggs of a Lepidopterous Insect 
from an Apple tree. 

Siiepard, H. F., Salem. Hydrokls and Polyzoa from Atlantic Ocean, 
Lat. 28°N., Long. 60°W. Collected April 1, 1865. 

Shepard, S. A. D., Salem. Male and female Dragon flies from 
Salem. 

Siireve, Capt. S. V., Salem. Malformed egg of a Hen. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, I). C. 66 species, 125 
specimens of Bird's Eggs, principally from Arctic America. 

Symonds, N. G., Salem. Embryo Skate taken from an egg found in 
Salem Harbor, May 1st, 1865. 

Tittle, Mrs. S. J., Beverly. Spider from Beverly. 

Tuck, J. D., Beverly. jSesia pelasgus from Beverly. 

Upton, Walter, Salem. 2 young Hawks taken from a nest in 
Beverly. 

Verrill, Prof. A. E., New Haven, Ct. Collection of 46 Minerals 
from various localities. 

Wheatland, Dr. Henry, Salem. Lepidopterous larva from the 
Birch. 

White, Geo. M., Salem. 3 species of Spiders from Salem. 

Yale College, New Haven, Ct, Dry specimens of Astrophyton 
Agassizi, Asterias sp., Solaster endica, and Sol aster papposus from East- 
port, Me. ; collected by Prof. Verrill, 1864. Collection of Minerals 
from various localities. 



CXI. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 
By Doxatiox. 

Adams, Samuel, Hamilton. Two Stone Chisels of the Agawam 
Indians found in Hamilton. 

Balcii, Johx H., Newburyport. $5 bill on the Lincoln and Kenebec 
Bank, dated 1806. 

Bowditch, Mrs. Rebecca, Salem. Embroidered Mourning piece to 
the memory of Maj. Anthony Morse, 1803. 

Browne, Col. Albert G., 10 inch Shell invented by Capt. James 
Harding, Confederate Ordnance officer, made at Charleston Arsenal 
and used against Iron clad Ships. Large Shell fired from Battery 
Putnam. 10 inch shot from Charleston. Torpedo from Charleston 
Harbor. 50 specimens of Confederate local scrip of various denomi- 
nations. 50 cents, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, dollars Confederate States 
currency. 

Brown, J. Vixcext, Salem. Ballot thrown in the 8th Congression- 
al District of Virginia, Nov. 6, 1861. 

Carpexter, D. B., IT. S. Sanitary Commission. Canteen, Bullets 
and pieces of Shell from the Battlefield of Vicksburg. 

Chapel, W. P., Salem. Relics from Gosport Navy Yard. 

Chase, Geo. H., Salem. Confederate Scrip of various denominations. 

Dennis, Capt. Johx, Beverly. Hand Grenade thrown from the 
fort at Port Hudson at the time of Gen. Banks' attack, July 8, 18G3. 
Japanese Sword. 

Eaglestox, Capt. J. H., Salem. Water Jar from Manila. 

Hammoxd, J. L., Salem. Priest's Robe made by the Rebels while 
in Nankin. Brick from the Porcelain Tower of Nankin. 

Johxsox, W. B. F., Salem. War Club from Feejee Islands. 

Marks, J. L., Salem. Sword blade from the Plains of Abraham. 

Putnam:, P. W., Salem. §1 note of the Hungarian fund, dated New 
York, Feb. 2d, 1852. 

Rust, Johx O., Salem. G inch Cannon Ball from the Rebel Steamer 
Merrimac. 

Short, Miss Lydia Axx, Salem. Two Memorial Pitchers made 
during the Revolution. Chinese Umbrella. 

Smith, Warren A., Chelsea. Two 10 cent Confederate Postage 
Stamps. 

Traill, H. S., Marblehead. Pieces of the Confederate flag from 
Fort Pulaski. 

Underwood, Joseph, Marblehead. 50 cent Confederate check on 
the Miss. Central R. R. Co. 

Vaux, War. S., Philadelphia. 14 Continental bills of Pennsylvania, 
Delaware and Maryland, of various denominations. 



CXI. I 

TO THE LIBRARY. 
By Donation. 

Andrews, Charles II. The New Whole Duty of Man, 1 vol., 8vo, 
London, 1788. 

Andrews, Mrs. J. II. Wheaton's Enquiry into the right of search, 
1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1842. Patent office Report, agric. 1857. 1 vol., 8vo, 
Washington, 1858. 

Boston, City of. Boston city Documents for 1864, 2vols., 8vo. 

Brooklyn Mercantile Library Association. 7th Annual Report, 
March 30, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Brooks, Henry M. Statutes at Large passed 2d sess. 37th cong. 
IT. S. A., 1861 — 2, 8vo, pamph. ; Monthly Miscellany of Western India, 
1 vol., 8vo, Bombay 1850 ; Youth's Primer by Jona. Fisher, 1 vol., 16mo, 
Boston, 1818; Covvper's Task, 1 vol., 16mo, Boston, 1819; Alden's 
Speaker, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1810; Schoberl's Persia, 1 vol., 12mo, 
Philadelphia, 1828; Porbes' Maps of Richmond and its Fortifications. 

Browne, Albert G. F. Hoffmanni OmmiumPhysicomed Supplemen- 
tum, 1 vol., folio, Geneva, 1769; Harrington's Oceana, 1 vol., 8vo, Dub- 
lin, 1733. 

Buffalo's Young Men's Association. 29th Annual Report, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Burgess, George. Burgess' Address at the Funeral of Rt. Rev. T. 
C. Browned, Jan. 17, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Chase, George C. Friends' Review, vol. xviii, Nos. 28 to 41, incl. 

Chase, George II. Richardson's Speech in convention of Virginia, 
April 4, 1861, 8vo, pamph., Richmond, 1862. 

Chase, Mrs. George H. The Sanitary Reporter, three Numbers ; 
The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, four Numbers ; Pamphlets of Sani- 
tary Commission, seven. 

Cleveland, H. W. S., Danvers. Boston Courier from Jan. 1861, 
to June, 1865, 9 vols., folio ; North American and United States Gazette 
from April, 1861, to June, 1865, folio, 5 vols., Philad. 

Colcord, Mrs. H. M., South Danvers. The Pious Christian In- 
structed in the Catholic Church, 1 vol., 12mo, Dublin, n. d. 

Curwen, George R. Spirit of Missions, 34 Nos. The Church Al- 
manac for 1864, 16mo, pamph. The Protestant Epis. Almanac for 1864, 
16mo, pamph. 

Haldeman, S. S., Columbia, Penn. Notes on Wilson's Readers, 
12mo, pamph., Columbia, 1864. 

Hammond, J. L. Legge's Chinese Classics, vols. 1 and 2, 8vo, Hong- 
kong, 1861. 



cxlii 

Haxaiord, Mrs. P. A., Reading. The Martyred President by Mrs. 
P. A. H., Svo, pampli. Pamphlets, twenty. 

Hold en, N. J. Mass. Legis. Documents for 1865, 4 vols., 8vo. 

How, Henry, King's College, Windsor, N. S. On Magnesia Alum by 
Prof. How, Svo,- pamph. On Economic Geology of Nova Scotia, pt. 
1, 8vo, pamph. On Mordenite, 8vo, pamph. On the Waters of the 
Mineral Springs of Wilmot, 8vo, pamph. 

Hunt, Thomas. A School Book in Chinese, 1 vol., 8vo. A Visiting 
card of Howqua. 

Johnson, Mrs. Lucy P. Monthly Journal of Amer. Unit. Associa- 
tion, vols. 4 and 5, 12mo, Boston, 1863 — 4. Fowler's English Gram- 
mar, 1 vol., 12mo, New York, 1860; The New Testament, 1 vol., 12mo, 
New York, 1819; Pierpont's National Eeader, 1 vol., 12mo, Philad., 
1854. 

Kimball, Miss Elizabeth. Liberator for 1864, I vol., folio, Boston. 

Kimball, James. Proceedings of the Supreme Council of the 
Northern Jurisdiction IT. S. A., Svo, pamph., Boston, 1864; Proceed- 
ings of Gr. R. A., Chapter of Mass. for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

King, Henry F. Scientific American, vols, xi, xii, xiii, xiv. New 
Series, vols, i, ii, iii, iv. ; Blackwood's Edin. Magazine, 29 Nos. ; Littell's 
Living age, 29 Nos. 

Lapham, J. A.. Milwaukie, Wis. Lapham's Maps of Wisconsin, 
showing the remarkable effect of the Lake in elevating the mean tem- 
perature of Jan'y., and depressing that of July, 18G5. 

Layard, E. L., Cape Town, S. Africa. Catalogue of the South 
African Museum, pt. 1, 16mo, pamph. 

Lee, Miss Harriet 11. Collection of Hand Bills and Programmes. 

Lee, Higgixson & Co., Boston. Rand & Avery's Specimens of 
Printing, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1865. 

Lewis, Winslow, Boston. A description of the City Hospital of 
Boston, Svo, parnph. 

Logan, T. M., Sacramento, Cal. Reports of Bd. of Agric to Cali- 
fornia State Agric. Soc'y., Jan'y. 26, 1865, Svo, pamph. 

Lord, N. J. Files of Boston Post for Jan'y., Feb. and March, 1865. 

Loring, George B. Boston Post for March, April and May, 1865. 

Lowe, Charles, Somerville. Lowe's Sermon on the death of Lin- 
coln at Charleston, April 23, 1865, 8vo, pamph., Boston, 1865; Lowe's 
Discourse, June 4, 1865, on the condition and prospects of the South, 
8vo, pamph, Boston, 1865. 

Mack, Miss Harriet O. "Boatswains Whistle," pub. at National 
Sailors' Fair in Boston, November, 1864. 

Matthew, George F. Cupriferous Rocks of South Eastern New 
Brunswick, 8vo, pamph., St. John, N. B., 1865. 



Norwood, J. G., Columbia, Mo. Norwood's Notice of Product! &c, 
found iu Western States, 1 vol., 4to; Norwood's Illinois Geological 
Survey, 8vo, pamph. ; Several Pamphlets relating to University of 
Missouri. 

Odell, Charles. Eliot's Biographical Dictionary, 1 Vol., 8vo, Salem, 
1809. 

Owex, Eichard, Blooinington, Ind. Owen's Key to the Geology of 
the Globe, 1 vol., 8vo, Nashville, 1857 ; Owen's 2d Report on Geology of 
Arkansas, 1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1860; Owen's Report on the Geology of 
Indiana, 1 vol., 8vo, Indianapolis, 1862; Catalogues of Indiana Univer- 
sity, 1863—4, 1864—5, 8vo, pamph. 

Patterson, Robert, Pennsylvania. A Narrative of the Campaign in 
the valley of the Shenandoah, by R. Patterson, 1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1865. 

Pease, George W. 3d Ann. Rep. U. S. Christian Commission, Jan. 1, 
1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Perl*ey, Jonathan. Hepworth's Address at the Starr King Lodge 
of Masons, April 17, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Pickman, Williaji D. American Museum, vols. 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 
12. 8 vols., 8vo ; Gray's How Plants Grow, 1 vol., 12mo, New York, 1859 ; 
Whelpley's Compendof History, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1821; Goodrich's 
Early History of Virginia &c, 1 vol., 16mo, Boston, 1833; Wakefield's 
Botany, 1 vol., 12mo, Phil., 1818; Guide to the Lakes of Cumberland 
&c, 1 vol., 16mo; Ronna's Dictionuaire Francais — Italien, 1vol., 16mo; 
Paris, n. d. ; Spirit of the Annuals for 1830, 1 vol., 16mo, Phil., 1830; 
Willis' Legendary, vol. 1, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1828; The Mysteries of 
Udolpho, 3 vols., 12mo, Phil., 1800; Goodrich's United States, 1 vol., 
16mo, Boston, 1827; Memoirs of Sherburne, 1 vol., 12mo, Providence, 
1831; Rambles in Italy in 1816—17, 1 vol., 8vo, Baltimore, 1818; Staun- 
ton's Embassy to China, 1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1799 ; Life of Lafayette, 1 vol., 
16mo, Boston, 1835; Memoir of James Jackson Jr., 1 vol., 16mo, Bos- 
ton, 1836 ; Maitland's Narrative of the Surrender of Napoleon, 1 vol., 
12mo, Boston, 1826; China and the English, 1 vol., 16mo, New York, 
1835; Cathrall's Buchan, 1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1799; Angleskay Grammat- 
ika, 1 vol., 8vo; The Children's Week, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1830; Das 
Newe Testament Nach D. Martin Luthers, 1 vol., 12mo, Erankfort, 
1830; The Saracens, 2 vols., 12mo, New York, 1810; Minot's History of 
the Insurrection, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1810; Ostrander's Mensuration, 
1 vol., 8vo, New York, 1833; History of the Trial of Warren Hastings, 
1 vol., 8vo, London, 1796; Joyce's Scientific Dialogues, 3 vols., 16mo, 
Phil., 1825; Comstock's Chemistry, 1 vol., 12mo, Hartford, 1831; Con- 
versations on Chemistry, 1 vol., 12mo, New Haven, 1809; Blair's Gram- 
mar of Philosophy, 1 vol., 16mo, Hartford, 1822; Eowle's Linear 
Drawing, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1825; De Porquet, the Turning of Eng. 



CXLIV 

Idioms into FrencL, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1833; De Porquet's Parisian 
Phraseology, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1833: Comstock's Practical Elocu- 
tion, 1 vol., 12mo, Phil., 1837: Dictionnaire des locutiones vicieuses, 1 
vol., 16mo, Paris, 1813; The Traveller's Manual inEng., Er., Ger., and 
Ital., 1 vol., lGmo, Coblentz, 1847; The Holy Bible, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 
1831 ; The Holy Bible. 1 vol., lGmo, Concord, 1838; Key to Murray's 
English Grammar.. 1 vol., 12mo, Concord, 1820; TVoodbridge's Geogra- 
phy, 1 vol., 16nio, Haitford, 1825; Adam's Latin Grammar, abridged, 
1 vol., lGino, Xew Haven, 1825; Putnam's Analytical Reader, 1 vol., 
12mo, Dover, 1827; Sherwin's Algebra, 1 vol., 12mo, 7th ed., Boston, 
n. d. : Colburn"s Key to Arithmetic, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1829. 

Putnam, Mrs. E. A. 3 Pamphlets. 

Putnam, E. W. and Packard, A. S. Putnam and Packard's Notes 
on the Humble Bees and their parasites, 8vo, pamph. 

Roberts, \Yilll\m S. Asiatic Journal, vol. 1, 8vo; Stewart's Histo- 
r\~of the Discovery of America, 1 vol., 8vo. Pamphlets, 3. 

Sakford, Mrs. Joshua. Washington's Earewell Address, 1 vol., 
2-tmo, Newburyport, 1812. 

Salisbury, J. II.. Cleveland, Ohio. Catalogue of the Charity Hos- 
pital Medical College of Cleveland, Ohio, 8vo, pamph, Cleveland, 1865. 

Shabfeb, P. W., Pottsville, Pa. Maps of the Anthracite Collieries 
and the Pottsville, Lehigh, Mahonoy and Shamokin Coal Basins in 
Pcnn., by P. W. Shaefer, 1859. 

Stlmpsox, Willlvm, Chicago, 111. Stimpson's Synopsis of Marine 
Invertebrata, 8vo, pamph.; Stimpson's Malacoological Notes, Xo. 1. 

Stone, B. W. Memorandum in relation to the Gold Mines of the 
Chaudiere in Canada, 8vo, pamph. ; Circular of the Dawn Petroleum 
Compauy. 

Trask, J. H., Wenham. Reports of Selectmen and School Com- 
mittee of Wenham, March, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Tuckeu, W. P. Bishop Burgess' 5th Charge, July 9, 1862, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Ward, Charles. Journal of Commerce Jr., New York: Essex 
Statesman, Salem. 

"Waters. J. Lixtox, Chicago, 111. Receipts and Expenditures of 
Chicago, from April 1, 1864 to April 1, 1865, 8vo, pamph; A Guide to 
Illinois Central R. Road lands, 8vo, pampli., Chicago, 18G5. 

Wiieatlaxd, Hexry. The Olive and the Pine, 12mo. 1 vol., Boston, 
1859 ; Record of an Obscure Man, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1861 ; Success in 
Life, The Mechanic, by Mrs. L. C. Tuthill, 1 vol., 12mo. New York, 
1860. 

WILDES, J. II., San Francisco, Cal. 12th Annual Report of Mer- 
cantile Library Association of San Francisco, 8vo, paraph.: Views of 



the works of the Gould & Curry Silver Mining Company, Virginia 
City, N. T., ] vol., 4to ; Life of Joseph Vico, a Japanese who was res- 
cued by the "Fennimore Cooper, "an account of his travels in the United 
States, in the Japanese Language, 1 vol., 8vo. 

Willson, E. B. Willson's Review of Ecclesiastical Proceedings in 
Brooklyn, Conn., 8vo, pamph., Worcester, 1818; Adam's Historical 
Discourse at Templeton, 8vo, pamph., Boston, 1857 ; Willard's Histori- 
cal Discourse at Deerfield, 8vo, pamph., Greenfield, 1858. 

Young, S. J., Librarian of Bowcloin College. Catalogue of Bowdoin 
College, 1865, vo, pamph. 

By Exchange. 

American Academy of Arts and Science. Proceedings, vol. ix., 
pages 341 to 364 inch 

American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings of Special Meeting, 
Jan. 17, 1865, on the Death of E. Everett. Svo, pamph. 

American Philosophical Society. Proc'd., vol. i, pages 1 to 48. 

Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, vol. ix., pages 
305 to 375. 

Canadian Institute. The Canadian Journal for March and May, 
1865. 

Editors. Savannah Daily Herald ; North American Review ; His- 
torical Magazine ; American Journal of Science ; Florida Union ; Home 
Evangelist; Salem Observer; Lynn Weekly Reporter; Essex Banner, 
(Haverhill) ; Haverhill Gazette ; Lawrence American. 

Firelands Historical Society. The Firelands Pioneer, vol. vi., 
8vo, Sandusky, 1865. 

Iowa Historical Society. The Annals of Iowa for April, 1865. 

Montreal Society of Natural History. The Canadian Natural- 
ist and Geologist for February, April and June, 1865. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. Annual Report 
of the Trustees for 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society. N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Register for Jan. and April, 1865. 

Pennsylvania Histoiucal Society. Resolutions on President Lin- 
coln, April 27, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings for 
Jan., Feb. and March, 1865. 

Trubner & Co., London. Triibner's Amer. and Oriental Literary 
Record, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Zoologische Gesellschaft, Frankfurt a. m. Der Zoologische 
Garten, vol. 5, Nos. 7 to 12 inch 

20 



CXLVI 

Monday, July 3. Regular meeting. 
Henry F. King in the chair. 
William H. Osgood and Joseph C. Foster, of Salem ; 
Robert R. Endicott and George Roundy, of Beverly, were 
elected Resident Members. 

Thursday, July 13. Field meeting at Reading. 

The first Field meeting held by the Institute beyond the 
limits of Essex County took place in the town of Reading. 
The party from Salem leaving in the ten A. M. train and 
arriving at Reading at about eleven o'clock. 

Reading is an attractive looking town, containing many 
hills and groves, among which are pleasant drives and 
walks. This town was many years ago a part of Lynn. 
It also included South and North Reading, which were 
afterwards set off in response to local requirements. On 
arrival, the company immediately repaired to the chapel of 
the old South Congregational Church, where the refresh- 
ment baskets were deposited and Vice President Goodell 
announced the programme for the day. As the time was 
limited, no very long rambles could be taken, and the few 
hours were passed in examining the garden of Mr. Amos 
Cummings situated on "Prospect Hill ;" the nurseries of 
Mr. J. W. Manning; the old burial ground where many 
interesting and quaint epitaphs were to be seen ; and by a 
trip to the pond and adjacent fields and groves. 

About one o'clock the party again assembled in the 
Chapel, and, after partaking of refreshment, adjourned to 
the Church where the regular meeting was organized with 

Vice President Goodell in the chair. 
The Rev. Wm. Barrows, pastor of the society in whose 
church the meeting was held, welcomed the Essex Institute 
to the town of Reading, alluding to the fact that this town 



CXLVII 

was once a part of Lynn, and was then known as "Lynn 
Village," and, therefore, properly within the range of the 
researches of the Institute. 

The Chairman responded, thanking the people of the 
town for the interest they had manifested this day and for 
their successful efforts to make the visit of the Institute a 
pleasant one. 

Rev. W. W. Hayward, of South Reading, read an 
original hymn, written by a resident of Reading, which 
was sung by the choir of the church. 

The records of the last meeting were read, and donations 
to the Library and Museum were announced. 

Letters were announced from : 

E. W. Blatchford, Chicago, 111. ; Chas. J. Sprague, Boston ; Joseph 
N. Howe, Boston; Prof. C. F. Chandler, Columbia College; Thomas 
Barlow, Canastota, N. Y. ; J. Kirkpatrick, Cleveland, Ohio ; Prof. J. C. 
Holmes, Lynn; Dr. A. Kellogg, San Francisco, Cal. ; J. J. Haagensen, 
St. Thomas, W. I. ; Dr. Frederick Brendel, Peoria, 111. ; Geo. W. Peck, 
New York; Prof. A. Winchell, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Chas. Stodder, Bos- 
ton; G. Hastings Grant, New York, relating to the publications: Dr. 
Win. Stimpson, Corr. Sect., Chicago Acad. Nat. Science; Prof. Theo. 
Gill, Smithsonian Institution; Prof. S. F. Baird, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; E. A. Samuels, State Cabinet; E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me.; Rev. 
E. C. Bolles, Portland, Me. ; Prof. J. G. Norwood, Missouri State Uni- 
versity; Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Brunswick, Me.; Prof. P. A. Chad- 
bourn, William's College ; G. A. Boardman, Milltown, Me. ; Dr. Daniel 
Clark, Flint, Mich. ; Prof. D. S. Sheldon, Griswold College, Davenport, 
Iowa ; Tryon Reakirt, Philadelphia ; Henry L. Hotchkiss, New Haven, 
Conn.; Mrs. P. A. Hanaforcl, Heading; A. J. Archer, Salem, on busi- 
ness, and acknowledging the receipt of specimens : Prof. Richard Owen, 
New Harmony, Ind. ; Prof. E. D. Cope, Haverford College, Pa., accept- 
ing membership : Maine Historical Society; Albany Institute, acknow- 
ledging receipt of Publications. 

A communication on the Geology of Reading by Mr. L. 
B. Pillsbury of Hopkinton, formerly principal of the High 
School in Reading, was read by the chair. 

John M. Ives, of Salem, spoke of Birds, particularly of 
the Swallows, describing the habits of the various species 



CXLVIII 

known in this vicinity. He also alluded to the habits of 
the Robin, Cow Bunting, Wren, Cherry Bird and Canada 
Goose, relating several curious anecdotes illustrative of the 
peculiarities of a number of the species. 

Dr. G. B. Loring, in connection with Mr. Ives' remarks, 
spoke of the habits of the Eaves Swallows, a number of 
which had built their nests on his barn. Dr. Loring also 
claimed to be something of a Reading man, having once 
had charge of a school in that town, and related some 
amusing experiences connected with his professional duti- 
es. His compensation was $15 per month and "board 
round." He said that Rev. Dr. Flint, Hon. Amos Ken- 
dall and Rev. Cyrus Pierce had also been school teachers 
in the town. He related an anecdote of Mr. Kendall, who, 
while Post Master General under Jackson's Administra- 
tion, had astonished some Reading politicians who desired 
a change of location in the town post office, by asking why 
the petition did not bear the signatures of certain leading 
men whom he named. "What!" said they, "do you know 
the name of every man in the United States?" The truth 
was Mr. Kendall remembered the names of some of the 
citizens who had been his friends, while a school teacher, 
at the age of sixteen. 

F. W. Putnam, of Salem, made a few remarks on the 
geology of the town, called forth by Mr. Piilsbury's paper, 
and then proceeded to describe the few insects and fishes 
which had been collected during the morning. 

C. P. Judd, of Reading, occupied a few moments, quite 
acceptably, with some interesting reminiscences of the 
early history of the town. 

Ezra F. Newhall, of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. 

On motion of Dr. Loring it was Voted: That the thanks 
of the Essex Institute be presented to the Proprietors of 
the old South Church of Reading, for the use of their 



CXLIX 

house ; and to the Rev. W. Barrows ; the members of his 
society; and other friends in Reading, for their kind atten- 
tion to the members of the Institute during the day. 

After the singing of "America" by the choir and a bene- 
diction by the Pastor, the meeting adjourned in time for 
the cars for home, and all were well pleased with their 
visit to the town and the hospitality of its inhabitants. 

At the depot, the signal master called the attention of a 
number of the members to a pair of Blue Birds which had 
built a nest in one of the signal balls, from which a piece 
of the canvas had been torn. These birds, after raising 
one brood of young, had made another nest, by the side of 
the first, in which they had laid the eggs for a second brood. 
The signal ball, in which the nests were made, was low- 
ered and hoisted about fifty times a day. The birds fly- 
ing out as soon as the ball commenced its descent, and, 
alighting upon the fence near by, would wait patiently for 
it to be hoisted again, when they would at once return to 
their nest. 

Monday, July 17. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

William E. Doggett, of Swampscott and Sarah B. En- 
dicott, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 

The Secretary stated that the portrait of Gov. John 
Lsverett, which was sent, at the request of Leverett Sal- 
tonstall Esq., to Mr. Howarth of Boston, to be cleaned and 
restored, had been returned to the Institute in excellent 
condition, without cost to the Society. 

On motion of Judge Waters, it was Voted : That a com- 
mittee be appointed to tender to L. Saltonstall Esq., of 
Newton, the sincere thanks of the Essex Institute for this 
mark of his esteem and liberality in behalf of the Institute. 

Messrs. J. G. Waters, H. Wheatland and S. B. But- 
trick were appointed on the committee. 



CL 



Thursday, July 27. Field meeting at Georgetown. 

The Fourth Field meeting of the season was held this 
day at Georgetown. 

Georgetown is not, distinctively, an old town. Its an- 
tiquity is entirely borrowed from the interesting town of 
Rowley, of which, like Boxford and Bradford, it was for- 
merly a part, having enjoyed an independent existence 
among the family of towns only since the year 1838, and 
consequently being a younger sister of the towns last 
named. It was known, before the separation, as "New 
Rowley." The original post office box, not over three or 
four feet long, through which the New Rowley mail pass- 
ed, is still in existence, and may be seen at the native wine 
establishment of Messrs. M. Carter & Son. It bears the 
following painted inscription: "New Rowley and George- 
town Post Office, established March 17, 1824; Benj. Little, 
P. M. First quarterly return, 67.32. Last quarterly re- 
turn, June 1, 1845, $117.96. Whole amount collected, 
85,373.63." 

Georgetown appears to be one of the most active and 
spirited of our country towns, where attention is given not 
only to farming, but, also, a considerable share of the 
capital of its men of means is devoted to the manufacture 
of shoes, giving steady employment to many. The crops 
in the town look nourishing and bid fair to be plentiful. 
Apples will be scarce here as elsewhere in New England ; 
but berries, cheapest of all fruits, abound. 

On the arrival of the party a cordial welcome was ten- 
dered by O. B. Tenney Esq. Chairman of the Selectmen, 
who offered the hospitalities of the place, and called atten- 
tion to the various points of interest in the town. Nu- 
merous vehicles were also in waiting to convey the party 
to the various objects of interest. Among the places visi- 
ted by the several parties, were the "Old Lull House," 



CLI 



which is situated about two and a half miles from the vil- 
lage on the Newburyport road. It is owned by Mr. Gor- 
ham D. Tenney, who is proprietor of the adjoining farm, 
which comprises two or three hundred acres. Mr. Tenney 
is the son of Capt. Gorham P. Tenney, whose wife was 
the daughter of Dudley Lull, whose name still imparts a 
designation to the old house. When, in 1690, the war 
was being conducted against the French in Canada, the 
Indians became troublesome in the Provinces, and on Oct. 
23, 1692, this old house, which is in that part of the By- 
field Parish included in the town of Georgetown, was the 
scene of a massacre of which an account may be found in 
Gage's History of Rowley. At that time it was occupied 
by a Mr. Goodrich who, with his wife and two daughters, 
while engaged in his family prayers, on Sabbath evening, 
were killed by the Indians. Another daughter, named 
Deborah, aged seven years, was taken captive, but was 
redeemed the next Spring, at the expense of the Province. 
She died- in Beverly, as appears by the records of the First 
Church in that town, where the entry reads, "Buryed, 
March 28, 1774, Deborah Duty, aged 88, a widow." 
Those who were killed are said to have been buried in one 
grave a few rods to the east of the house. The exact spot, 
as located by tradition, was pointed out. 

Mr. Tenney, the present owner, was very courteous and 
attentive to those who visited his place, and, besides 
proffering acceptable comforts, exhibited, at the farmhouse 
which he occupies, some good specimens of Indian relics, 
such as a pestle, gouge, axe, and arrow-heads ; all having 
been found upon his farm, which was evidently an Indian 
resort in the olden time. He conducted the party through 
the old house, which is now very dilapidated and of course 
unoccupied. It has undoubtedly undergone some altera- 
tions since the day when Mr. Goodrich and his family 



CLII 



were murdered, but the huge fire-places, clay-cemented 
chimneys, and broad and ponderous beams, betoken decid- 
ed antiquity. 

The famous octagonal barn of Mr. Samuel Littell was 
visited by a large party. This barn is said to be the larg- 
est in Essex County, being about eighty feet in diameter, 
each of the octagonal sides being about thirty-two feet. 
It has two floors in addition to the basement, and is so 
constructed with reference to the rising ground upon 
which it is built, that upon each floor there is an entrance 
from the ground. Situated upon a natural eminence, the 
view from the top of it is very extensive. Here may be 
seen Pentucket Pond, not far distant; Rock Pond, which 
flows into it ; Haverhill, Groveland and Bradford ; the 
ocean far away, and a vast extent of surrounding country, 
including distant eminences, among which several peaks 
of the White Mountains could be distinctly traced. 

"Bald Pate," the highest hill in Essex County, being 392 
feet above the level of the sea, and the "Ridges" were visi- 
ted, as well as the Burial Grounds and other places of in- 
terest, among which was the Vineyard of Messrs. Carter 
& Son, who carry on a large manufactory of native wines. 

The Mineral Point Mine on Atwood's Hill, was also 
visited. This mine yields an inexhaustible quantity of 
brown ochre, with which a large number of the houses in 
Georgetown and vicinity are painted, and which has been 
quite an article of export. 

Another party made an excursion to the pond where a 
number of botanical and zoological specimens were col- 
lected. 

Soon after one o'clock nearly all the parties had return- 
ed from their rambles, and assembled once more at the 
Town Hall, where, in addition to the refreshments brought 
by the company, the Georgetown people had liberally con- 



CLIII 

tributed to the entertainment. The hospitalities having 
been duly partaken of, the meeting for discussion was then 
held, commencing at half past two o'clock. 

Dr. G. B. Loring, Chairman of the Field meeting 
Committee, in the chair. 

The Chairman opened the meeting with remarks relating 
to Georgetown, of an historical character, alluding to its 
ecclesiastical controversies ; some witchcraft experiences; 
and the character of some of its public men. 

After reading the records of the last meeting and the 
lists of donations to the Library and Museum, letters were 
announced as received since the last meeting from : 

Prof. J. Wyman, Cambridge ; Prof. A. Winckell, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; 
Frank Stratton, Natick, Mass.; T. A. Cheney, Havana, N. Y. : T. 
Bland, New York; E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me.; A. Hyatt, Baltimore, 
Md. ; I. C. Martindale, Byberry, Pa. ; Prof. L. Lesqnereux, Columbus, 
Ohio ; Prof. A. N. Prentiss, Lansing, Mich. ; E. W. Blatchford, Chicago, 
111. ; Thure Kumlien, Bussyville, Wis. ; A. Agassiz, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
B. P. Mann, Concord, Mass. ; Noble, Brothers & Co., New York, rela- 
ting to the publications : Bedwood Library and AtlienaBum; Maine His- 
torical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publications : Isaac M. 
Long, Salem; Col. Albert Ordway, Bichmond, Va., transmitting speci- 
mens to the Museum : Prof. J. G. Norwood, Columbia,. Mo. ; Dr. T. A. 
Tellkampf, New York; Win. Couper, Quebec, Canada; W. S. O. 
Brinckloe, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Prof. Richard Owen, New Harmony, Ind. ; 
Rand & Avery, Boston; Lowell Bleachery; New York State Librarj r ; 
Joshua P. Haskell, Marblehead, Mass. ; J. R. Newhall, Lynn, Mass. ; 
J. K. Wiggin, Boston ; Lyceum of Natural History of New York, on 
business matters. 

James P. Cooke and David P. Carpenter, of Salem, were 
elected Resident Members. 

Mr. C. M. Tracy, of Lynn, was called upon by the chair, 
and responded in his usual happy and ready manner, giv- 
ing some account of his observations during the day, and 
mentioned some of the principal plants collected. Among 
these were the Orchis, Buttonbush, Cardinal Flower, 

21 



CLIV 



Clethra, Asters, Golden Rods, and other varieties. In this 
connection some discussion arose in reference to the para- 
sitical character of the Indian Pipe. 

C. L. Flint, Esq., Secretary of the State Board of Agri- 
culture, being called upon, made some general remarks 
favorable to scientific research and commending the ob- 
j ects of the Institute. 

Rev. J. L. Sibley, Librarian of Harvard College, follow- 
ed, speaking of the importance of preserving old pam- 
phlets and papers, as having an important bearing, aside 
from any historical value, in settling questions involving 
the rights of property. He mentioned several instances 
which had come under his observation, and said the Insti- 
tute was doing a valuable work in this connection, besides 
exerting an influence that was felt all over the country. 

Capt. Alpheus Hyatt, of Baltimore, made some remarks 
with regard to the general sac like plan of the Animal 
Kingdom, defining the Radiata as radiated sacs, the Ar- 
ticulata as articulated sacs, the Mollusca as the simple 
typical sac and the Vertebrata as sacs divided internally 
into two cavities. Capt. Hyatt adduced specimens of 
Palu'dicella and Fredericella, found during the forenoon 
ramble, as proofs of the specialization of the sac among 
the Mollusca, and gave in detail their anatomical and 
physiological peculiarities. 

Mr. F. W. Putnam, of Salem, gave a brief abstract of 
his day's observations, and enlarged upon the habits of the 
gall fly, specimens of which he produced at the meeting. 

Capt. J. G. Barnes, while he made no claim to being a 
naturalist, said he had no doubt Georgetown could present 
much that was worthy the attention of a careful scientific 
observer. He said that during the past four years we have 
been making history very fast ; and he looked with local 
pride upon what had been done in his state and town for 



CLV 



the maintenance of the union of the States, and suggested 
that it was the duty of this historical society to gather all 
facts and memorials tending to elucidate the history of 
this period. 

Mr. A. C. Goodell, of Salem, gave some curious facts in 
regard to the names of several towns in the vicinity, and 
closed his remarks by reading a poem written for the oc- 
casion by a Salem lady. 

Richard Tenney, Esq., Postmaster of Georgetown, gave 
some facts in the history of the town, especially in relation 
to its incorporation as a distinct municipality. 

Mr. John Preston, of Georgetown, presented a leaf from 
a magnolia planted by George Washington at Mount 
Vernon. 

A resolution of thanks, offered by Mr. Walton and 
seconded by Mr. Upham, was passed to Messrs. O. B. Ten- 
ney and Sherman Nelson, Selectmen ; Maj. Moses Tenney, 
Capt. Barnes, Lieut. Wildes; Messrs. Stephen Osgood, 
John Preston, John Bradstreet, Isaac Wilson, Edmund 
Bailey, Chas. Carter, Samuel Wadleigh, Geo. W. Boyn- 
ton, Jos. Folsom, Richard Tenney, Geo. Harnden, Wm. 
Horner, Robert Coker, Gorham .D. Tenney, and other 
citizens of Georgetown, for their liberal and successful 
efforts in making the meeting a pleasant and instructive 
one. 

On returning to the depot, at the close of the meeting, 
Mr. W. S. Horner, the depot master, displayed a few of 
his many Indian relics. 

Wednesday, August 9. Quarterly meeting. 
N. Weston, Jr., in the chair. 
On motion of F. W. Putnam, it was Voted: That the 
following be added as a final clause to Chapter IV of the 
By-Laws. 



CLVI 

"Every facility in the power of the Superintendent, con- 
sistent with the welfare of the specimens, shall be offered 
to persons visiting the Museum for the purpose of study 
and comparison." 

D. B. Hagar, J. Leonard Hammond and Elizabeth A. 
Putnam, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. 

Friday, August 18. Field meeting at North Andover. 

The fifth Field meeting of the season was held at North 
Andover this day. About three hundred persons arrived 
in the train from Salem and assembled at the "First 
Church" before separating into small parties to visit the 
special objects of interest to each. 

The zoologists sought the brooks and streams and found 
many specimens amply rewarding them for their search ; 
the botanists the woods and meadows for various flowers ; 
the antiquarians for the relics of olden time. 

This township was first settled in 1634. In the same 
year the following order of the court was issued respecting 
the land in Andover : 

"It is ordered that the land about Cochichewick shall be 
reserved for an inland plantation, and whosoever will goto 
inhabit there shall have three years immunity from all 
taxes, levies, public charges, and services whatever, mili- 
tary discipline only excepted." 

The land is uneven, rising into large hills, affording fine 
and delightful prospects and scenery. Dr. Dwight, in his 
travels, some sixty or seventy years since, says of the North 
parish of Andover : "Its surface is elegantly undulating, 
and its soil in an eminent degree fertile. The meadows 
are numerous, large, and of the first quality. The groves, 
charmingly interspersed, are tall and thrifty. The land- 
scape, everywhere varied, neat and cheerful, is also every- 
where rich." Hither many come from the crowded city to 



CI. VII 

enjoy the recrealion of the country; and where can a bet- 
ter place be found than this well known Summer resort? 

The Church was founded in 1645 and consequently is one 
of the oldest in the Connty. For seventy years the detk 
was very acceptably filled by the two Barnards — the Rev. 
Thomas, and his son the Rev. John — and "during their 
ministry the people enjoyed a series of peace and improve- 
ment beyond what is common." The second Barnard died 
14th of June, 1758, aged 68 years ; he left two sons, both, 
distinguished clergymen. One was the Rev. Thomas 
Barnard of Newbury, aflerwards of the First Church in 
Salem, and father of the Rev. Thomas Barnard, D. D., 
first minister of the North Church in Salem ; the other 
was Rev. Edward Barnard of Haverhill, whose portrait by 
Copley is in the possession of the Essex Institute. > 

The Great Pond, so called, is a fine, clear basin of 
water, containing obout 450 acres, and is well stocked 
with fish. The outlet, known as Cochichewick brook, 
furnishes the power of several woolen mills, some of which 
belong to the estate of the late Eben Sutton, Esq., of 
South Danvers. This w r as visited by many, and from the 
adjacent hills fine views of the Merrimack, the city of 
Lawrence, and other places, were enjoyed. 

The afternoon session was called to order at three 
o'clock. 

Dr. George B. Loring in the chair. 

The records of the last meeting were read. Donations 
to the Library and Cabinets announced. 

Letters were read from : 

Rev. Samuel Lockwood, Keyport, X. J. : Edward A. Brfgham, Bos- 
ton; C. F. Austin, Closter, ST. Y. ; The Abbe Brunei, Quebec. Canada; 
E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me. ; Prof. James Hall, Albany, X. Y. ; James 
Lewis, Mohawk, X. Y. ; Dr. Julius Homberger, Xew York ; Henry 
White. Xew Haven, Conn. ; J. H. Stickney, Baltimore, Md. : S. S. Par- 



CLVIII 

vin of the Iowa Historical Society; Dr. L. E. Stone, U. S. V., Harper's 
Ferry, Va. ; Prof. Jonathan Pearson, Schenectady, N. Y., relating to the 
publications : Prof. Richard Owen, New Harmony, Ind. ; W. H. Pease, 
Honolulu, S. I.; S. Jillson, Feltonville, Mass.; S. H. Scudder, Sect. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ; Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Brunswick, Me. ; Capt. 
Alpheus Hyatt, Boston; James E. Newhall, Lynn, Mass.; Mrs. P. A. 
Hanaford, Reading, Mass. ; J. Prescott, Supt. Eastern R. R. ; William 
Merritt, Supt. Boston & Maine R. R. ; H. J. Cross, Salem, relating to 
the collection of specimens and business matters; Albany Institute; 
New York Historical Society, acknowledging the receipt of publica- 
tions : Mrs. Sarah B. Endicott, accepting membership. 

E. W. Buswell, of Maiden ; James Hill, Henry. P Hen- 
drick, William Haskell, A. T. Mosman, of Beverly, and 
Martha G. Wheatland, of Salem, were elected Resident 
Members. 

On the table were three beautiful and very finely execu- 
ted paintings of flowers by Miss Eliza B. Davis, for sever- 
al years a resident of Salem, a lady long and very favora- 
bly known to our citizens as zealously devoted to this 
beautiful art. 

The Chair made some remarks upon the early history of 
Andover, alluding to several incidents connected with the 
first settlers and their immediate descendants. He spoke 
of the Phillips family, and paid a high eulogium to several 
of its members who have been great benefactors to the 
cause of education, in the liberal endowmentsjto several 
seminaries of learning, which bear the honored name of 
Phillips. He also spoke of Stevens, the founder of one of 
the woolen mills on the Cochichewick stream, as one of 
the pioneers in this branch of our domestic industry. The 
old Franklin Academy was mentioned, incorporated in 
1801, and which had been highly beneficial to the parish and 
to the youth who have enjoyed its advantages|equally un- 
der the superintendence of Mr. Simeon Putnam, and of 
Mr. Cyrus Peirce, the experienced and faithful teacher, and 
the first teacher of a Normal School in this State. In this 



CLIX 

connection he alluded to the late Gen. I. I. Stevens, who 
fell fighting for the cause of his country in the recent re- 
bellion, and who displayed in boyhood and youth the same 
intrepidity and courage which marked his later career. 

The Chairman, after some additional remarks of a simi- 
lar tenor, called upon Mr. John M. Ives, of Salem, who 
continued his observations upon the habits of many of 
our birds, which he had commenced at the meeting in 
Reading, a few weeks since, with especial reference to the 
migration of several species. 

The Chairman stated that Andover had long been noted 
for its large trees, mentioning a large elm transplanted by 
Mr. Jonathan Frye in 1725, and called upon Mr. Goodell 
to give some account of what he had seen during the day. 

Mr. A. C. Goodell, Jr., replied giving an interesting ac- 
count of the large elm tree which he visited, and which 
measures, two feet from the ground, about thirty five feet 
in circumference. Ke then spoke of his ride around the 
Great Pond, above alluded to, and the view from some of 
the high hills, concluding by mentioning some interesting 
reminiscences of the early history of Andover. The land, 
including Andover, Lawrence, &c, was purchased of 
Cutshamache, the Sagamore of Massachusetts, for twenty 
six dollars, sixty four cents, and a coat. The town was 
incorporated in 1646 by the name of Andover, receiving 
that name from Andover in Hampshire, England, whence 
many of the settlers came. 

Mr. F. W. Putnam spoke of the Striped Snake and other 
species which were found in this vicinity. Referring to the 
snake bite case in Lowell, Mr. Putnam said he had himself 
been bitten by the striped snake and had never experienc- 
ed any ill effects, and he thought that the effects said to 
have followed the bite in the Lowell case were wholly due 
to fear, as there was no venomous fang in the striped 



CLX 



snake. He then alluded to the fishes, giving some account 
of the minnows and pointed out the differences between 
these and those found in salt or brackish water, 

Mr. E. G. Parker, of Groveland, asked some questions 
respecting the Tent Caterpillar, stating that from some 
happy but unaccountable cause all the caterpillars of this 
species, in this vicinity, had not had the strength to com- 
plete their cocoons, or had died soon after forming them. 
Considerable discussion upon the Tent Caterpillar and 
other injurious insects followed, participated in by Messrs. 
Parker, Ives, Putnam and the Chair. 

The Secretary announced that Rev. Stillman Barden, a 
member of the Field Meeting Committee, and an ardent 
friend of the Institute, who had felt a great interest in, and 
had been a constant attendant upon these meetings, had 
died at Rockport since the last meeting; and upon his mo- 
tion a committee Was appointed to prepare suitable testi- 
monials of respect to his memory and worth. 

Mr. C. Davis, of Beverly, offered the following vote, 
which was unanimously adopted : 

Voted; That the thanks of the Institute are due to the 
proprietors of the First Church in North Andover for the 
use of their house ; to the members of "Cochichewick En- 
gine Co., No. 2", for the use of their building; to Messrs. 
Moses T. Stevens, Otis Bailey, W. P. Phillips, John Ber- 
tram. James B. Curwen, Matthew Poor, I. O. Loring, ?vlrs. 
Nath'l Stevens, and other citizens and temporary residents 
of North Andover, for their kind attentions during the day. 

The meeting then adjonrned. 

Wednesday, August 23. Adjourned Regular meeting. 
Jadsre Waters in the chair. 
Prof. J. G. Norwood, of Columbia, Mo., was elected a 
Corresponding member. 



CLXI 

Thursday, September 7. Field meeting at Newburyport. 
The sixth and last Field Meeting of the season took 
place this day. About three hundred and seventy five 
persons attended, the larger portion proceeding over the 
Eastern Railroad to Newburyport, and thence down the 
Merrimack to Salisbury Point. The party was so large 
that, in addition to the passenger barge usually employed, 
it was found necessary to charter a schooner, both being 
taken in tow by a powerful little tug boat called the "Thur- 
low Weed". The trip down the river, some three miles, oc- 
cupied about half an hour, and upon arriving at the Point, 
the barge and schooner were run directly upon the sand 
beach, and the company landed without any difficulty. 
Here nearly two hours were spent, and a few improved 
the time by inspecting Fort Nichols, and rambling over 
Salisbury Beach proper, which extends several miles along 
the ocean side, and is one of the finest beaches on the 
coast. The heat was so intense, however, that but a small 
number improved the opportunity. The fort mounts ten 
or twelve guns. The parapet already shows signs of dis- 
integration, the effect, probably, of the severe drought, and 
of the sun's rays which concentrate upon the sand heaps 
with overpowering intensity. There were several tents in 
the vicinity, occupied by "camping out" parties from up 
the river. 

Returning to Newburyport, the company partook of the 
usual picnic dinner in the City Hall, and afterwards had 
an opportunity to visit the many places of interest in the 
city, including the Horton Memorial Chapel, the White- 
field Church, the Copley Portraits, the Public Library, and 
other objects of note heretofore described. 

At three o'clock, the afternoon meeting was organized 
in the City Hall. 
22 



CLXII 

Vice President A. C. Goodell, Jr., in the chair. 

The records of the preceding meeting were read. Do- 
nations were announced to the Museum and Library. 

Letters were read from the following : 

S. H. Scudder, Sect. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.; H. A. Bellows. Con- 
cord, N. H. ; A. W. Dodge, Hamilton; Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Boston; 
C. G. Brewster, Boston; H. A. Purdie, Boston; Samuel Jillson, Eelt- 
onville, Mass.; Prof. Joseph Henry, Sect. Smithsonian Institution; 
Prof. Theo. Gill, Smithsonian Institution ; B. Westermann & Co., New 
York; Ezra Cleaves, Beverly; Mrs. K. N. Doggett, Chicago, 111. ; Hugh 
Wilson, Salem ; A. Lackey, Marblehead ; Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, Reading ; 
I. P. Langworthy, Boston; Rev. Geo. D. Wildes, Salem; Paul J. Beck- 
ford, Salisbury, relating to the forwarding of specimens and general 
business : W. M. Hunting, Fairfield, N. Y. ; E. S. Morse, Gorham, Me. ; 
Prof. 0. P. Hubbard, Dartmouth College; Prof. S. E. Baird, Smithso- 
nian Institution ; Dr. Julius Homberger, New York ; Prof. E. A. Ver- 
ri.ll, Norway, Me. ; Capt. Alpheus H3 r att, Gorham, Me. ; H. B. Rice, 
Boston; Surgeon B. G. Wilder, 55th Mass. Vols.; N. S. Shaler, Cam- 
bridge ; W. Bower, New York ; A. C. Goodell, Jr., Salem ; W. A. Smith, 
Worcester, relating to the publications : James P. Kimball, New York, 
accepting membership. 

Joseph P. Cloutman, of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. 

Mr. F. W. Putnam, of Salem, was called on for an ac- 
count of the forenoon ramble. The various specimens that 
had been collected were displayed on the table, and Mr. 
Putnam took them up in order. He first showed a fish 
bone, and explained how from one bone, hair, tooth or 
scale the character of the living animal could be determin- 
ed, the analysis in the present case proving the specimen 
to be part of the jaw of the monk fish (Lophius). He next 
showed several specimens of sandlances (Ammodytes), 
which bury themselves in the sand, when thrown up by 
the waves, and remain till the next tide allows them tore- 
turn to their native element. These fishes often lie at the 
bottom of the water, apparently dead, but on being dis- 
turbed revive and become as active as ever. A bottle of 



CLXIII 

minnows was next exhibited and their characteristics ex- 
plained. The next object in order was the skull of a cat, 
picked up on the beach, which was interesting from the 
very extreme age indicated by the teeth, many of which 
had dropped out, and the cavities become closed. The 
horse-shoe, or king crab, was next taken up. These were 
not the animals themselves, but only the shells, the ten- 
ants having vacated on their quarters becoming too close 
for them, a new and larger shell being secreted in a short 
time. They also cast out the lining of their stomachs. 
'1 hese animals are among the lowest of their class, ap- 
proaching the fossil trilobite. The sand flea was also re- 
ferred to as a proper crustacean. The sea urchin was ex- 
hibited as a specimen of the radiates, and shown to be in 
its structure closely allied to the starfish. A black body 
about two inches long, with prongs projecting from the 
corners, and which is popularly supposed to be a seaweed 
bladder, was explained to be the egg case of a skate. 
The fish attains its perfect form in this case, being suppli- 
ed with water during its entire growth by. means of the 
four tubes or prongs. 

Dr. Henry C. Perkins, of Newburyport, was next called 
on. He said he came to learn, not to teach, but still would 
not be selfish. He thought the society had made a collec- 
tion of all the specimens the waters of this region afforded. 
He once had a dredge made, and used for several years by 
a boatman, for the purpose of fishing up, if possible, some 
new species not found on the shore, but succeeded in find- 
ing only one — an arctic shell. He had been interested in 
watching an excavation in order to study the various strata 
and other objects of interest. The hill where the observa- 
tory stood during the last war, had changed from a north- 
west to a northeast slope. The sand resembles the Plum 
Island sand, and at the present time the drought had reach- 



CLXIV 

ed five feet, that being the point where the first indications 
of moisture were found. "When the "James Mills" excava- 
ted the hill on the turnpike for a reservoir, they found at 
a depth of five feet pine logs three feet in diameter at a 
locality known by tradition as the "Pine Swamp." Lower 
still, stratified sand was found, and five feet lower, a trunk 
of a tree within one foot of water. In searching for or- 
ganic remains he had found gravel cemented to larger 
stones by lime which had apparently percolated through 
the strata above from shells. He also referred to the 
change in the channel in the river, and to the storm which 
cut off a mile of Salisbury beach, making a channel for the 
largest ships. 

Rev. A. E. P. Perkins, of Ware, made some remarks on 
geology. He thought geologists were often mistaken in 
deducing the age of formations, for, owing to causes which 
we did not understand, the alluvial formation often accu- 
mulated in a hundred years as much, as at the slow rates 
sometimes observed, would indicate ten thousand years. 
In his native town, not yet a century old, a certain loca- 
tion was known as the beaver dam though no traces of the 
dam were found or known to the present generation, till, 
on digging a ditch, it was discovered four feet below the 
surface, which proved that that depth of alluvium had ac- 
cumulated in a hundred years. 

He then made some remarks on the migrations of birds. 
He included in this term not only the annual migrations 
but the permanent change of habitat. Birds often appear- 
ed in great numbers in a region to which they had previ- 
ously been strangers ; and, on the other hand, sometimes 
disappeared entirely from their accustomed haunts. There 
were many birds in our woods which not one man in ten 
had ever seen, whose song could be detected by an ex- 
perienced ear, but never heard by the chance passer by. 
He instanced the Indigo bird as an example. 



CLXV 

Hon. Asahel Huntington, of Salem, gave an interesting 
reminiscence of Newburyport, and his early acquaintance 
with many of the prominent divines, physicians and law- 
yers. He highly eulogized Miss Gould, the poetess, and 
her father, Capt. Benjamin Gould, who took part in the 
Revolution and was wounded at the battle of Lexington. 
He built the house in which Mr. H. was born, and the first 
rudiments of his education he received in a school taught 
by a sister of the poetess. The first of Miss Gould's famous 
series of epitaphs was written for him, at his suggestion, in 
reply to her assertion that he would kill himself smoking. 
She complied, and wrote the epitaph off hand, together 
with some half dozen others the same evening. This was 
her first attempt at poetry. 

Col. Eben F. Stone, of Newburyport, was next called 
upon. He said that being a new member of the Institute 
he came to hear, not to talk. His studies had been in 
other directions than science-ward. He felt the necessity 
of science — of a knowledge of nature to make his walks 
more agreeable. He had learned something, and did not 
believe that the study of science destroyed the poetry and 
charms of nature. 

Vice President Goodell, Chairman of the Committee to 
report upon the death of Rev. Mr. Barden, presented the 
following resolutions : 

Resolved: That in the recent death of the Rev. Stillman 
Barden of Rockport, the Institute deplores the loss of a 
sincere lover of science, and an active and zealous worker 
in its cause; that it is peculiarly painful to the survivinl 
members of the Institute to reflect that its meetings wig 
no longer be enlivened by his presence, nor its memberli 
encouraged by his ever cheerful voice and his genias 
manners. 

Resolved: That these Resolutions be entered on the 
records of the Institute, and that the Secretary cause a 
copy thereof to be sent to the family of the deceased. 



OLXVI 

The adoption of the resolutions was moved by Dr. 
Wheatland, and seconded by Rev. Willard Spaulding, of 
Salem, who spoke with much feeling and earnestness in 
eulogy of the deceased. The resolutions were unanimous- 
ly adopted. 

The members of the Institute having received and ac- 
cepted a polite invitation from Hon. Caleb Gushing to visit 
his house, the meeting adjourned for that purpose, after, 
passing votes of thanks to the City authorities for the use 
of the Hall, to Hon. Caleb Cushing, and to Rev. Dr. Spal- 
ding, and other citizens, for their courtesies and attentions. 

Repairing to Mr. Cushing's fine residence, the company 
were kindly greeted by the host, who not only opened all 
his rooms for their inspection but also entertained them 
with a generous hospitality, entirely unexpected, and not 
often bestowed by any distinguished gentleman upon so 
numerous a party, principally entire strangers. The priv- 
ilege of such a reception may be in some measure estima- 
ted, when it is stated that Mr. Cushing has one of the finest 
and most extensive private collections of rare paintings to 
be found in the United States. They include many cele- 
brated works of the old Spanish masters, and other valua- 
ble specimens, not omitting some of the best of Chinese 
art, obtained by Mr. Cushing during his various sojourns 
in Mexico, and Europe, and in the Oriental World. The 
collection comprises more than seventy distinct pieces, of 
different sizes, and a variety of subjects, many of them of 
great historical interest and value. He also possesses 
some choice statuary and several fine family portraits. 
The examination of these splendid works of art afforded 
the crowning pleasure of the day. 

Mr. Superintendent Prescott furnished an extra train for 
the return trip, and the party reached home safely, highly 
delighted with the closing excursion of the season. 



CLXVII 

Additions to the Museum and Library during' July, August, 
and September, 1865. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT. 
By Donation. 

Allen, J. F. Salem. Larvae and Imago of Ctenucha grata from the 
Grape vine. 

Boardman, Geo. A. Milltown, Me. Embryos of the Sheldrake, 
Ruffed Grouse and Loon, from Milltown. Smelts, Osmerus sp?, and 
Crangon sp?, from St. George River. 2 Snakes aud a Mineral, from 
near Milltown. 

Bowdoin, Dr. W. L. Salem. Head and feet of a large Turtle, 
Chelydra serpentina, from a Lake in N. H. 

Carlen, Samuel Salem. Syngnathus Peckianus, from Salem Mill 
Pond. 

Congdon, Miss Eunice New Bedford, Mass. Fossil Astrea, Verte- 
bra of a Cetacean, from York River, about 2 miles from Yorktown, Va. 
Specimens of Cotton plant, from Virginia. Seed Vessels of a species 
of Asclepias, from Yorktown, Va. 30 specimens, 10 species, Fossil 
shells, from the Bank of James River, Va., near Allen's Landing, about 
6 miles from Yorktown. 

Cloutman, Wji. R. Salem. Specimen of a Beetle, from Salem. 

Cooke, C. Salem. Coleoptera, from Pond Lily leaves. 48 speci- 
mens, 1G species, Insects, from Reading. Parasites, from the intestines 
of the Golden-winged Woodpecker. 

Cooke, C. and Pickman, H. D. Salem. Collection of Insects and 
Fresh water Fishes, from Rye, N. H. 

Covtll, T. N. Salem. 200 specimens of Pinnotheres ostreum Saj r , 
Oyster Crab. 

Creelman, Mrs. B. C. North Beverly. Specimen of Solen ensis, 
from Salisbury Beach. 

Cross, Henry J. Salem. Ascidians, from the North River flats. 

Dodge, A. W. Hamilton. Living Specimen of Lasiurus novebora- 
censis Tomes, Red Bat, from Hamilton. 

Edwards, Charles Salem. Specimen of Strombus, from Africa. 

Emerton, James H. Salem. 256 specimens, 60 species, Insects, 
from North Andover. Salamander erythronota, from the Gloucester 
woods. 36 specimens, 29 species, Insects, from Georgetown. 

Felt, S. Q. Salem. Tropidonotus saxiritus, and a Mineral, from 
North Andover. Head of an Antelope, from Sierra Leone, W. Africa. 

Foote, Rev. Henry W. Boston. Collection of Minerals, Shells. 
Corals and Seeds, from various localities. 



CLXVIII 

Heath, N. Salem. 105 specimens Insects and Spiders, from Salem. 

Hines, Mrs. Salem. A Glow-worm (living specimen) Lampyris 
noctiluca {female larva), from Boston. 

Hooper, Nathaniel M. Salem. Nuts, from Cayenne, S. A. Albert 
Coal, from Hillsboro, N. B. 

Johnson, Daniel H. Salem. Clam, Mya, with a double shell, from 
Ipswich. 

Kimball, James Salem. 6 specimens of " Spanworm Moths" from 
New York. 

Lander, Miss L. Salem. Large Moth, from Salem. 

Lakabee, Eben L. Salem. A. Large collection of Sponges, from 
under the draw of Beverly Bridge. 

Lovett, Edmonds Beverly. Skin of a Leopard, from West Africa. 

Mack, Dr. Wm. Salem. Specimen of Tenia solium. 

Mason, Jamestown, N. Y. Silver Ore, from Colorado Territory. 

McIlwraith, Thomas Hamilton, C. W. Skins of Lanius exeubito- 
roides and Plectrophanes lapponicus, from Hamilton, C. W. 

Nelson, Augustus Georgetown. Clay, from Georgetown. 

Nelson, Henry A. Georgetown. Pupa, Imago and Parasite of the 
Tent Caterpillar. 

Norwood, Prof. J. G. Columbia, Mo. A collection of 687 speci- 
mens, 298 species of Western Fossils. Identified. 

Osgood, Mrs. Chas. Salem. Specimens of a dipterous Insect, from 
Salem. 

Palfrey, Chas. W. Salem. 5 Eggs of the Mocking Bird, Mimus 
polyglottus. 

Pickman, H. D. Salem. Dragon-fly, from Salem. 

Porter, E. J. Salem. Specimen of Epiera riparia, from Salem. 

Preston, John Georgetown. Several Minerals, from various lo- 
calities. 

Putnam, C. A. Salem. Dipterous larva, from the Canal of Naum- 
keag Mills, Salem. Star-nosed Mole, Conclylura, from Lawrence. 4 
Trout, Salmo fontinalis, from the Aqueduct Fountains in South Dan- 
vers. 6 Osmerus ; 2 Ctenolabrus ; 2 Morrhua (young) ; Phycis (young) ; 
Platessa, from Salem Harbor. 

Putnam, F. W. Salem. Storeria Dekayi and Tropidonotus saaritus, 
from North Andover. Funclulus multifasciatus, from Andover Pond. 
Gall-flies and parasites in several stages, from the Galls on the Wild 
Rose. 

Robinson, Asa P. New York. Skin of Bana Catisbiana, from 
Lake Umbagog, Me. 

Russell, Miss M. A. Salem. Specimen of Walking stick, Spectrum 
Femoratum. 



CLXIX 

Saunders, Capt. 0. II. Salem. Lead Ore and Lime, from Island 
Pond, Canada. 

Smith, Samuel H. Salem. Specimen of Platyphyllum concavum, 
Katy-dicl, from Holmdil, N. J. 

Springfield City Library Museum, by S. Stebbins. 500 speci- 
mens Spielers, 2 specimens Polyommatus porsena, from Springfield. 

Stebbins, S. and Bennett, C. W. Springfield. Specimen of Rat- 
tlesnake, Crotalus durissus Linn., from Mt. Tom. 

Stiles, Frederic Topsfield. White Rat from Topsfield. 

Stone, Alfred Providence, R. I. Nest and young of Vespa macu- 
late/,. Nest and young of Polistes sp?, from Providence, R. I. 

Tellkampf, Dr. A. New York. Ascidia nov. sp., from Huntington 
Bay, Long Island. 

Tenney, Prof. S. Pouglikeepsie, N. Y. Copperhead Snake, from 
Mt. Holyoke. 

True, Joseph Salem. Stone bored by Shells, from the Grand 
Banks. Insects, from Salem. 

Upton, Capt. George Salem. 2 specimens (skins) of Birds, and 
specimens of Polyzoa, from the Grand Banks ? 

Webb, Capt. Benj. Salem. Specimen of Spondylus, from the West 
Indies. 2 specimens of Coral and 4 of Minerals, from various locali- 
ties. Tree Toad, from China? 

Wheatland, Miss M. G. Salem. Minerals, from the Banks of the 
Genessee River, Rochester, N. Y. 

Wilson, Charles S. Salem. Specimen of the Hoary Bat, Lasiurus 
cinereus Allen, from Salem. 

Wilson, Mrs. Thos. Salem. Nest of the Chimney Swallow, from 
Salem. 

Woods, Henri N. Rockport. Fistularia serrata Bloch, from Rock- 
port Harbor. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. 
By Donation. 

Abbott, John Beverly. Leaves of the Charter Oak. 

Allanson, Lieut. J. S. Marblehead. 4 Confederate Buttons. 2 
Confederate Torpedo caps. Several pieces of Confederate fuse. $10, 
and 50 cent script of Confederate States. 

Carpenter, J. S. Salem. $1, #500 and two $100 (different issues) 
Confederate paper currency. 

Congdon, Miss Eunice New Bedford. 3 balls and a fragment of a 
shell picked up outside the Port, soon after the Confederate troops 

23 



CLXX 

evacuated Yorktovvn, Va. Slate and pieces of Brick from the ruins of 
William and Mary College, after the battle of Williamsburg, Va. A 
piece of the Tombstone of "Major William Gooch, dyed Oct. 29, 1650," 
near the spot where Cornwallis surrendered to Washington. A piece 
of Window glass, from the house in which Cornwallis had his Head 
Quarters in the Fort at Yorktown, Va. Lath, Plastering, and Moss 
from the roof of the "Capitulation House" Head Quarters of Gen. 
Washington, and near which Gen. Cornwallis surrendered, Oct. 19, 1784, 
about l£ miles from the Fort at Yorktown, Va. 

Denslow, W. W. New York. Revolutionary button of the 57th 
Regiment, British Army, found on Washington Heights. 

Foote, Caleb Salein. $10 note Confederate currency. 

Foote, Rev. Henry W. Boston'. 13 Plaster Medallions. Seeds 
and leaves, from various Historical places, and other specimens. 

Goldthwaite, Joseph A. Salem. A collection of North Carolina 
paper currency. 

Grant, Lieut. Franklin Salem. Cutlass taken from the wreck of 
the Confederate Steamer Merrimac, at Newport News. Piece of one 
of three Muskets stacked over the magazine of Ft. Fisher at the time 
of the explosion. 

Hotchkiss, Henry L. New Haven, Ct. Photographic views of Ike 
Marvel's House ; Temple Street, New Haven ; Library Building and 
Alumni Hall, Yale. College; Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven; Prof. B. 
Silliman, Sen., and President 'Woolsey. 

Long, Isaac M. Salem. 1628 "Patriotic Envelopes" collected 
during the first part of the Rebellion. 

Lovett, Edmonds Beverly. 3 Native swords, from the West Coast 
of Africa. 

Ordway, Col. Albert Richmond, Va. 120 specimens, different de- 
nominations and issues, Confederate paper currency. 

Pitman, Augustus P. Salem. Palmetto Flag. 

Roberts, David Salem. Confederate paper currency. 

Short, Joseph Salem. Various relics from the Battle Field of 
Gettysburg. 

Tenney, Gorham I). Georgetown. Indian Arrow Head, from 
Georgetown. 

Webb, Capt. Benjamin Salem. Chinese toy. 

Williams, W. A. Salem. Indian relics, consisting of a stone pot, 
stone chisel, stone arrowheads and a twisting-stone, also a few small 
bones of a skeleton, and a piece of Red Ochre, taken from an Indian 
grave on Salem Neck, under the embankment of Ft. Pickering. 



CLXM 

TO THE LIBRARY. 
. By Donation. 

Andrews, Mrs. James H. Endicott's Memoirs of John Endicott, 
1 vol., 4to, Salem, 1847. 

Atwood, E. S. Atwood's Discourse on Lincoln, 8vo, pamph., Salem, 
1865. 

Barrande, Joachem A. Paris. (Through Smithsonian Institu- 
tion.) Defense des Colonies par J. Barrande, 1 vol., 8vo, Paris, 1865. 

Batchelder, Mrs. John H. The Last will and Testament of Capt. 
Miles Standish, Broad-sheet. 

Board of Agriculture of Lower Canada. Prize List for the Ex- 
hibition at Montreal, Sept., 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Brooks, Henry. M. Eidler's observations in United States and 
Canada, 1 vjl., 12mo, New York, 1833. 

Brunet, Le Abbe Ovide Quebec. Catalogue des Plantes Canadi- 
ensis by Brunet, 1st Liv. 8vo, pamph., Quebec, 1865. 

Chapman, John Attwood's Discourse on Lincoln, 8vo, pamph., 
Salem, 1865. 

Chase, Mrs. E. E. U. S. Sanitary Commission, Nos. 87 and 90. The 
Sanitary Reporter for May 15, 1865. The Sanitary Commission Bulle- 
tin for June 1, 1865, and No. 39. U. S. Sanitary Commission pamph- 
lets, 5. 

Chase, George C. Eriend's Review, 9 Nos. Proceedings of the 
Alumni Association of Eriends Yearly Meeting School, 1865, 8vo, 
pamphlet. 

Chase, George H. Intellectual Symbolism, a basis for Science by 
Pliny E. Chase, 1 vol., 4to, Phil., 1863. Sanscrit and English Analo- 
gues by Pliny E. Chase, 1 vol., 8vo, London, 1860. 

Chase, Thomas Haverford College, Penn. The Manuscripts of the 
Satyricon of Petronius Arbiter, Des. and col. by Chas. Beck, 1 vol., 
4to, Cambridge, 1863. 

Congdon, Eunice New Bedford. De Obligatione Conscientiae 
Praelect, Decern a Roberto Sandersono, 1 vol., 12mo, Londini, 1719. 

Couper, William Quebec, C. E. Eraser's Journal relating to the 
Seige of Quebec in 1759, 8vo, pamph. 

Ourwen, George R. Church Review, vol. xv, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. Mis- 
cellaneous pamphlets, 16. 

Denslow, W. W. New York. Plays, by Barry Cornwall, H. H. 
Milman, James Haynes and David P. Brown, 1 vol., 8vo. 

Drowse, Charles Troy, N. Y. Annual Register of the Rennselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Eliot, John F. Boston. Reports of Mass. Humane Society, 5. 



CLXXII 

Faben t s, Joseph Warren The Uses of the Camel, a paper by J. W. 
Fabeus, 8vo, pamphlet, New York, 1865. 

Gill, Theodore Washington. Descriptions of New Species &c, 
by Theo. Gill, in 17 pamphlets. 

Green, Samuel A. Boston. Warder and Catlett's Account of the 
Battle at Young's Branch or Manassas Plain, July 21, 1861, 16mo, 1 
vol., Richmond, 1862. New Testament, 1 vol., 16mo, Atlanta, Ga., 
1862. 25 Pamphlets printed in Richmond relating to the Confederacy. 
Report of the School Committee of Boston, 1864, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 
1865. The Boston Business Directory, 1863 — 4, 1 vol., 12mo. 49 
Miscellaneous pamphlets. 

Holmes, Jonx C. Detroit, Mich. Michigan School Report and 
Laws, 1863, 1 vol., 8vo. Michigan School Report, 1864, 1 vol., 8vo. 
3d An. Rep. of Michigan Board of Agriculture, 1 vol., 8vo, Lansing, 

1864. Elford's Marine Telegraph, 1 vol., 8vo, Charleston, 1823. War- 
ren's Ten thousand a year, 1 vol., 8vo, Phil., 1841. Mitchell's United 
States, 1 vol., Svo, Phil., 1834. 

Hotchkiss, Susan V. New Haven, Conn. Ten pamphlets and Col- 
lege Exercises relating to Yale College. 

Huguet-Latour, L. A. Montreal. Journal of Education, vol. vir, 
Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 4 to, Montreal, 1863. Journal de Institution 
Publique, vol. vh, Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 4to, Montreal, 1863. 

Lander, W. W. A collection of blanks used in the department of 
the Commissary of Subsistence, U. S. Army. 

Laxgworthy, Isaac P. Philadelphia. 10 Reports of the American 
Sunday School Union, 8vo, pamph., Philadelphia. 

Lee, John C. Stewart's Geography for Beginners (Palmetto Series) 
1 vol., 12mo, Richmond, 1864. 

Lesquereux, Leo Columbus, Ohio. Botanical and Palaeontological 
Report of the Geol. Survey of Arkansas, Svo, pamph. Palaeontologi- 
cal Rep. of Geol. Survey of Kentucky, Svo, pamph. Musci Boreal- Ameri- 
cani, by Sullivant and Lesquereux, 8vo, pamph. Lesquereux on Coal 
formations of North America, Svo, pamph. Lesquereux on Californian 
Mosses, 4to, pamph. 4th Report of the Geol. Survey of Kentucky, 8vo, 
1 vol., Frankfort, 1861. Lesquereux on the Origin of Prairies, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Lord, N. J. Boston Post for April, May and June, 1865. 

Mack, Samuel E. St. Louis Mo. Edward's St. Louis Directory, 

1865, 1 vol., Svo. 

Manxlng, Robert Perry's Eulogy on Stanley, Svo, pamph., Salem, 
1865. 

Meehan, Thomas Philadelphia. The Gardeners' Monthly, vols. 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, 8vo, Phil., 1860, &c. 



CLXXIII 

Norwood, J. G. Columbia, Mo. 1st and 2d Annual Reports of 
Geol. Survey of Missouri, by G. C. Swallow, 1 vol., 8vo, Jefferson City, 
1855. Catalogue of Univ. of Missouri for 18G2, 3, 4 and 5, 8vo, pamph. 

Osgood, George P. Autocrasy in Poland and Russia by Julian Al- 
len, 1 vol., 12mo, New York, 1854. 

Owen, Richard New Harmony, Ind. Report on the Mines of New 
Mexico, by Owen and Cox, 8vo, pamph. 

Paine, Nathaniel Worcester. Bullock's address at "Worcester, 
June 1, 1865, on A. Lincoln, 8vo, pamph. 

Palfray, Charles W. An. Rep. of Adj. Gen. of Missouri, 1863, 
1 vol., 8vo. 

Perkins, Henry Philadelphia. The Soldier's Guide in Philadelphia, 
1S65, pamph. 

Phillips, Stephen H. Sectional Maps of Farming and Wood Land 
for sale by Illinois Central R. Road, 8vo, pamph., Chicago, 1865. La- 
mark, Historie Naturelle des Animaux Sans Vertebres, vol. v 1, pt. 1, 
and vol. 2, 8vo, Bruxelles, 1837. Walter S. Newhall, a memoir, 1 vol., 
8vo, Phil., 1864. Dietrichsen and Hannay's Royal Almanack for 1861, 
8vo, pamph., London, 1861. Ocean Telegraphing by S. P. Van Choate, 
8vo, pamph., Cambridge, 1865. 

Pitman, Augustus P. Brevard's Digest of Pub. Statute Laws of S. 
Carol., vol. 2, 8vo, Charleston, 1814. Acts of Assembly of S. Carol., 
1801 to 1804, 8vo, 1 vol., Charleston. Several unbound Manuscripts. 

Pulsifer, David Boston. The State House in Boston, Mass. by 
David Pulsifer, 12mo, pamph., Boston, 1865. 

Randall, Stephen Providence, R. I. Aspinwall's remarks on the 
Narragansetts patent, 2d ed., 8vo, pamp., Providence, 1S65. 

Ropes, Chakles A. Trow's New York City Directory, vol. 75, 1 
vol., 8vo, New York, 1862. 

Safford, Joshua Spiritual Songs, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1787. 

Stearns, George L. Boston. 26 Pamphlets. 

Stevens, Miss Caroline Rochester, N. Y. Rochester Directory 
for 1847 — 8, 1 vol., 12mo. Several Newspapers. 

Trubner & Co., London. TrUbner's Amer. and Orient. Literary 
Record, vol. 1, Nos. 2 and 3. 

Waters, H. P. G. Regulations of Med. Dep't of Confecl. States 
Army, 8vo, pamph., Richmond, 1861. 

Waters, J. Linton Chicago, 111. The Prairie Chicken, 1864, 1 
vol., 4to, Tilton, 1864 — 5. Monthly, under the auspices of the late 
Mrs. Kirkland. » 

Webb, Benjamin Howison's Dictionary of the Malay Tongue, 1 
vol., 4to, London, 1801. 

Wheatland, Martha G. Daily Evening Transcript, July, 1864, to 
July, 1865, 2 vols., folio. 



CLXXI V 

Wheatland, Stephen G. Roll of Students of Harv. Coll. in the 
Army and Navy during the Rebellion, 12mo, painph., 1865. Porcellian 
Catalogue, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Wiggin, J. K. Boston. A. L. Stone's, Discourse on A. Lincoln, 
April 16, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Williams, Henry L. 12 Rail Road Reports. 

By Exchange. 

American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings of Meeting April 26, 
1865, 8vo, pamph. 

American Geographical and Statistical Society. Proceedings, 
pages 117 — 176, 8vo, pamph, New York, 1865. 

American, Philosophical Society. Proceedings, No. 73, pamph., 
Phil., 1865. 

Boston Public Library. A Memorial of Joshua Bates, from the 
city of Boston, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1865. 

California Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, vol. 3, 
pt. 2, 1864, San Francisco, 1864. 

Canadian Institute. The Canadian Journal for July, 1865. 

Chicago Historical Society. Brown's Historical Sketch of the 
early movements in Illinois for legalizing Slavery, 8vo, pamph., Chica- 
go, 1865. 

Dartmouth College Library. Catalogus Collegii Dartmuthensis, 

1864, 8vo, paraph. Catalogue of Dartmouth College for 1864 — 5, 8vo, 
pamph. 

Editors. The Gardener's Monthly for July, Aug. and Sept., 1865. 

American Journal of Science for July and Sept., 1865. 

Savannah Daily Herald. 

Florida Union. 

Historical Magazine for July and Aug. 

American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol., 2, No. 2. 

The Home Evangelist. 

North American Review, July, 1865. 

The Essex Banner. 

Haverhill Gazette. 

Lawrence American. 

Salem Observer. 

SouthfDanvers Wizard. 

Lynn Weekly Reporter. 
Iowa^State Historical Society. The annals of Iowa for July, 

1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Long Island Historical Society. 2d Annual Report, 8vo, pamph., 
Brooklyn, 1865. 



CLXXY 

Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. Illustrated 
Catalogue of, No. 1, 8vo, pamph., Cambridge, 1865. 

New England Historic — Genealogical Society. N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Register for July, 1865. Eulogy on A. Lincoln before N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Soc, May 3, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

New York Chamber of Commerce. An. Rep., 1864 — 5, 1 vol., 8vo, 
New York, 1865. 

New York Lyceum of Natural History. Annals vol. vu, Nos. 1, 
9, vol. viii, Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5. 

New York Mercantile Library Association. 44th Annual Report, 
8vo, pamph. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natltral Sciences. Proceedings No. 2, 
for April, May and June, 1865. 

Quebec Literary and Historical Society. Transactions, Session 
of 1864 — 5, Svo, pamph., Quebec, 1865. 

Redwood Library and Athen.eum. Report Made Sept. 28, 1864, 
8vo, pamph., New York, 1864. 

Yale College Library. Catalogus Collegii Yalensis, 1865, 8vo, 
pamph. Obituary Record of the Graduates of Yale College, July 26, 
1865, Svo, pamph. 

Tuesday, October 3. Adjourned Regular meeting. 

Vice President Allen in the chair. 
Samuel Q,. Felt, of Salem, was elected a Resident 
Member. * 

Monday, October 16. Regular meeting. 
N. Weston, Jr., in the chair. 
The Secretary read by title the following communica- 
tion : — '•'•Prodrome of a Monograph of the Pinnipedes." By 
Prof. Theodore Gill, of the Smithsonian Institution. 

James N. Estes, of South Danvers, was elected a Resi- 
dent Member. 

Monday, November 6. Regular meeting. 
Dr. George B. Loring in the chair. 
Letters were read from : — 

T. Mcllwraith, Hamilton, C. W. ; M. S. Bebb, Washington, D. C. ; 
W, H. Niles, Cambridge ; W. E. Endicott, Canton ; H. C. Perkins, New- 



CLXXVI 

buryport; N. S. Shaler, Cambridge; Stephen D. Poole, Lynn; Prof. A. 

E. Verrill, New Haven, Ct. ; W. M. Hunting, Fairfield, N. Y. ; L. L. 
Thaxter, Boston; B. P. Mann, Concord; E. E. Barden, Kockport; Prof. 
C. E. Hamlin, Waterville, Me. ; R. E. C. Stearns, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
Prof. J. Wyman, Cambridge ; Prof. W. B. Rogers, Boston ; Julius Sil- 
versmith, New York, N. Y. ; A. B. Kendig, Marslialltown, Iowa ; W. 
0. White, Keene, N. H. ; W. 0. Currier, Providence, R. I. ; E. W. Her- 
vey, New Bedford; W. W. Denslow, New York, N. Y. ; John Bolton, 
Portsmouth, Ohio; American Philosophical Society; Joseph Blake, 
Gilmantown, N. H., relating to the publications : E. Suffert, Matanzas, 
Cuba ; Dr. J. C. Puis, Ghaut, Belgium ; Prof. R. Owen, Bloomington, 
Ind. ; James Lewis, Mohawk, N. Y. ; Smithsonian Institution ; G. L. 
Stearns, Boston; W. Wallis, Salem; Dr. S. A. Green, Boston; A. W, 
May, Boston ; Mrs. E. E. Chase, Salem ; J. Linton Waters, Chicago, 111. ; 
Rev. C. F. Barnard, Boston, relating to the transmission of specimens 
and books : B. O. Peirce, Beverly ; Prof. James Hubbert, Richmond, C. 
E. ; Prof. A. E. Verrill, New Haven, Ct. ; Geo. C. Huntington, Kelley's 
Island, Ohio ; E. T. Cresson, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Horace Mann, Concord; 
A. E. Kursheedt, Cincinnati, Ohio; Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, Reading: J. 

F. Allen, Salem; W. B. Trask, Boston; John Krider, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Chicago, 111. ; W. J. Howard, New York, N. Y. ; 
Henri N. Woods, Rockport ; Chas. A. Emery, Springfield ; G. A. Board- 
man, Milltown, Me.; Hon. C. Cushing, Newburyport; I. L. Gosling, 
New York, N. Y. ; H. A. Bellows, Concord, N. H. : James W. Perkins, 
Salem ; J. C. Holmes, Detroit, Mich. ; Prof. J. G. Norwood, Columbia, 
Mo. ; Wm. Merritt, Salem; Capt. D. H. Johnson, Jr., Salem; Dr. H. 
C. Perkins, Newburyport ; Prof. S. Tenney, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; T. 
A. Cheney, Havana, N. Y. ; E. E. Barden, Rockport; Hon. O. P. Lord, 
Salem; F. W. Putnam, Salem; Hon. A. Huntington, Salem, on general 
business : New York Lyceum of Natural History ; Buffalo Society of 
Natural Sciences ; New York Historical Society ; Trustees of Dartmouth 
College.; New England Historic-Genealogical Society; Museum Comp. 
Zoology ; Albany Institute ; Maine Historical Society, acknowledging 
the receipt of publications : Prof. J. G. Norwood, Columbia, Mo. ; 
Josiah Stickney, Boston; A. T. Mosman, Beverly, accepting member- 
ship. 

Donations to the Library and Museum were announced. 
Adjourned to Tuesday evening, Nov. 14. 

Wednesday, November 8. Stated meeting. 

N. Westox, Jr., in the chair. 
Adjourned to Tuesday evening, Nov. 14. 



CLXXVII 

Tuesday, November 14. Adjourned Regular and 

Stated meetings. 

Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

Donations to the Museum and Library were announced. 

Mr. W. P. Upham read two letters ; one, written by Col. 
Azor Orne, of Marblehead, to Governor Adams, dated 
May 20, 1796, in which Col. Orne says his advanced age 
and infirm health forbid his attention to public business, and 
therefore he resigns the office of Senator for the County of 
Essex to which he had been chosen. The other letter was 
written by Samuel Sewall, afterwards Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and is dated Jan. 27th, 1780, at Marble- 
head, where he was then commencing the practise of 
law. The letter gives a graphic account of the sufferings 
of the people of Marblehead from the scarcity of wood oc- 
casioned by the great snowstorm of that winter. 

Mr. Upham gave a brief sketch of the character of Col. 
Orne, and an account of the family of Judge Sewall. 

The Communication of Mr. Upham was referred to the 
Publication Committee for publication in the Historical 
Collections. 

Dr. Loring made some remarks in connection with the 
subjects of Mr. Upham's communication, and narrated 
several incidents of the poverty of the people from 1765 to 
1800. 

Mr. Caleb Cooke read a portion of his notes on Zanzi- 
bar, Africa, made during a residence of four years on the 
Island, in which he gives an account of the Island and the 
customs of the inhabitants, with remarks upon the Natural 
History of the place. 

Mr. Cooke's notes were requested for publication. 

Benjamin Pickman, M. D., of Salem, was elected a 
Resident Member. 
24 



CLXXVIII 

Monday, December 4. Regular meeting. 
Rev. George D. Wildes in the chair. 

Letters were announced from the following: — 

Prof. S. F. Baird, Smithsonian Institution ; Prof. A. Guyot, Prince- 
ton, X. J. : Capt. Alpheus Hyatt, Baltimore, Md. ; E. S. Morse, Port- 
land, Me. : Prof. A. E. Verrill, Yale College; H. M. Raynor, New York: 
Thomas Bland, Xew York: Prof. Theo. Gill, Smithsonian Institution; 
Prof. Wm. P. Blake, San Francisco, Cal. ; Joseph E. Chase, Holyoke, 
Mass. : Wm. Couper, Quebec, Canada : Prof. J. G. Norwood, Columbia, 
Mo. : Dr. J. C. Puis. Ghent, Belgium: A. M. Edwards, New York: C. S. 
Fellows, Boston: Henry B. Dawson, Morrisauia, X. Y., relating to the 
publications : Prof. E. D. Cope, Haverford College, requesting the loan 
of specimens: Prof. S. F. Baird, Smithsonian Institution; Prof. A. E. 
Verrill, Yale College: S. Stebbins, Springfield; Hon. H. A. Bellows. 
Concord. X. H. ; Eobert E. C. Stearns, San Francisco, Cal. : Geo. A 
Boardman. Milltown, Me. : Dr. Theo. A. Tellkampf, Xew York: Frank 
Stratton. Xatick, Mass. : Wm. Couper, Quebec, Canada ; John S. Stev- 
ens, London, Eng. ; Prof. Leo Lesquereux. Columbus, Ohio ; Dr. Daniel 
Clark, Flint, Mich. ; Prof. J. G. Xorwood, Columbia. Mo. : Thomas Bar- 
low, Canastota, X. Y. Dr. J. C. Puis, Ghent, Belgium; Prof. Richard 
Owen, Bloomington, Ind. : M. G. Farmer, Salem ; Francis C. Webster, 
Salem; Justin Hinds, Salem: Richard Eddy, Libr., Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society; X. E. Atwood, Provincetown ; Fitch Poole, South 
Danvers; C. P. Preston, Sect. Essex Agricultural Society; Desmond 
Fitzgerald, Providence, R. I. ; John R. Bartlett. Providence, R. I. ; Geo. 
Brinley, Hartford, Ct., on various business matters and the transmis- 
sion of specimens and books : Baron R. Osten-Sacken, Russian Consul 
at Xew York, accepting membership : Xew Haven Colony Historical 
Society, acknowledging the receipt of Publications. 

Donations were announced to the Library and Museum. 

Capt. N. E. Atwood, of Provincetown, made a verbal 
communication on the Lobster. 

The Lobster is found in great abundance on our coast 
from the southern point of Cape Cod northward, being 
plentiful in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They are caught. 
in the vicinity of the Islands of Boston harbor and along 
the "North shore" during the whole year. In winter they 
are caught in deep water. As the spring advances, they 
come near the shore and are taken in vast quantities. 

In March, April, May, and June, large numbers are 
taken and sent to Boston, Xew York and other markets, 



CLXXIX 



where they are sold to wholesale dealers ; and there are also 
several establishments on the coast of Maine where they 
are put up in cans, which are hermitically sealed, for trans- 
portation to foreign markets ; the fishery thus gives em- 
ployment to a great number of persons. 

On the North Shore, including the coast of Maine, 
during July, and until the next spring, the Lobsters are 
less plentiful, and a large portion of them are "soft shelled" 
and in poor condition for an article of food. 

Of the Lobsters taken on the North Shore, at all sea- 
sons, more than three quarters are males, while those in 
the vicinity of Cape Cod are nearly all females, at all 
times when they are found in that region, such is the dis- 
proportion of the sexes in different localities. 

In Boston the male Lobster is prefered, consequently 
Lobsters from Cape Cod will not sell there until they be- 
gin to catch less on the North Shore. In New York, on 
the contrary, they prefer the female Lobsters and the sup- 
ply for that city comes from Cape Cod, when the Lob- 
sters can be caught there. 

The female Lobster is considered the best at Cape" Cod, 
and usually they are in the best condition. Most of the 
males are coarse and poor, and are nearly all thrown away 
when they are caught. 

At Provincetown, Cape Cod, the Lobsters do not come 
in to the shore until late in May or early in June, they are 
then abundant until the last of September and are in excel- 
lent condition, and are so plenty at times that one man 
will catch from three to four hundred in a single day. 
This is the time when they produce their young. They 
do not deposit their eggs in a particular locality, like fishes, 
where they will be exposed and liable to be destroyed be- 
fore the young are hatched. When the Lobster lays her 
eggs they adhere to the under part of the tail by a glutin- 
ous substance, and remain there in safety during ihe term 
of incubation, consequently countless millions are hatched 
every season. 

Before the Bluefish came north of Cape Cod (1847), 
Lobsters were very scarce in the waters about the Cape. 
The reason of this was owing to the large number of small 
fishes which remained along the coast during the summer 



CLXXX 

and fed upon the young Lobsters, since the appearance of 
the Bluefish and the consequent disappearance of the 
smaller fishes, the Lobsters have increased tenfold, so that 
the supply is now equal to the demand. The Lobsters 
leave the shores of Cape Cod in October, and, going to 
parts unknown, do not return until the next May or June. 
On Mr. Putnam's asking Capt. Atwood several questi- 
ons relating to his late examiniation of the fisheries of the 
Merrimack and Connecticut rivers, considerable discussion 
ensued regarding the practicability of restocking those 
rivers with Salmon and Shad, and the protection of the 
fish ; in which Messrs. Atwood, Putnam and others partic- 
ipated, and Mr. Putnam explained how, in his estimation, 
the rivers could easily be restocked, and the fish protected 
by the construction of proper "fish ways" over the dams, 
and the enforcement of laws drawn up with reference to 
the habits of the fishes in question. 

Monday, December 18. Regular meeting. 
Vice President Goodell in the chair. 

Letters were read from : — 

Prof. Theo. Gill, Smithsonian Institution; Prof. A. E. Verrill, Yale 
College ; Prof. J. Wyman, Harvard College ; Samuel E. Carter, Paris 
Hill, Me. ; H. A. Smith. Cleveland, Ohio ; Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, Bead- 
ing; John R. Bartlett, Providence, R. I., on business matters: Edw. 
L. Graef, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Andrew Garrett, Tahiti, South Seas ; Prof. 
James Hall, Albany, N. Y. ; H. M. Raynor, New York, N. Y. ; Prof. S. 
P. Baird, Smithsonian Institution; Joseph E. Chase, Holyoke, relating 
to the publications : Natural History Society of New Brunswick, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of publications. 

The Secretary read a Biographical Notice of the late 
Rev. Stillman Barden, prepared by Mrs. P. A. Hanaford, 
which was referred to the Publication Committee, and a 
vote of thanks was passed to Mrs. Hanaford, for the in- 
teresting memoir of our late associate. 

Mr. James H. Emerton exhibited a large and handsome 
living specimen of Actinia marginata, taken under Beverly 



CLXXXI 



Bridge, and gave an account of its habits while in confine- 
ment. He was followed by Mr. Putnam, who explained 
the anatomical structure and mode of development of the 
Actinia and its relation to the Coral producing Polyps. 

The Superintendent exhibited a number of Indian relics 
taken from a grave on Winter Island, Salem, near the 
embankment of Ft. Pickering, just west of the fosse. The 
grave was about four feet long, two wide, and two deep, 
and was made by placing a few stones about two feet 
from an abrupt ridge on a ledge and resting other stones 
from these to the ledge. 

The following relics were found : — Six partially finished 
Arrow heads of stone. Four completely made Stone Ar- 
row heads. One Stone Chisel or Gouge. One "Twisting 
Stone." (A thin oval stone with two holes in it, supposed 
to have been used in twisting when making a kind of 
twine). One "Polishing Stone." (An oval stone fitted to 
the hand, and probably used in rubbing skins of animals 
used for clothing). A number of fragments of a Pot made 
of soapstone and of an oval shape ; estimated from the 
fragments to have been about fourteen inches long, ten 
wide, and four deep. A portion of one end of the pot 
has a knob or handle. The pot is smoothly finished on 
the inside, rougher on the outside, and formed in a regu- 
lar manner, with slightly ornamented or serrated edges. 
The bottom of the pot showed signs of its having been 
used over a fire. 

"With the above mentioned implements were found a 
portion of a scapular and two bones of the foot of a Cow; 
a premolar tooth of a Hog; a small fragment of bone 
which could not be determined ; considerable bone dust ; 
and as much as a shovel full of a red substance mixed 
with earth and bone dust, and quite a large piece of pure 
red-ochre. 

For these relics the Institute is indebted to the thought- 
fulness of W. A. Williams, Esq., the Engineer at the 
Fort, who, as soon as the grave was discovered, reported 
it to the Institute for examination. 



CLXXXII 

The thanks of the Institute were voted to Mr. Williams 
for his valuable donation of Indian Relics. 

Donations to the Museum and Library were announced. 

Joseph Peabody, Hannah M. Lord and Joseph Chand- 
ler, of Salem, were elected Resident Members. John R. 
Bartlett, and R't Rev. Thomas M. Clark, of Providence, 
R. I., and Prof. Theodore C4ill, of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, were elected Corresponding Members. 

Additions to the Museum and Library during October, 
November and December, 1865. 

TO THE NATURAL HISTOEY DEPARTMENT. 
By Donation. 

Ashby, Miss Eliza Ann Salern. Canary 16 years old. 

Bosson, A. S. Salem. Skull of Fox-hound and Fox. Italian 
Queen Bee. 

Brooks, H. M. Salem. Plumbago, from shores of Lake Huron, 
Canada. 

Browne, A. G. Salem. Pomegranate, from Florida. 

Browne, Benj. Jr. Salem. Red Bat, Lasiurus noveboracensis 
Tomes, from Salem. 

Carpenter, Mr. Kelley's Island, Ohio. Fossils, from the sand- 
stoue quarry at Kelley's Island, Ohio. Beetles injurious to the Grape 
vine. 

Carter, Francis Georgetown. Specimen] of Lime deposited in 
the Boiler of a U. S. War Steamer. 

Clark, Dr. Daniel Flint, Mich. A collection of Fishes, Insects, 
and Reptiles, from Flint, Michigan. 2 young Trout, from Lake Supe- 
rior. Land and Fresh Water Shells, from Flint, Michigan. 

Cooke, C. Salem. 20 specimens, 3 species, Medusa ; 3 specimens, 
3 species, Mollusks; 1 specimen Fish, from Lagulhas Banks, E. Coast 
Africa. 20 specimens, 2 species, of Mollnsks, from Champany Island, 
Zanzibar Harbor. 1 Mollusk and collection of Ants, from Zanzibar, E. 
Coast Africa. Seed vessel, from Pangani River, E. Coast Africa. 

Dall, W. H. Chicago, 111. 1 Bat, 2 Salamanders, 3 Frogs, 1 Toad, 
3 Boleosoma, from Lake Goodwin, Marquette Co., Mich. 

Emerton, J. H. Salem. 51 bottles of Insects, in alcohol, from 
Essex County. 

Emerton, J. H. and Cooke, C. Salem. Collection of Fishes, Crus- 
tacea and Radiates, from under Beverly Bridge. 



CLXXXIII 

Farmer, James Salem. An Eel of a bright yellow color on the hack, 
sides and tins, and a light yellow color below, from Salem Mill Pond. 

Gardner, William Salem. 27 specimens of Helix cellaria, from 
the Greenhouse of F. Putnam. 

Haskell, J. P. Marblehead. Eel, from a deep well in Marblehead. 
The specimen is a singular mal-formation ; short head, large eyes and 
large pectoral fins. 

Hatch, Chas. Salem. Mantis, from Senegal River, W. C. of Africa. 

Huntington, Geo. C. Kelley's Island, Ohio. Fossils, from the 
sandstone quarry at Kelley's Island, Ohio. (Lake Erie). 3 species of 
Beetles injurious to the grape vine and to wine barrels, Kelley's Island. 

King, Miss H. Salem. Rose Quartz, from White Mountains, N. H. 
Jasper, from Berlin Falls, N. H. 

Lefavor, Wm. Capt. Salem. Specimens of wood, from 400 miles 
up the Urugua} r River. 

Lewis, James Mohawk, N. Y. Helix, 7 species, 685 specimens; 
Planorbis, 1 species, 58 specimens ; Cyclcis, 48 specimens ; Suecinea, 2 
species, 79 specimens ; Pycidium virginicum, 29 specimens ; Physa, 1 
species, 389 specimens ; Melania, 2 species, 777 specimens ; Paludina, 
4 species, 1704 specimens ; Lymnea, 1 species, 23 specimens. Also a 
lot of mixed Fresh-water and land shells, from various localities near 
Mohawk, N. Y. 

Lombard, Miss M. E. Boston. Specimen of Humming Bird, Trochi- 
lus colubris, from Boston. 

Marcy, Plimpton. Plumbago, from Starbridge Lead Mines. 

Nichols, C. F. Salem. Scopelus Humboldti, from the Mediterrane- 
an. 4 species, 10 specimens, Land Shells, from Hesse Darmstadt, 
Germanj'. Coral, from the Blue Grotto at Capri, Mediterranean. Mine- 
rals, from Hesse Darmstadt, Germany. Limestone, from the Falls of 
Terni, Italy. 2 Minerals from Vesuvius. Lizard and Insects, from 
Malta. 

Norris, C. H. Salem. Egg of African Ostrich. 

Owen, Prof. Richard New Harmony, Ind. A collection contain- 
ing 55 species of Land and Fresh Water Shells, from the West. Also 
Reptiles, Fishes, Insects and Shells in Alcohol, from New Harmony, Ind. 

Packard, Dr. A. S. Jr. Boston. 4 Salamanders, 2 species ; 9 Lizards, 
4 species ; 1 Snake, from Bailey Cross Roads, near Washington, Va. 

Perkins, T. Lyman Salem. Collection of Shells, from East Indies. 
Galena, Quartz and Garnets. 

Pickman, H. D. and Cooke, C. Salem. Gold Fish, Cyprinus aura- 
tits and Leuciscus americanus, from Salem. 

Putnam, F. W. Salem. Skulls of Deer, Lynx, Hedge-Hog, Mink, 
Marten (male and female) and Domestic Sheep, from Oxford Co., Me. 



C L XXXIV 

Collection of Insects, Shells and Infusorial Earth, from Ipswich, Mass. 
Collection of Fishes, Insects, Moliusks &c, from Lake Erie and Kel- 
ley's Island, Ohio. Fossils, from Kelley's Island, Ohio. 

Sanborn, F. G. Boston. 210 specimens, Diptera, 100 specimens, 
Hymenoptera, collected in Mass. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Collection of Fish- 
es, from various X. American localities. 

Taylor, C. H. Lynn. Red Clay, from Maryland. 

Teixkampf, Dr. Theo. A. Xew York. 10 specimens Ascidia man- 
hattensis Dekay. 6 specimens Phallusia fluitans Tellkampf (now sp.), 
from Huntington Bay, Long Island. 

Unknown," Danvers. Eggs of the Walking Stick, Spectrum femo- 
ratum. 

Walker, Mxlledge Ossekeag. X. B. 1 Bat, 1 Green Snake, 1 Sala- 
mander, from Ossekeag, X. B. 

Waters, E. S. Salem. Mineral, from Xatick, Mass. 

Wheatland, George Jr. Salem. A collection of 106 species, 208 
specimens, of Shells, from various localities. 

Wheatland, Dr. H. Salem. Shells and Crustaceans, from Xahant 
Beach. 

White, G. W. Salem. 4 specimens of Atherina notata, from upper 
part of Salem Mill Pond. 

TO THE HISTORICAL DEPARTMEXT. 
By Donation. 

Browne, Albert G. Salem. Unsigned bills of the Bank of Com- 
merce, Savannah, Ga. 

Caller, James M. Salem. Specimens of Confederate Money. 

Chamberlain, James A. Salem. Coins. 

Curwen, S. R. Salem. Arabian Sandals. 

Debaker, Capt. V. F. Salem. A pair of Shoes, such as are worn 
by the Chiefs on the West Coast of Africa. 

Hobbs, George J. 13 Stone Arrow heads, found at Sturbridge, 
Mass. 

Kimball, James Salem. Padlock, from Stone Jail in Ipswich, er- 
ected in 1800. This lock was used in the old Jail also. 

LeGrand, Charles Salem. Ancient Pitcher, 2 Ancient Tea Pots. 

Xichols, C. F. Salem. Various Historical relics, from Rome and 
vicinity. 

Xorris, John Salem. A picture of the Ship Mount Vernon of 
Salem, commanded by Capt. S. Elias Derby, 1789. Painted by M. C. P. 

Osborne, Stephen Salem. 2 Bonnets and 4 Hats, style of 1835. 

Perktxs. T. Lyman Salem. 12 Chinese coins. 



I 



CLXXVII 

Pulsifer, David Salem. Indian Mortar and Pestle, made of stone, 
from California. 

Putnam, Mrs. Eben Salem. Ancient Pitcher. 

Savory, Benjamin Salem. Pair of Snow Shoes, over 90 years 
old. 

Taylor, O. H. Lynn. Piece of marble, from Gov. Bradford's house, 
destroyed by the Confederates, 1864. 

Ward, Charles A. Salem. Piece of "Treenail" of the old ship 
"Sparrow Hawk," wrecked at Cape Cod, in 1626. 

Wheatland, George, Jr., Salem. Old Shoe and Clog. 

TO THE LIBRAKY. 
By Donation. 

Agassiz, A. E. E. Cambridge. Sea-Side Studies in Natural Histo- 
ry, by Elizabeth C. and Alex. Agassiz, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1865. 

Bartlett, John R. Providence, R. I. Bibliography of Rhode 
Island, by John R. Bartlett, 1 vol., 8vo, Providence, 1864. Records of 
the colony of Rhode Island, vols. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 8 vols., 8vo, Pro- 
vidence, 1856. Index to Acts and Resolves of R. I., from 1758 to 1850, 
by J. R. B. ; 1 vol., 8vo, Providence, 1856. Registration Reports of 
Rhode Island, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 8 vols., 8vo, Providence, 1856, &c. 
History of the Criminal Law, of R. I., 8vo, pamph. Journal of Con- 
stitutional convention at Newport, 1862, 8vo, pamph. Census of R. I., 
1774, 1 vol., 8vo, Providence, 1858. 

Browne, Albert G. Elliott's Fast Sermon, at Savannah, Feb. 28 
1862, and Sept. 15, 1864, 8vo, pamph. Elliott's Address before the 
Societies of S. C. Coll., Dec. 4, 1859, 8vo, pamph. Legare's oration at 
Columbia, S. C, Dec. 6, 1859, pamph. 7 Miscellaneous pamphlets. 

Browne, J. Vincent French Universal Exposition, for 1867, offici- 
al Correspondence, pub. by Dep. of State, pamph., Washington, 1865. 

Bunker Hill Monument Association. Proceedings at Annual 
Meeting, June 17, 1865, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1865. Inauguration of the 
Statue of Gen. Warren, June 17, 1858, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1858. 

Chapple, William F. Salem Gazette for 1790, 1 vol., fol. Colum- 
bian Centinel, for 1793, 1 vol., fol. 

Chase, Eliza E. Hospital Transports, 1 vol., 16mo, Boston, 1863. 
Sanitary Commission Bulletin, Nos. 33, 34 and 40. The Sanitary Re- 
porter, vol. 2d, Nos. 19, 22. Final Report of Supply Dep't of N. E. 
Women's Aux. Association of Sanitary Commission, 8vo, pamph. 25 
papers relating to Sanitary Commission. 

Chase, George C. Friend's Review, 10 Nos. 

Chase, George H. The U. S. Sanitary Commission, a sketch of its 
purposes and its work, 1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1863. 



CLXXYIII 

Chase. Thomas Haverford College, Perm. Catalogue of Haverford 

College. 1865 — 6, pampli. 

Coblrx F. S. of Boston. Ames's Oration on Washington, Feb. 8, 
1800, 8vo, pampli. Massachusetts Resolves for 1797. pampli. , folio. 

Cole. Nancy D. Silliman's Journal of Science, vols. 28 to 50, 1st 
series, vols. 1 to 14 of 2d series, inclusive. 37 vols. 

Cooke. Caleb The Bombay Almanac, for 1858—60. 2 vols., 8vo, 
Bombay. Bombay Civil List. 1859, 8vo, pamph. Four pamphlets. 

Crosby. Alpheus Regulations for the Army of the U. S., 1861, 1 
vol.. 12mo. The Sisters of Solense, by C W. S.. 1 vol.. l6mo, Phil., 
1857. Curtis' Inventor's Manual. 1 vol. 12mo. Boston. 1861. Fibrilia, 

1 vol., 12mo, Boston, 1861. Kitto's Court of Persia. 1 vol., 8vo. 
Dumas and Boussingault, The Chemical and Physiological Balance of 
Organic Nature, 1 vol., 16mo, X. Y., 1864. Davis. The Measure of the 
Circle perfected, 1 vol., 8vo, Providence, 1854. Bartlett, The Frontier 
Missionary. 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 1853. Old South Chapel Prayer Meet- 
ing, 1 vol., 16mo, Boston, 1859. Calvert's Scenes and Thoughts in 
Europe, 12mo, X. Y., 1852. Challen's Igdrasil or the Tree of Existence, 
12tno, Phil.. 1859. TTillard's Memoirs of Youth and Manhood, 2 vols., 
12mo, Cambridge. 1855. Caswall. The Martyr of Pongas, 12mo. N. Y,. 
1857. McClinteck's Narrative of the Fate of Sir John Franklin, 12mo, 
Boston, 1860. Coming's Physiology, 12mo, X. Y., 1854. BoutwelTs 
Thoughts on Educational Topics and Institutions, 12mo, Boston, 1859. 
The U. S. Custom's Guide, 12mo, Boston, 1859. Huntington, Home 
and College, 12mo, Boston, 1860. FQlborn's German Instructor, 12mo, 
Philadelphia, 1852. Dalrymple's Memoir of Great Britain and Ireland, 

2 vols.. 4to. Boston, 1771. Tables for correcting the apparent distance 
of the Moon and a Star, 4to, Cambridge, 1772. 350 Serials. 500 Mis- 
cellaneous pamphlets. 

Daw sox, Hexry B. Morrisania, X. Y. The Gazette 'Yonkers . 
from May 6 to Xov. 11, 1865. 

Deax, John Ward Boston. Memoir of Rev. Giles Firrnin, 8vo, 
pamph., Boston, 1865. 

Greex, Samuel A. Boston. 40 Various Pamphlets. 

Grlxdel, Stover One bound volume of Miscellaneous Xewspapers, 
1804, 1805, 1806. 

Hotchkxss. Hexry Xew Haven. Several Handbills &c. 

Kimball. James Pamphlets, 12. 

Lax dee, YT. \Y. A Digest of the Military and Xaval Laws of the 
Confederate States. 1 vol., Bvo, Columbia, 1864. 

Lixcolx, Solomox Hingham. Xotes on the Lincoln Families of 
Massachusetts, by S. Lincoln, 8vo, pamph, Boston, 1865. 

Lord, X. J. Boston Post, for July, Aug. and Sept., 1865. 



CLXXIX 

Loring, George B. Boston Daily Post, for July, Aug. and Sept., 
1865. 

Lovett, John TV. Beverly. Eliot's Sermon at Ordin. of Bev. J. 
Willard, 8vo, pamph. Prince's Fast Sermon, May 9, 1798, 8vo, pamph. 

Massachusetts Secretary of State. Acts and Resolves 1864, 4 
vols., 8vo, Boston, 1865. Public Documents, 1865, 1 vol., 8vo, Boston, 
1865. Supplement to Ichnology of Mass., by E. Hitchcock, 1 vol., 8vo, 
Boston, 1865. 

Miles, M. Lansing, Mich. Catalogue of State Agiic. Coll., of 
Michigan, 1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Mudge, Benjamin E. Quindaro, Kansas. Eourth volume of Pub. 
Doc. of Kansas, Dec. 31, 1864, 8vo. Instructions, 1st Census of Kansas, 
1865, 8vo, pamph. 

Nichols, Mary H. A collection of Account Books kept by the late 
Dr. E. A. Holyoke. Account Books of the late B. Herbert Hathorne. 

Pickman, Benjamin The Nation, vol. 1, Nos. 1 to 19, 4to, New 
York, 1865. 

Rust, Lydia London Magazine, for 1796, 1 vol., 8vo. 8 Miscella- 
neous pamphlets. 

Sheppard, John H. Boston. Reminiscences of the Vaughn Eamily, 
8vo, pamph., Boston, 1865. 

Sibley, John L. Cambridge. Sibley's Notices of Trien. and Annu- 
al Catalogues of Harvard University, 8vo, pamph., Boston, 1865. 

Stearns, George L. Six pamphlets on various subjects. 

Story, Norman Essex. Crowell's address at the consecration of 
Spring St. Cemetery, Essex, Oct 27, 1852, 8vo, pamph. 

Swasey, Mrs. John Cincinnati, Ohio. Mitchill's Tennessee State 
Gazetteer, for 1860, 1 vol., 8vo, Nashville, 1860. Smith and Damou- 
lin's Illinois State Business Directory, for 1860, 1 vol., 8vo, Chicago. 
Hawes & Co. Indiana State Gazetteer, for 1862 — 63, 1 vol., 8vo. Mis- 
souri State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1 vol., 8vo, Saint Louis, 
1860. Williams Cincinnati Directory, for 1849—50, 1850—51, 1851—52, 
1852 — 53, 1855, 1856, 6 vols., 8vo, Cincinnati. Cist's Cincinnati in 1851, 
1 vol., 12mo. Cist's Cincinnati in 1859, 1 vol., 12mo. Disturnell's New 
York State Register, for 1858, 1 vol., 12mo. Hall's Western Land 
Owner's Manual, 1 vol., 12mo, Auburn, 1847. Butler's History of Ken- 
tucky, 2d ed., 1 vol., 8vo, Cincinnati, 1836. Lapham's Wisconsin, 2d 
ed., 1 vol., 12mo, Milwaukee, 1846. Ohio Railroad Guide, illustrated, 1 
vol., 12mo, Columbus, 1854. Scott's Messiahship, 1 vol., 12mo, Cincin- 
nati, 1859. Swallow's, 1st and 2d An. Reports on the Geology of Mis- 
souri, 1 vol., 8vo, Jefferson city, 1855. William's Cincinnati Guide, for 
1852. 1 vol., 16mo. Mendenhall's Map of Cincinnati, 1865. 

Tellkampf, Theodore A. New York. Vierzehnter Jahresbericht 



CLXXX 

der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft zu Hannover, 1863 — 4, 4to, pamph., 
Hannover, 1865. 

Trask, Israel H. "Wenham. Eeports of the Town of Wenham. for 
several years, 10 pamphlets. 

Trtjbxer & Co., London. Trubner's Amer. and Orient. Literary 
Eecord, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 1865. 

Wallts, William Christian Watchman and Reflector, from Jan. 
1853 to Dec. 1865 inclusive, 12 vols., folio, Boston. 

Webb, Joseph H. Record books of Salem Union League, 4to, Mass. 

Webb, William G. The Daily Citizen, for July, 2d and 4th, 1863, 
printed at Vicksburg on house paper. 

Wheatlaxd, Hexry New Hampshire Register, for 1857, 1859, 1860, 
1861, 1862, 5 vols., 16mo, Concord, X. Y. Pigot & Co. Metropolitan 
Directory, for 1828 and 1834, 2 vols., 8vo, London. 

Wildes, George D. Binney's Oration on Lincoln, at Providence, 
June 1, 1865, 8vo, pamph. Catalogue of Brown University, 1865 — 66, 
8vo, pamph. 

By Exchange. 
Bostox Society of Natural History. Condition and Doings at 
Annual Meeting, May 1865, 8vo, pamph. Proceedings, vol. 10, sig. 1. 
Bowdolx College Library. Bowdoin Ivy-day, Class of 1866, 
pamph. The Bugle, Bowdoin College, No. 14. 

Caxadiax Institute. The Canadian Journal, Sept. 1865. 
Chicago Historical Society. 7th An. Statement of the Trade and 
Commerce of Chicago, Svo, pamph. 4th An. Rep. of Record of Public 
works of Chicago, 8vo, pamph. 

Dartmouth College. Catalogue of Dartmouth College, for 1865, 
1866, 8vo, pamph. 
Editors. Gardner's Monthly, for Oct. Nov. and Dec, 1865. 
North American Review, Oct., 1865. 
Florida Union. 
Savannah Daily Herald. 
Historical Magazine, Oct. and Nov. 
The Gazette (Yonkers, N. Y). 
American Journal of Science, Nov., 1865. 
The Essex Banner. 
Haverhill Gazette. 
Lawrence American. 
Lynn Weekly Reporter. 
Salem Observer. 
South Danvers Wizzard. 
American Miner's Index. 



CLXXXI 

Iowa State Historical Society. The Annals of Iowa, for October, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. First Annual Cata- 
logue, 1865 — 66, 8vo, pamph. 

Montreal Society of Natural History. The Canadian Natura- 
list and Geologist, for Aug. and Oct. 1865. 

New Brunswick Natural History Society. Gold Mines and Gold 
Mining in Nova Scotia, by H. E. Perley, 8vo, pamph., Montreal, 1865. 

New England Historic — Genealogical Society. N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Reg., Oct., 1865. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. Adj. General's Report of 
New Hampshire, 1865, 2 vols., 8vo, Concord, 1865. Municipal Register, 
of Concord, 1864, 8vo, pamph. 

New Haven Historical Society. Papers of N. H. Hist. Society, 
vol. 1, 8vo, New Haven, 1865. 

Nova Scotia Institute of Natural Science. Proceedings and 
Transactions, vol. 2, pt. 3, 8vo, pamph., Halifax, 1864 — 65. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings for 
July and Aug., Sept. and Oct., 1865. 

Philadelphia Entomological Society. A Memoir of Thomas B. 
Wilson, by a Committee of the Society, 8vo, pamph., Philadelphia, 1865. 

Yale College Library. Catalogue of Officers and Students in Yale 
College, 1865—66, 8vo, pamph. 

Zoologische Gesellschaft, Erankfurt a. M. Der Zoologische 
Garten, vol. 6, Nos. 1 to 6. 



EEKATA TO THE PKOCEEDINGS. 

Page V, line 12, for Camby, read Canby. 

" VII, " 21, " John H. Bettis, read John B. Bettis. 

" X, " 13, " conventical, read conventual. 

XIX, «< 13, " 1623, read 1627. 
" XXXVI, " 16, " Phaleris microcerus, read Mergulus alle. 
" LXXI, " 33, " P. hyalina, read P. vitrea, and for P. pen- 
nissewasseensis, read P. Arethusa. 

" CXXXIII, " 19, after the word "yards," insert higher. 

" CXXXVI, " 25, for Thomas Maxwell, read Thompson Maxwell. 

" CLVIII, " 12, " Henry P. Hendrick, recw? Henry P. Herrick. 



INDEX 
To Proceedings, Vol. IV. 



Achillea millefolium, LIII 

Achirus liueatus, Pectoral fins of, C 

Actinia marginata, CLXXX 

Additions to the Historical Department. 

XIII, XXXVII, LXVII, LXXXVIII 

CVI, CXL, CLXIX, CLXXXIV. 
Additions to the Natural History Depart- 

memt, XI, XXXV, LXV, LXXXVI 

CIV, CXXXVII, CLXVII, CLXXXII. 
Additions to the Library, XIV, XXXVIII 

LXVIII, LXXXIX, CVI, CXLI, 

CLXXI, CLXXXV. 
"Alabama," The, relics of, LXXXVI 

Alluvial formation at Ware, CLXIV 

Andover North, Large Elm at, CLIX 

purchase of, CLIX 

Anemone nemorosa, XXIV 

Annual meeting, XXVIII, CXVI 

Antennaria margaritacea, LIII 

Antrostomus vociferus, LXXXIII 

Aqueducts in Salem, IX 

Aquilegia canadensis, XXV 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, LIII 

Asclepias incarnata, var. pulchra, LIII 

Bald Pate Hill, CLII 

Barden, Rev. Stillman, biographical notice 

of, CLXXX 

resolutions on the 

death of, CLX, CLXV 

Barn of S. Littell at Georgetown, CLII 
Beverly, fort at, LXXIX, LXXXV 

Birds, migration of, CLXIV 

Blue Birds, singular nest of, CXLIX 

Blue Fish, habits of, CII 

By Laws, amendments to, XCVIII 
LXXV, XCIX, CXXV, CLV. 

Caltha palustris, XXV 

Cape Ann, deed of, III 

Caterpillar, Tent, CLX 

Celebration of Independence, Institute 
requested to join in, CXXX 

resolutions on, CXXX 

Celuta amoena, LXXXIII 

Cemetery, "Oak Hill", LVIII 

Chelys Matamata, LXXV 

Church, "Christ", Cambridge, VIII 

" "First", Salem, II 

" "South", Newburyport, LIX 



Church, "St Michael's", Marblehead.VIII 
Clethra alnifolia, LIII 

Codfish, habits of, CI 

Committee to present claims of Institute 
to the Public, XXXV 

on Constitution and By-Laws, 

VIII, XX, XXVIII, XXXIII. 

on election of officers, XIX, CXVI 

on photographs, XXXV 

Copley, portraits by, LIX 

Cornus canadensis, LIII 

Correspondence announced, II, III, VI 

VII, VIII, IX,XIX,XX, XXI, XXVIII 

XLIV, XLVII, L, LV, LX, LXXI 

LXXIV, LXXV, LXXVIII, LXXXIII 

LXXXIV, XCIII, XCIV,XCVII,XCIX 

C, CIV, CXI, CXII, CXV, CXXIII 

CXXVII, CXXX, CXXXII, CXLVII 

CLIII, CLVII, CLXII, CLXXV 

CLXXVIII, CLXXX. 

Craft, Benjamin, Journal of, LXXVIII 

Craft, Eleazer, Journal of, LXXIX 

Cristatella, L ^XI 

ophidioidea, LXXI 

Cuscuta Gronovii, LIII 

Gushing, Hon. Caleb, visit of Institute to 

residence of, CLXVI 

Cyclopterus lumpus, eggs of, XX 

Davis, Miss Eliza B., paintings of flow- 
ers, CLVIII 
Dexter Mansion, LVIII 
Donations from E. I., CXXI 
Drosera longifolia, LIII 

rotundifolia, LIII 

Duck Hawk, LXXVI 

- monstrosity, XI 

East Saugus, Field Meeting at, XLIII 
Elodea virginica, LIII 

Epigaea repens, XXV 

Epilobium angustifolium, LIII 

lineare, LIII 

Erythroneum americanum, XX VII I 

Essex Historical Society, account of, II 
Eupatorium perfoliatum, LIII 

purpureum, LIII 

Everett, Hon. Edward, resolutions on the 
death of, XCIV, XCVI 



CLXXXIV 



Feathery Catkins, XXVIH 

Field Meetings, XLIII, XLVII, L, L1V 

LVIII, CXXVI, CXXXII, CXLVI, CL 

CLVI, CLXI. 
First Church, Salem, report of Committee 

on, CXXXI 

Flowers collected on May-day, XXIV 
Formica sanguinea, XCIX 

Fort Conant, naming of, IV 

— Glover, " " IV 

— Lee, " " VI, VII 

— Hale, Committee on Name of, LXXX. 

Gaultheria procumbens, LIII 

Georgetown, Field Meeting at, CL 

Indian relics at, CLI, CLV 

Gilpin, J. B., drawings by, XCIII 

Gloucester, Field Meeting at, L 

Grapes, analyses of, LXXXV 

Gun Lock, old Spanish, XCIV 

Harrison, President, Portrait of, LXXIX 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

LII 

XXIV 

LXXXV 

LXXX1V 



Helix arborea, 

Binneyana, 

chersina, 

exigua, 

ferrea, 

labyrinfhica, 

lineata, 

milium, 

st.riatella, 

Hepatica triloba, 

Hesperomys leucopus, 

Heterodoh platyrlrinos, 

Houses on Essex St., Salem, 1793, IX 

Houstonia coerulea, XXVII 

Huntington, Hon. Asahel, Pres. E. I., 

Resolutions on his declining reelection, 

cxxv 

Huntington, George C, thanks to for 

donation, CXXVI 

Hypericum perforatum, LIII 
sarothra, LIII 

Impatiens fulva, LIII 

Independence, celebration of, CXXX 
Indian relics at Winter Island, CLXXXI 
Iron Foundery, first in U. S., XLV 

Jenks, Joseph, one of the first American 
Inventors, XLV 

Kelley's Island, "Red Bug" of, LXXVIII 

Lafayette, Gen., autograph letter of, 
LXXV 
Lee, Col. and 3Irs., portraits of, by 
Copley, LIX 

Leontodon autumnale, LIII 

Leucanthemum vulgare LIII 

Leverett, Gov. John, portrait of, CXLIX 
Limax campestris, LII 

Lincoln, President, death of, CXIV 

Lobelia cardinalis, LIII 

inflata, LIII 

spicata, LIII 

Lobster, habits of, CLXXVIII 

Louisburgh, seige of, LXXVIII 

Lull House, Old, at Rowley, CL 

Lump Fish, eggs of, XX 

Ly thrum salicaria, LIII 



Mackerel, habits of , CI 

Maruta cotula, ■ LIII 

Maxwell, Major, memoir of, CXXXI 
Mav-dav, customs and observance of, XXI 
Meeting House, The "Old Friends," VII 
Melampus bidentatus, LII 

Memorial Chapel of St. Paul's, Xew- 
buryport, LVIII 

Menhaden, habits and use of, CHI 

Mineral Point Mine, CLII 

Mitchella repens, LIII 

Myiodioctes canadensis, LXXXIII 

Nahant, Field Meeting at, CXXVI 

Newburyport, Field Sleeting at, LVIII 
CLXI. 

"Oak Hill" Cemetery, LVIII 

Ney, Marshal, suppressed engraving of, X 
Nichols, A., life and services of, XCVII 
Nichols, William Capt., Memoir of, 
LXXXIII 
North Andover, Churches and Ministers 
of, CLVII 

Dwight's Description of, 

CLVI 

Field Meeting at, CLVI 

Great Pond at, CLVII 

Settlement of, CLVI 

North Beverly, Field Meeting at, XLVII 
Nuphar advena, LIII 

Nymphrea odorata, LIII 

Observatory Hill, Newburyport, change 

in slope of, CLX11I 

Ochre at Georgetown, CLII 

Oenothera biennis, LIII 
pumila, LIII 

Officers for 1804—5, XXXIV 
1865— G, CXXIV 

Oxalis stricta, LIII 

Paintings, by Copley, LIX 

Pea Hen, male plumage of, IX 

Pectinatella, LXXI 

Peregrine Falcon, LXXVI 

Platauthera blephariglottis, LIII 

Plumatella, LXXI 

"Arethusa (pennissewasseen- 

sis), LXXI 

vitrea (hyalina), LXXI 

Polyzoa, new species of, LXXI 

Pontederia cordata, LIII 

Portraits, loan of, LXXV 

Post Office Box, old, at Rowley, CL 

Pupa pentodon, LII 

Reading, Field Meeting at, CXLVI 

Red Bug, LXXVIII 

Report of Committee on naming Fort 
Hale, LXXXV 

Reports, "Abstracts of, at annual meet- 
ing, XXIX, CXVI 
Resolutions, on Tracv's lectures on Bota- 
ny, CXXXVII 
Roekville, South Danvers, Field Meeting 
at, 



LIV 



Sagittaria variabilis var. sagittifolia, LIII 
Saltonstall, Leverett, thanks to, CXLIX 
Sambueus canadensis LIII 

Sanguinaria canadensis, XXVI 



Sarracenia, 

Saxifraga virginiensis, 
Scoleeophagus ferrugineus, 
Scomber grex, 

vernaHs, 

Scutellaria laterifolia, 

Sewall, Joseph, engraving of 

Shakespeare, ter-centenary birth day,XXI 

Shells, Laud and Fresh water, 

Silene inflata, LIII 

Silk worms, VII 

Si.- ery and Domestic Servitude in Essex 

County, VII 

Solanum dulcamara, LIII 

Somniosus brevipinna, XCIII 

Spear Head, ancient, XCIV 

Specimens, estimate of number of, in 
Hist. Dept., CXXI 

in Nat. Hist. Dept., CXXI 

Spiraea tomentosa, LIII 

salicifolia, LIII 

Stai dley Grove, Beverly, Field Meeting 

a+ CXXXII 

Statice limonium, LIII 

Succinea avara, LII 

Totteniana, LII 

Tebennophorus dorsalis, LII 

Thunder Storms, Perkins on, CXXXII 

Tracy Mansion, Newburvport, LIX 

Tree's, buried, CLXIV 

Trifolium pratense, LIII 

repens, LIII 

Turtles, Skeletons of, LXXIV 

Type Setting and Justifying Machine, 

LXXX, LXXXI 

Vaccinium oxycoccus, LIII 

Vertigo ovata, LII 

Victoria Regia, Allen's work on, XCVIII 

presented to Institute, XCVIII 

Violets, XXVI 

Ward, George A., Memoir of, C 

proceedings at special meeting 

on death of, • LXIV 

resolutions on death of, LXXII 

LXXIV. 

"Ware, alluvial formation at, CLXIV 

Washington Street, Salem, model of, XI 
Wenham Pond, XL VII 

White, D. A., Memoir of, I, II 

Whitfield, Tomb of, LIX 

Winter Island, Indian relics found at, 
CLXXXI 
Wreck, Ancient, on Cape Cod, XIX 

Xyris bulbosa, , LIII 



Communications, Verbal, by. 

Abbott, Joseph H. CXXXVI 

Atwood, X. E. CI, CLXXVIII, CLXXX 

Baker, John L. CXXXVI 

Banvard, Joseph LI, LVI 

Barden, S. XLIV, LIII, LIV, LV, LX 
Barnes, J. G. CLIV 

Barrows, William CXLVI 

Beals, Wm. J. CXXIX 



CXCIII 


XLIX 


Beaman, C. C. XLV, XLVI,XLIX, LXII 


XXVII 


Bolles, E. C. LI, LXXVI 


.XXXIII 


Briggs, George W. LXIV 


CII 


Bruce, A. W. XLVI 


CII 




LIII 


Choate, Wm. G. LXXXI 


VII 


Cooke, Caleb CXXIX 


day,XXI 


Cox, P. L. XLVI 


LXXVI 


Crosby, A. LIII, LVII, CXIV 



Dampney, Joseph 



XLV 



Emerton, James H. XLVI, LIII, CXV 
CLXXX. 



Flint, C. L. 



CLIV 



Goodell, A. C.'Jr. nil, V, VII, XI, XIX 
XXI, XLV, LII, LXIV, LXXX, LXXXI 
CXII, CLV, CLIX. 



Hammond, John Q. 
Hinks, William 
Holmes, John C. 
Hooper Nathaniel 
Huntington, Asahel 

CLXV. 
Hyatt, Alpheus 



CXXVII1 

LI 

XLVI 

CXV 

LXIV, LXXIX 

CLIV 



Ives, J. M. VII, XCVIII, CXLVII, CLIX 



Judd, C. P. 
Kimball, James 



CXLVII I 
LXXXI 



Loring, George B. CXIV, CXXVIII 

CXXXII, CXLVIII, CLIII, CLVIII 
CLXXVII. 



Markoe, George F. H. 
Morse, Edward S. 
Mussey, Artemas D. 

Newhall, Wilbur F. 



LIII 
LII 
LXI 

XLIV 



Parker, E. G. CLX 

Peabodv, Francis LXIV 

Perkins", H. C. LXI, LXII, CLXIII 

Perkins, A..E. P. CLXIV 

Phillips, Stephen H. XLVIII 

Phippen, G. D. XXIV, L, LXXX, CXV 

Pierce, B. O. XLIX 

Putnam, F. W. VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XIX 

XX, LII, LV, LX, LXXIV, LXXIX 

LXXXI II, LXXXIV, LXXXV, XCIII 

XCVIII, XCIX, CXII, CXV, CXXIX 

CXXXVI, CXLVIII, CLIV, CLIX 

CLXII, CLXXX, CLXXXI. 



Rantoul, R. S. 

CXXXVI. 
Rich, A. B. 
Richards, John B. 
Ropes, T. 

Sibley, J. L. 
Skinner, G. W. 
Slade, James 
Spalding, J. S. 
Stone, E. F. 
Sykes, John N. 



IV, LXXIX, LXXX 

LXXIX 

LXXXI 

VII, CXII 

CLIV 

XLVIII, L, LI 

XLVIII 

LXI, LXII, CXXXVI 

CLXV 

LXII 



26 



CXCIV 



Tenney, O. B. CL 

Tenney, Richard CLV 

Tracy, C. M. XL1V, XLIX, LVJ, LXII 

CXXIX, C'XXXVI, CI, HI. 
Tucke, Joseph D. CXXXVI 

Upham, W. P. VII, XLVI 

Verrill, A. E. CXIV 

Waters, Kichard P. XLIX 

Walton, E. X. LVII 

Wheatland, H. VII, XCVII 

Wildes, G. D. Ill, VII, VIII, X, XIX 

XX, XXVIII, XLVIII, LXIII, CXII 

CXIV, CXXXI, CXXXVI. 
Willson, E. B LIII 



Communications, Weitten, by. 

Allen, J. A. XXVIII, LXXV, XCIX 

Babbage, Charles LVII 

Balch, D. M. Ill, LXXXV 

Briggs, G. W. I 

Cooke, Caleb CLXXVII 

Emerson, G. H. Ill 

Gill, Tlieodore CLXXV 

Gilpin, J. Bernard XCIII 

Goodell, A. C. (IV 

Hanaford, Mrs. J. H. XLVIII, CXXXII 
Hoxie, William LXXXIII 

Huntington, George C. LXXVIII 

LXXI 
IX 
CXXXI 
IV, XXI 
CXXXII 
CXLVII 
IV, XLVII, (XXXI 
CXII 

xcv. c 

CLXXVII 

VI 

II, VI 

IX 

LXXXIII 



Hyatt, Alpheus 
Loring, George B. 
Morse, Edward S. 
Packard, A. S. Jr. 
Perkins, Henrv ('. 
Pillsbury, L. B. 
Rantoul, R. S. 
Streeter, Gilbert L. 
Cpham, ('. W. 
Upham, W. P. 
Verrill, A. E. 
Ward. G. A. 
Wheatland, 'H. 
Wildes, G. D. 



MEMBERS El.l'.i TKM, KKSSIDBNT. 



Allanson, .1. S. 
Aliny, J. F. 
Amidon, A. P. 
Appleton, Isaac 
Ashton, William B 
Attwill, Theodore 
Atwood, Edward S 
Babbidge, Charles 
Baker, Charles 
Bertram, Joseph H. M 
Bertis, John B. 
Boardman, Francis 
Bowker, Charles 
Bowker, George 
Boynton, Susan T. 
Brookhouse, R. 3d, 
Brown, Xathaniel 
Brown, Xathaniel Jr. 
Browne, J. Vincent Jr. 



LXIV 

XLIII 

XXXV 

L 

XLIII 

LXXI 

LXXXIV 

LXXVII 

XLVII 

XLIII 

VII 

XLIII 

XLIII 

XLIII 

LXXXVI 

VII 

XLIII 

XLIII 

f XXXVII 



Browning. John P. 
Bruce. A. W. . 
Bu-well, E. W. 
Butinan, Francis C. 
Carlen, Samuel 
Carpenter, David P. 
Gate, .Shadrack M. 
Chamberlain, Benj. 31 
Chamberlain, James i 
Chandler, Joseph 
Chapman, John 
Choate, Francis 
Clark, Mrs. John 
Clough, Daniel E. 
Cloutman, Joseph P. 
Cloutman, William R 
Cook, James P. 
Cornelius, A. G. 
Creamer, George G. 
Creesey, Charles 

Cro^s, J. .<. 

Daland, John . 
Daniels, George P. 
Davis, Abner H. 
Davis, S. W. . 
Dean, Edward 
Dixev, John 
Doggett, William E. 
Downing, John H. 
Doyle, Mary 
Drowne, Thomas R. 
Emmerton, William H 
Endicott, Robert R. 
Endicott, Sarali B. 
E<tes. James X. 
Farrington, George P 
Felt, John 
Felt, Samuel Q. 
Fenollosa, Manuel 
Flint, Harrison O. 
Fogg, Julian A. 
Foster, Joseph C. 
Fowler, Charles B. 
Fowler, George 
Fuller, George A. 
Gardner, Henry R. 
Glazier, Charles H. 
Goldthwaite,-Wiilard 
Hagar, D. B. . 
Hale, Henry 
Hale, James F. 
Hale, M. H. 
Hall, Harmon 
Hammond, J. Leonard 
Hanson, Joseph H. 
Haskell, Daniel C. 
Haskell, William 
Hawke3, C. M.. 
Herrick, Henry P. 
Hill, James 
Hodges, Samuel R. 
Hoffman, 3Irs. Charle 
Hubon, Henry 
Hubon. Henrv G. 
Hunt, t. Francis 
Jelly, William H. 
Jewett, George B. 
Johnson, Emery s. 
Keliew, William H. 
Kemble, Arthur 
Kilburn, John 



XLIII 

XLVII 

CLVI1I 

CXIV 

XLVII 

CLIII 

L 

XXXV 

CXXV 

GLXXXI1 

XLIII 

XLIII 

XXXV 

XLIII 

CLXII 

LXXXIV 

CLIII 

XXXV 

XLIII 

IV 

XLVII 

( IV 

XLIII 

CXXIX 

XXXV 

CX VI 

CHI 

CXLIX 

XLIII 

XLVII 

XCVIII 

LXIV 

CXLVI 

CXLIX 

CLXXV 

XXXV 

XLIII 

CI.XJvV 

XLIII 

XLIII 

XLVII 

CXLVI 

xcrv 

CXXV 

XLIII 

CXXVI 

XLIII 

XLIII 

CLVI 
XLIII 

XXXV 
XLIII 

XLVII 

CL^'I 

XLIII 
XLIII 

CLVIII 
XLVII 

CLVIII 

CLVIII 
XLIII 
XLVII 
XLIII 
XLIII 
CXVI 
XLIII 
XLIII 

CXXIX 

XLIII 

I 

XXI 



cxcv 



Kimball, James S. 
Kinsman, John 
Kinsman, Nathaniel 
Knight, Edward H. 
Lamson, Charles 
Lamson, Frederick 
Lincoln, .Solomon Jr 
Lord, Andrew H. 
Lord, George C. 
Lord, Hannah M. 
Lovett, H. R. 
Lowd, Albert J. 
Mackie, Jolm . 
Mackintire, Ingalls K 
Manning, James 
Mansfield, Daniel H. 
Shirks, John L. 
Martin. William P. 
MeClov, Robert 
McDuffie. Charles D. 
McKenzie, S. S. 
Miller, Ephraim 
Mosman, A. T. 
Morong, Thos. 
Morton. Henry 
Moulton, William C. 
Xeal. Mrs. D. A. 
Neilson, William 
Xewcomb, George 
Newhall, Ezra F. 
Newhall, John W. 
Newhall, Thomas P. 
Newhall, W. E. 
Nichols, John H. 
Xorthend, William D 
Xoves, Amos 
Odell, Charles 
Oliver, Henrv K. 
Oliver. James S. 
Osgood, Charles 
Osgood, Jos. B. F. 
Osgood. William H. 
Page, Jeremiah 
Palmer, Theron 
Parker, William B. 
Payson, Edward H. 
Peabody, Henrv W. 
Peabody, JohnP. 
Peabody, Joseph 
Pearson, Benj. 
Peck, F. S. 
Pepper, Charles Hem 
Perkins, Daniel 
Perkins, David 
Perkins. Edward L 
Perkins, Jeremiah S. 
Perkins, Thomas L. 
Perry, Augustus 
Pickiiian. Benjamin 
Porter^Frederick 
Porter.'Samuel 
Pouslaud. George W. 
Putnam. Elizabeth A 
Patnam. Henry W. 
Kea. Cliarles S. 
Reith. W. Jr. 
Rice. J. M. 
Richardson. C. W. 
Roberts, E. F. 
Roberts. J. W. 
Rogers. Richard D. 





XXXV 


Ropes, Jonathan 


CXII 




XCIX 


Rouudy, Charles 


XXX V 




cxn 


Roundv, George 


CXLVI 




cm 


Russell, Albert B. 


LXXI 




XLIII 


Russell, George P. 


L 




XCIX 


Rust, Francis A. P. . 


CXIV 




LXXV 


Safford, Joshua 


IV 




XL VI I 


Saltonstall, Caroline 


XLIII 




XLIII 


Sanders, Charles 


XLIII 




CLXXXII 


Saunders, Thomas M. 


XLIII 




CXXXII 


Savory, Tristram T. 


XLIII 




XCVIII 


Sewall, Charles 


XLVII 




XL VII 


Shaw, Xenophon H . 


XLIII 




XLIII 


Silsbee, Mrs. John H. 


XLIII 




XLIII 


Silsbee, Wm. H. 


CXXVI 




XCIV 


Silver, Peter 


XLIII 




CXXVI 


Simonds, E. A. 


XLIII 




LXXXIV 


Smith, Edward A. 2d 


XLIII 




XLVII 


Smith, J. Ford 


XXXV 




XXVIII 


Stanley, Abraham J . 


XLVII 




XLVII 


Stickney, W. J. 


XLIII 




L 


Stimpson, James C. . 


L 




CLVIII 


Stone. Eben F. 


CIV 




IX 


Stone. Henry R. 


VI 




XXXV 


Thayer, Edward S. 


CXII 




XLVII 


Thompson, Orin F. 


XLIII 




XLVII 


Treadwell, Annie 


XLVII 




I 


Treadwell, Elizabeth W. 


XLIII 




L 


Treadwell, Lucy 


LXXI 




CXLVIII 


Trefren, James 


XLVII 




XLVII 


Tu.-ker, Jonathan 


XLIII 




XLVII 


Tuekcrman, John Francis . 


XLIII 




XLVII 


Tuttle, Francis W. 


XLIII 




XLIII 


Walden. Joseph F. . 


XLIII 


). 


XLVII 


Ward, Elizabeth C. Jr. 


XLIII 




XCIX 


Webster, Francis C. 


XCVII 




XCIV 


Westwood, J. 


XLVII 




XLIII 


Wheatland, Martha G. 


CLVIII 




XLVII 


Whitaker, William . 


LXIII 




XLVII 


White. George 31. 


CXXV 




(III 








CXLVI 


Members Elected, Coeri 


SPOXD1XG. 




XXXV 








XLIII 


Bartlett, John R. 


CLXXXII 




XXXV 


Bolles, Edwin C. 


LXXV 




XXXV 


(lark. Thomas M. 


CLXXXII 




LVII 


Cope, Edward.D. 


CXIV 




XLIII 


( Iresson, Ezra T. 


CXV1 




CLXXXII 


Endicort, James B. . 


I 




XCVIII 


Endicott, William 


I 




XLIII 


Gill, Theodore 


. CLXXXII 


ry 


CXI! 


Hall, James 


cxrv 




XLIII 


Hamlin, Charles E. . 


VT 




XXXV 


Hanaford, Jeremiah L. 


IX 




XXXV 


Hubbert, James 


LXXX 




XLIII 


Huntington, George C. 


CXXXI 




LXI1I 


Kimball, James P. 


LXXXVI 




XLIII 


Lesquereux, Leo 


CXXX 




CLXXVII 


Lewis, Winslow 


XCVIII 




XLVII 


Morse. Edward S. 


LXXV 




XLIII 


kludge, Benjamin F. 


IX 




CXXXVII 


Norwood, J. G. 


CLX 




CLVI 


<Kten Sacken, R. 


CXIV 




LXXXVI 


Owen, Richard 


CXXX 




XLIII 


Peirce, Benjamin 


I 




XLIII 


Poey, Filipe 


LXXXVI 




XLVII 


Smi'th,.Sidney I. 


VI 




XLVII 


Soares, John da Costa 


CXXIX 




XXXV 


Talant, James 


LXXX 




XXXV 


Ward. James C. 


XCIX 




XLIII 


Wildes, J. H. 


XX 



COMMUNICATIONS 



BEAD BEPOEE 



THE 



ESSEX INSTITUTE. 



VOL. IV. 



1864t-5. 



[Issued Quarterly with the Proceedings.] 



SALEM: 

PUBLISHED BY THE INSTITUTE. 
18 66. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



I. D. M. Balch, On Sodalite at Salem, p. 3. 
II, George H. Emekson, On Magnetite and an Unknown Min- 
eral at Nahant. p. 6. 

III. A. S. Packard, jr., Notes on the Family Zygaeniclse. 
With two plates, p. 7. 

IV. J. A. Allen, Catalogue of Birds found at Springfield, Mass., 
with Notes on their Migrations, Habits, &c, together with 
a List of those Birds found in the State not yet observed 
at Springfield, p. 48. 

V. F. W. Putnam, Notes on the Habits of some species of 
Humble Bees. p. 98. 

VI. P. W. Putnam, Notes on the Leaf-cutting Bee. p. 105. 
VII. A. S. Packard, jr., The Humble Bees of New England and 
their Parasites ; with notices of a new species of Anthopho- 
rabia, and a new genus of Proctotrupidse. With a plate, p. 107. 
VIII. D. M. Balch, On Native Grapes, p. 140. 

IX. A. E. Verrtll, Classification of Polyps ; (Extract condensed 
from a Synopsis of the Polypi of the North Pacific Explor- 
ing Expedition, under Captains Ringgold and Rodgers, U. S. 
N.) Part I. p. 145. 

X. J. A. Allen, Notes on the Habits and Distribution of the 
Duck Hawk, or American Peregrine Palcon, in the Breeding- 
Season, and Description of the Eggs. p. 153. 

XI. Edward S. Morse, A Classification of Mollusca, based on 
the "Principle of Cephalization." With a plate, p. 162. 
XII. A. E. Verrill, Synopsis of the Polyps and Corals of the 
North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. 
Ringgold and Captain John Rodgers, U. S. N., from 1853 
to 1856. Collected by Dr. William Stimpson, naturalist to 
the Expedition. With Descriptions of some additional 
Species from the West Coast of North America. Part II, 
Alcyonaria. With two Plates, p. 181. 
XIII. Alpheus Hyatt, Observations on Polyzoa, Suborder Phy- 
lactolaemata. With nine Plates, p. 197. (The ninth plate 
will be given with the continuation of the paper in the next 
volume). 











PLATE S . 






Plate 


1, 


accompanying Dr. Packard's 


Paper, 


explanation on p. 47. 




2, 






It IS 


ec 


u 


" p. 47. 




3, 




" 


a (c 


" 




il p. 140. 




4, 




C( 


Mr. Morse's 


c< 


'.; 


" p. 180. 




5, 




« 


Prof. Verrill's 


C( 




" p. 195. 




6, 




(( 


« C( 


(C 


(i 


" p. 196. 


Plates 


7 


, 8, 


9, 10, 


11, 12, 13, 14, 


accompanying 


Capt. Hyatt's 


Paper, 


have the explanations opposite each plate. 





EERATA TO COMMUNICATIONS, 



Page 9, line 14, for Phalsaenidse, read Phalsenidse. 

" 11, " 12, after Agaristidw, insert a comma. 

" 12, " 6, for lignivorus, read lignivorous. 

" 12, " 30, " strangly, read strangely. 

" 13, " 36, " Tortriidse, read Tortricidse. 

" 15, heading, for Zyg^nidia, read Zygmujdm. 

" 15, line 24, for Zyseginidse, read Zygsenidae. 

" 16, " 8, " maxillary, read labial. 

" 22, " 11, " gives, read give. 

" 48, " 18, " Goccyzus, read Coccygus. 

" 49, " 42, " ninety-two, read one hundred and one. 

" 50, " 18, for June, read May. 

« 51, " 1 of foot note, for 1728, read 1788. 

" 56, " 1, for Pallacii, read Pallasii. 

" 60, " 9, and following pages, for Dendroica, read Dendrceca. 

" 61, 92 and 95, for Siurus, read Seiurus. 

" 69, " 18, for Chickedee, read Chickadee. 

" 69, " 39, " Astrigalinus, read Astragalinus. 

" 70, " 11, " linaria, read Unarms. \censis. 

" 73, " 9, " Siurus noveboracenns, read Seiurus novcebora- 

" 73, " 16, " illiaca, read iliaca. 

11 78, " 4, " Tringites, read Tryngites. 

" 80, " 23, " Pedecethya, read Pedetecethya. 

" 83, " 7, " Myioioctes, read Myiodioctes. 

" 83, " 13, " Myiodicetes, read Myiodioctes. 

" 86, " 12, " Octhodromus, read Ochthodromus. 

" 87, " 25, " noveboracensis, read novceboracensis. 

11 87, " 36, and p. 94, No. 27, for Gambellii, read Gambelii. 

" 89, " 12, for erythrorhyncus, read erythrorhynchus. 

" 89, " 36, " Temn., read Temm. 

" 90, " 5, " Skau, read Skua. 

" 91, " 18, " troile, read troille. 

" 92, No. 39, and p. 94, No. 4, for Pallassi, read Pallasii. 

" 92, Nos. 51 and 52, for Dandroica, read Dendrceca. 

" 92, No. 72, for Harporynchus, read Harporhynchus. 

" 93, No. 116, and p. 96, No. 93, for Squartarola, read Squatarola. 



94, " 1, for Hypotryorchis, read Hypotriorchus. 

96, " 57, " Harporhyncus, read, Harporkynchus. 

96, " 99, " lacticauda, read laticauda. 

104, " 24, and page 108,line30,/orByturus, read Antherophagus . 

131, " 9, for Mezercon, read Mezereon. 

131, " 11, " nest, read net. 

131, " 25, after female, insert situated almost wholly. 

132, " 15, " abnormal, insert a. 

175, " 29, for anterior pole, read posterior pole. 

180, lines 12 — 13, for anterior end, read posterior end. 

209, line 9, for trunk read trunks. [fcestinal. 

218, " 38, " cardiac and pyloric, read, oesophagal and in- 

219, " 1, " OEsophagal Retractors, read Lophophoric Re- 

tractors. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



1864 



(Communications on Historical subjects are printed in the " Historical 
Collections of the Essex Institute."; 



I. — On. the Sodalife at Salem, Mass. 
By D. M. Balch. 

(Communicated February 8, 1864.) 

The occurrence in our neighbourhood of this rare silicate was 
first noticed in Oct. 1855, by G. L. Streeter Esq , and others. 
The locality was the recently opened syenite quarry, on the 
right hand side of the road leading along Collins' Cove, from 
the Alms House to Hospital Point Peculiar bluish stains in 
a block of stone from the quarry having attracted the attention 
of these gentlemen, a search was instituted which resulted in 
the discovery of the remains of a vein of elasolite and orthoclase, 
in which were imbedded amorphous masses of the blue mineral, 
sodalite. Unfortunately this vein, once extensive, had been 
mostly quarried and carted away by the workmen, and, though 
it yielded some fine specimens, was soon exhausted. 

An account of the discovery of this mineral and some discus- 
sion thereon (in which it is erroneously called cancrinite, ) can 
he found in the Essex Institute Proceedings, Vol. I, p. 153 — 
155 ; also a more extended description and analysis, by J. P. 
Kimball in Silliman's Journal; 1860, Vol. xxix. p. 65. 

I visited the above locality in the autumn of 1858, and traced 
the vein some distance, until it was reduced to a mere seam ; I 
noticed at that time several characteristics, rendering it highly 
improbable that the Salem mineral had a common origin with 
that of Litchfield, Me., its only other locality in the States. 
At the place last mentioned sodalite occurred disseminated 
through an erratic block, and associated with elaeolite, citron- 
yellow cancrinite, and zircons of unusual size and excellence 
(all long since exhausted ,) while at the Salem locality it was 
found imbedded in a vein of elasolite and feldspar, with very 
small zircons, biotite, marcasite, plumbago, &c.; but no trace 
of cancrinite, the most conspicuous of all in the Maine group, 



4 BALCH, ON THE 

was present. Moreover, although not enough of the vein re- 
mained for accurate observation, I was of opinion that it was 
not peculiar to chance boulders, but a true vein in the ledge. 

An analysis, performed at that time, (Sept , 1858,) afforded 
ine results, which, as they have never been published, are given 
below : 

Silicic Acid 87.69 

Alumina , . . . 32.31 

Soda 24 80 

Chlorine • 6.17 

Ferrous Oxyd trace. 

This agrees well with the recognized formula for Sodalite, 
3 (NaO Si0 2 -f-Al 2 3 Si0 2 )+ Na CI, except that the amount 
of Chlorine is a little too lowl 

In April, 1862, while examining the ledges on the left hand 
of the road I discovered quite an extensive vein of elseolite, 
situated about 10 rods N. W. from the old locality, and nearly 
at right angles with it. This new vein varies in width from a 
few inches to a foot, or more, and runs irregularly along the 
face of the ledge for 30 or 40 feet. It is composed of orthoclase 
and greenish elasolite, large imperfect crystals of black horn- 
blende, biotite, zircon, flakes and Aliments of graphite and 
several other minerals in small quantity ; there is no sodalite 
near the surface; it first begins to appear at the depth of 1| — 
2 feet. This vein was blasted in its widest part this autumn 
by Mr. C. H Higbee and myself, and yielded us some very fine 
specimens of sodalite, varying in colour from violet to azure 
blue, and subtransparent. I have analysed carefully selected 
specimens of both sodalite and elseolite from this vein with the 
following results: 

Socialite; very dark blue. Sp. Gr=2.30. Two portions 
a. and b. were analysed. 

a. b. Results. 

SiOo 37.64 37.44 37.54 

A1 2 3 32.13 32.16 32.15 

NaO . 24.57 18.94 

Ca 0. .35 .35 

Na. 4.18 4.18 

CI 6.45 6-45 



99.61 



SODALITE AT SALEM, MASS. 5 

The composition of sodalite, calculated from the formula 
;iven on the preceding page is as follows : 

3Na 0, 93 = 18.98 
3Ab 3 , 153.78 = 31.38 
6Si0 2 , 184.86 = 37.72 
Na, 23 = 4.69 

CI, 35.46 = 7.23 



490.10 100.00 

with this the results obtained by analysis agree quite closely. 
It is worthy of note, that although the specimen employed 
was unusually deep coloured, scarcely appreciable traces of 
iron were detected; the alumina thrown down from its solution 
in aquaregia was white, and most of the reagents for iron gave 
negative results ; it is therefore very doubtful if this mineral 
owes its color to iron, as has been supposed. 

ElcBolite The elasolite of this locality is filled with minute 
specks, probably mica or feldspar, from which it cannot be 
separated mechanically ; this impurity amounts to about 3 per 
cent., and remains behind when the levigated mineral is dissolv- 
ed in acids. The elteolite occurs in compact masses, of a light 
green colour and greasy lustre ; in connection with orthoclase 
it forms the bulk of the vein; it has not yet been observed in 
crystals. Heated before the blowpipe it fuses and gives off a little 
moisture. Dried at about 150° C. it has the following com- 
position : 

Silicic Acid 44.32 

Alumina 32 69 

Soda 17.02 

Potassa 5. 09 

Lime 59 



99.71 
It also contains slight traces of iron. A portion dried at 100° 
C. and then ignited lost 1.31 per cent. 

The sodalite is found near the centre of the vein in thin lay- 
ers. There is no doubt that this locality will furnish fine cabi- 
net "specimens when more deeply explored. As the vein strikes 
dowmvard at a very acute angle, extensive blasting will be 
necessary ; however it well deserves a thorough exploration, for, 



6 EMERSON. ON MAGNETITE, &C, AT NAHANT. 

apart from the circumstance that this is the only American 
locality known, the silicate is quite scarce elsewhere. It3 foreign 
localities are Greenland, Norway. Siberia. &c: it is almost 
invariably associated with elaeolite, but the latter mineral often 
occurs unaccompanied by sodalite. 

I am at present occupied with the examination of several 
unrecognized minerals, which are disseminated in minute quan- 
tities through the vein. From slight indications it is probable 
that canerinite may yet be met with; it has not .been found at 
either the old or new localities. The largest zircon that I have 
seen measured about one-third of an inch in diameter. 

Salem., December. 1868. 



IT. On Magnetite, and an Unknown Mineral at Nahanl. 
By George H. Emerson. 

( Communicated February 8, 1864. ) 

Besides the minerals mentioned by Dr. Prescott in his list, 
communicated to tiie Essex County Natural History Society, 
in the year 1839. as occurring at Nahant. I noticed, while 
there last summer, that magnetite was abundantly disseminated 
through the diorite near '"Spouting Horn,'*' anl also in a simi- 
larly constituted, but more finely grained rock, a little to the 
West of " Pulpit Rock. ' ; In both places it is associated with 
chalcopyrite and iron pyrites, and in both I found small, but 
tolerably perfect, octahedral crystals, though it is. for the most 
part, amorphous. 

A recent examination of a specimen of the greenstone from 
the locality last named, disclosed to me a crystalline mineral 
which I did not recognize, and whose external characters failed 
to identify it. It was too imperfect to determine the form, or 
even Avith certainty, the crystalline system to which it belonged, 
though its cleavages, three in number, led Prof. Cooke to 
refer it to one of the inclined systems. 

The color was a dull purple on one face, and greenish gray 
on the other : lustre, waxy to pearly ; streak, yellow ; hardness, 
about that of calcite. The quantity was altogether too minute 



FAMILY ZYQMXIDM. I 

to take the specific gravity, or to admit of many chemical tests. 
Before the blowpipe it fused quietly on the edges to a gray 
enamel, imparting an indistinct reddish-yellow color to the flame, 
which changed to green upon moistening the assay with nitric 
or sulphuric acid. With the sodium test, however, it did not 
give phosphuretted hydrogen. On platinum wire, with borax, 
the presence of iron and lime were indicated. It dissolved in 
nitric and hydrochloric acids with effervescence, with the excep- 
tion of a slight, black, granular residue, insoluble even on the 
application of heat. Heated alone in the closed tube there was 
no trace of water. So far, its blowpipe characters seem to be 
as anomalous as its general appearance. 

It should be remarked, by the way, that the greenstone to 
which 1 have last alluded, forms a dike in what is known as the 
"coralline formation," while that from the vicinity of "Spouting 
Horn" is the metamorphic or stratified variety of diorite. The 
latter contains so much magnetic iron as to have a very decided 
influence on the needle. Indeed, in the specimens I have 
examined, the rock seems to owe its dark color and high specific 
gravity (very nearly three) fully as much to the magnetite, as 
to the hornblende, which enters into its composition. 

Cambridge. January, 1864. 



III. Notes on the Family Zygcenidce. By A. S. Pack- 
abd, JR. 

( Communicated February 22, 1864. ) 

The primary object of the writer in preparing this paper was 
to give as full an account as possible of the transformations of 
Ctenucha virginica, and the systematic position of the genus 
Eudryas. The very close resemblance of the early stages of 
the former genus to the Arctians both in structure and habits, 
and the fact that the genus has been recently placed among the 
Bombycidae by some authors, affords us an opportunity of dis- 
cussing the characters of the Zygsenidae in contrast with the 
allied families. For this purpose it has been necessary to study 
the typical European genera in connection with the American 
types of the group. For most of my material I am indebted to 
Messrs. F. G. Sanborn, Boston, Mass ; A. R. Grote, New 



8 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

York ; F. W. Putnam, "who collected the larvae and pupse of 
Eudryas grata, in alcohol at Bridport, Yt., which are now in 
the collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cam- 
bridge , and for specimens of Castiria to the collection of the 
Essex Institute. 

Besides the interest excited by the discovery of the transfor- 
mation of any member of this family of moths, the near rela- 
tionship of Ctenucha to the Bombycidse attracts our attention. 
This genus when in the larval stage, so closely resembles the 
Arctians, as to have misled us wholly as to its nature upon 
first meeting with it. Indeed vre were convinced that we had 
found a larva of Phragmalobia rvbricosa Saunders and were 
much surprised at raising Ctenucha from it. On the other 
hand the moth has been referred by Walker to the Lithosiidse. 
Here we see such a delicate balancing of analogical and struc- 
tural features, that different writers do not agree which natural 
group to refer the object to. Thus those who place Ctenucha 
among the Lithosians (the highest sub-family of Bombveidse) 
think of course, that the Zygsenid characters which the moth 
possesses are those of analogy, while those of a contrary mind 
judge the same moth to be a Zygsenid with the less essential 
features borrowed from the Bombycidse. This leads us to 
the enquiry, how for analogy differs from affinity. It is evident 
that the relation is only relative and not absolute. Typical 
animals are those having the greatest mass of characters to 
isolate them from others For instance, among the Zygasnidae, 
the Fabrician genus Zyg£ena is the type of the family, just as 
in the Bombycidas, Telea Polyphemus Hlibner, or, still better, 
Attacus Atlas Linn, are the types of that family. In Zygoma 
we have forms the most unlike other genera of its family. 
There is not a character drawn from its structure or habits 
which is not sai generis, original, unique. It is the pattern 
upon which the family form is moulded, and the moment the 
form is slightly modified, and any resemblance to some other 
moth is superadded, as in Syntomis which already begins to 
show Lithosian affinities, that moment something has gone from 
it. There is a loss in affinity, and what is thrown in to supply 
the vacancy is a gain in analogy. 

In the genus Attacus we have massed together a number of 
characters which are those of pure affinity (using the term in 
its technical sense, otherwise it has no meaning in specifying 



FAMILY ZYGiENID^E. 9 

what is typical.) This is without doubt the most isolated group 
in the whole family. If we step higher or lower we find 
changes of form introduced which, slight as they are, detract 
from the singleness of the type. Bombyx mori the silk-worm, 
stands next above, in the adjoining subfamily Bombycinse. 
But the larva is greatly elongated, with a slight tubercle on 
the end of the body, being in fact sphingiform. The moth has 
short narrow falcate wings, which are no longer than the body. 
Attacus has falcate wings, but they are very broad and are 
three or four times the length of the body, while the larva is 
short, large and plump. The next step below is Tropcea 
Luna Hiibner. This is colored green and the hind wings are 
' : tailed." The family color is brown, not green, and the 
"tail" is borrowed from Papilionidse, Lycsenidaa and Phal- 
sEenidas. If we descend further down in the scale we find 
Hyper chiria In Walker, possessing manifest analogies to 
Clisiocampa in the elongated body of the larva, the pupal form 
and the outlines of the imago. 

The genus Eudryas stands at a nearly equal distance from 
the beginning and end of its group, and is still loaded down 
with features which are so unlike Alypia to which it is in reali- 
ty closely allied, that Harris refers it to the Notodontians, 
though fully acquainted with its larva, and Walker refers it to 
the Noctuidas. Its coloration is most deceptive, since the 
species instead of being blue or green, are white with yellow, 
green and purple markings. The body is unusually hairy, the 
antennge are filiform as in the Noctuidse, the legs tufted as in 
Pygcera, Daiana and allies, and the metallic scales on the 
thorax are only found so far as we know in Tolype. 

The first attempt to group the Eabrician genera Procris and 
Zygsena was that of the authors of the Wiener Verzeiclmiss* 
in 1801. They divide the Linnsean genus Sphinx into seven 
groups of which the last, "G," " Sphinges maculates" com- 
prises the Zyg83nida3, thus making it equivalent to all the 
iEgeriadse, and to any one of their five groups of the true 
Sphinges, i. e- the genera Sphinx, Smerinthus, &c. 



* Syst. Verz. der Schnietterlinge Wiener Gegencl. Illiger's ed. Wien. 1810. 
Vol. i, p. 88. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. B. 



10 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

In 1807 Latreille* first under the family name Zygcenides 
groups into three sub-divisions : I. Sesia, Thyris, Zygsena, 
and Syntomis; II. Procris and Atychia, and III. Glaucopis, 
Aglaope and Stygia. He places Castnia however among the 
Sphingides, placing it at the head of the family, and next to 
Hesperia. Afterwards according to Klug.f in the article 
"Papilio : ' in the "Encyclopedic methodique. " by Latreille and 
Godart the group "Hesperi-Sphinges" was formed for Castnia 
and Agarista, and they were still placed before the Sphingides. 
Also in the "Families naturellesdu Regne Animal." 1825, we 
see the Hesperi-Sphinges isolated as a distinct '■tribe" equivalent 
to the "tribe" Sphingides, and standing at the head of the 
"family" Crepuscularia. 

Hiibner has shown more than any other writer how important 
a guide in arranging the Lepidoptera is their style of coloration, 
and how useful it is in distinguishing genera. Relying upon this 
character perhaps more than any other, this bold innovator! 
sub-divided the Lepidoptera into generic groups which are 
now commonly received; thus showing an appreciation of the 
modern idea ot a genus, far in advance of his time. Depend- 
ing however too much on slight characters, his groups of 
genera are often forced and. unnatural. — The Zygaanidse are 
placed in the same order as observed by Latreille. 

Hiibner places them at the head of his second "pha- 
lanx" Sphinges, composing the tribe " Papilionides" which is 
a group equivalent to the Scsice Hiibner (iEgeriadse of authors,) 
and also to the " Sphinges legitime^' Hiibner. It embraces 
three "stirps;" i.e. I. Zyg&nmfoY the single genus Zygse- 
na. II. Chrysaores which includes Procris, Atychia and Syn- 
tomis, and III. Glaucnpes, for Glaucopis and a large number 
of its allies. 

He placed Castnia however, among the butterflies, immedi- 
ately after Colias, and Alypia among the Pyralidae, next to 
Ennychia which it closely resembles in its coloration. 

In 1829, Boisduval§ while following Latreille in excluding 

* Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. Tom. rv, p. 211. 

t Ueber die Lepidopteren-Gattung Synemon. Abhand. Konig. Acad, der 
Wissenckaft. Berlin. (1848.) 1850. p. 251. 

X Verzeichniss bekannter Schmetterlinge. Augsburg, 1816. 8vo. 

§ Essai sur une Monographic des Zygenides. Paris, 1829. 8vo. 



FAMILY ZYG^SNIDJE. 11 

the Castniares Boisduval, and placing the Sphingidae between 
these and the Zygaenidai, goes a step farther in establishing the 
group " Procrides^ consisting of those genera provided with 
pectinated antennae. He considers the group as equivalent to 
the Sesiares (iEgeriadaa), to the Castniares and likewise the 
Zygasnidse. The elimination of Sesia and Thyris is an im- 
provement upon Latreille. 

In 1832, Newman* divides the Zygasnidae into Stygiides, 
iEgeriites and Glaucopites. 

In 1839, Dr. T. W. Harrisf like the author just quoted divides 
the "Sphinges adscitae" Linn, into three families, i. e. Agaristi- 
cIcb Zyg<£iiidce and Glaucopidm which last name must be a 
synonym of Biosduval's "Procrides," since it is used in exactly 
the same sense. 

The year after, WestwoodJ under the term Uranildm adopts a 
provisional arrangement of Urania with Castnia and allies. He 
rejects the name Zygsenidaj, using instead Anthroceridas 
Westwood, since Stephens had already rejected Zygsena, "the 
name Zygaena having been preoccupied in Ichthyology." This 
is probably an error, since Latreille ; s name has priority over 
Cuvier's. 

Of all the writers upon the Castniares. Klug has been the most 
thorough. His article ' : Ueber die Lepidopteren-Gattung Syne- 
mon,"| is a positive addition to our knowledge of these moths. 
Besides the quite full historical account of the group, and the 
descriptions and good figures of new species of the Australian 
genus Synemon Doubleday, we have a mass of new facts con- 
cerning the comparative structure of the genus above named, 
and very precise information about the transformation of the 
South American genus Castnia, fully confirming the obser- 
vations of Madam Merian, which had been doubted by West- 
wood, together with important remarks on the classification of 
the whole group to which these two genera belong. With 
Boisduval he agrees in throwing Urania out of the group and 

*Ent. Mag. Vol. i., p. 67. 

t Descriptive Catalogue of North American Insects belonging to the Linn- 
Eean genus Sphinx. Amer. Jour. Sc, July, 1839, 8vo, pp. 40. 

JAn Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects. 1840, Vol n, p. 369. 

§Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 
(1818), 1850. 



12 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

placing it between the Noctuidae and Phalaenidas. He is 
aided by a fortunate discovery in arriving at the proper location 
of Castnia. Among some plants received from Kingston, Ja- 
maica, was a species of Catasetum, from the bulbs of which 
hatched the perfect Castnia, proving that the habits of the larva 
is lignivorus like the Sesias, iEgeriadae and Cossus and Hepi- 
alus. In nearly his own words, the burrowing habits of Cast- 
nia, the larva of which forms no silken cocoon, are like Sesia, 
but the imago differs, and as Dalman observes is nearer 
Zygaena, whence he concludes that " they seem much more like 
the beginning of the Spinners (Bornbycidas) and through Glau- 
copis and a succession of other genera form the passage to 
Oclisenheimers Euprepia, the genera Arctia, Chelonia, Caliimor- 
pha, etc."* 

' I'his is indeed bringing order out of confusion. He then 
proceeds to remark that Castnia and its Australian representa- 
tive Synemon, which probably has similar habits, belongs to a 
group of borers, at the head of which stands the ; 'Sesien, ; ' 
(iEgeriadas) then Thyris, Chimera. Stygia. Eudagria, and 
farther on Cossus, Zeuzera, Hepialus and Crino, to end with 
Castnia. He speaks, from want of material, with some doubt 
of the affinities of Oiketicus to this group of borers, but consid- 
ers that this genus may easily lead to Zygasna. 

Dr. Herrich-Schasfferf proposes a different arrangement of 
the family under consideration ; while placing the Caslniaria 
H-S next to the butterflies, he follows with the E piahndea 
H-S. (Hepiali Linn.), next with the Sesioidas H-S (iEgeri- 
adas) ; then come the Pyromorphina H-S a group made for 
Pyromorpha dimldiata H-S and another genus Chrysnpygus 
H-S. which leads to ZygcmoidcB H-S. He then strangly 
interposes the Sphingidae, Bombycidse, Phalaenidae (Geome- 
tridae) and Noctuidaa between the groups of Zygaenidse 
above named, and the rest (Agarista and allies, Syntomis and 
iEgocera) of the family. Under the names of Aganaida and 
Agaristoidea. which groups he makes the equivalent of the 
Arclioidea. and the other groups of moths enumerated above, 
he places the genera Aganais, Agarista and iEgocera Latreille. 
He interposes between these two groups, a sub-family of the 

*Loc. cit. p. 255. 

tSammlung neuer oder wenigbekannteraussereuropaisber Schmetterlinge. 
Regensburg, 1850-58, 



FAMILY ZYG.ENID.ffl!. 13 

Bombyeidae, i. e. the Arctioidea H-S (Arctiidas Leach, 1815,) 
and concludes the large moths with the fSyntomoidea H-S. 
(Glaucopites Newman, 1832.) Then follow the Microlepid- 
optera. The series of large moths ends with Ctenucha virgo 
H-S. which he places next to the Crambiua H-S. 

In the Catalogue of Lepidoptera Heterocera in the British 
Museum, part I and II, 1854, Walker adopts the Castnians, and 
the Zygaenides, as groups equivalent to the Sphingidee and the 
Bombycidas, but places several undoubted Zygcenid genera, 
i. e., Ctenucha, Aglaope Americana Boisd. and Lycomorpha 
among the Lithosiidas. 

So far as I am aware Iiorsfield and Moore* are the first 
authors who virtually placed both the Castniares and Zygaenidae 
among the Bombyeidae, considering them (1 from the examination 
of the metamorphosis'' of the genera of these two groups which 
fell under their observations, as belonging to the Lithosiidas. 
This work is indispensable to the American student of the 
Zygaenidae and Bombyeidae, since it represents the transforma- 
tion of many Asiatic genera closely allied to those of America, 
which are not found in Europe. 

I would here draw the attention of entomologists to im- 
portant characters for classifying the Lepidoptera which have 
been hitherto overlooked. I refer to the characters drawn 
from the pieces of which the head and thorax is composed. 
Each family has a distinct form and size, and a different 
way of combining the three principal pieces which compose 
the head: i.e. the occiput which lies behind the ocelli; the 
epicranium which lies behind the antennae, and the clypeus 
which in the Lepidoptera generally occupies the '-front" of 
the head. In the family under consideration and the Bom- 
byeidae, those parts vary markedly in the different genera, 
and in each sub-family of these two families there is a 
distinct form for the clypeus, more especially. There are also 
two forms in the Noctuidm which affords to us strong indica- 
tions for their division into but two sub-families. There is 
also a distinct form for the Geometridae, the Pyralidae, Tortri- 
idae, and Tineidge, which gives a peculiar fades to ea:h of 
these groups. 

The mouth parts : i. e., the mandibles, maxillae and labium 

*A Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of Natural History 
at the East-India House, Vol. n, 1858-59. 



14 PACKARD. NOTES ON 

have not- given valid generic characters, with the exception of 
the labial palpi, the value of which are veil known. 

In the thorax also there is a family form, at least, in the 
ZygEenidse and the succeeding group, the Bombycidae. The 
comparative length and breadth especially of the meso-scutum 
and scutellum are of value, as are in a less degree the relative 
size and position, slanting or vertical, of the flanks of the 
thorax. But this last character owing to the remarkable con- 
stancy in the form of the thorax and abdomen of all Lepidoptera. 
i3 not often of generic value*. 

I have also found the genital armor most useful in separating 
genera of moths, but for this purpose alcoholic specimens are 
necessary so that these parts may be drawn out and dissected. 
There is however no one general family type to which their 
great variations of form can be reduced. 

These characters are of special use in locating mimetic forms. 
The Zygaenidte do not imitate the lower moths, nearly so much 
as do the Bombycidae. Indeed just as embryologists arrange 
groups in series by their greater or less resemblance to low 
embryonic forms, can we arrange animals by the greater or less 
proportion of mimetic forms in any group. 

Mr. Bates (Linnaean Trans. 1862) has considered that 
the Heliconidee stand at the head of the Lepidoptera. We 
venture to question this position of the family from the 
fact that this family mimics most wonderfully the Zygee- 
nidse. An instance may be quoted from Stall of a genus 
allied to Glaucopis which he calls Papilio Zubina (PI. XL 
fig. 3. ) Judging from the plate simply, the antennas, the 
neuration and the brown and yellow bands and white spots are 
unmistakedly Zygafnid ; the general form of the body and of 
the wings are like Heliconia. Among the Piendae. Colias has 
a mimetic form in the Australian Heterusia pulchella Koller 
figured by Herrich-Schaeffer. But we cannot think of any other 
butterfly, or of any Hesperians. Sphingidae or iEgeriadas 
which imitate the lower moths, and therefore we consider this 
as an argument tor the superiority of their rank. On the 

* We might here say, that before we were aware of the use Dr. Leconte had 
made of the epimeral and episternal pieces in the Coleoptera we had used these 
parts to good purpose in the hymenoptera, where they are expose! to con- 
stant variation in genera and groups of genera, as well as families. 



FAMILY ZYGjENIDIA. 15 

other hand it may be argued that the Zygaenidse are lower 
than these families, because there are forms among them 
(Castnia) which imitate the butterflies, others (Alypia) which 
resemble the (Hesperiadae) and others again (Glaucopis and 
allies) which resemble the JEgeriadse. Thus the lowest gen- 
era imitate the lowest family enumerated, while the highest 
genus Castnia mimics the butterflies. As happily expressed by 
Professor Dana,* it is " a characteristic of a type of the very 
highest grade, that it is extensively copied after.'' 

To distinguish Castnia therefore from the Hesperians we 
look for the square clypeus, and the neuration peculiar to the 
Castniares. In the lower genera allied to Glaucopis we look at 
the square clypeus, which is often scutellate, and also at the 
long slender acute porrected palpi, the pectinated antennae, and 
also the peculiar neuration which it is difficult briefly to 
describe. In certain genera of Boinbycidse, allied to Limacodes, 
which are difficult to distinguish from some Tortricidas, the 
practiced eye can by the large broad clypeus which carries the 
insertion of the antennas very high up the front, at once locate 
the genus. Likewise the large broad clypeus enables us to 
separate those Notodontians from the Noctuidas, which they 
resemble. If we could select with safety any single character 
among the moths upon which to rely, it would be the clypeus. 

The Zyaeginidae are distinguished from the neighboring fami- 
lies of Lepidoptera by the following characters : the head is of 
moderate size and entirely free from the thorax, but not so 
much so as in the iEgeriadas or Noctuidaa. There is a great 
equality in the size of the three tergal pieces of the head: i. e. the 
occiput, epicranium and ctypeus. The length of the two first 
of these pieces taken together is about equal to that of the cly- 
peus, but more generally shorter, and as among all Lepidoptera 
the epicranium is the larger and longer. On the flanks of 
the head, is situated an ocellus just in the rear of the insertion 
of the antennas, which are inserted on the side of the head, in 
front of the epicranium which narrows, and is often bilobed be- 
tween] their bases. In the typical genera the antennas are 
simple, not setose, and slightly swelled in their middle, or par- 
tially clavate towards the tips as in Zygaana. Eyes large and 
globose. ';; The clypeus is nearly square, the sides hardly con- 

* Classification of Animals based on the principal of cepkalization. Amer. 
Journ. Sc. Jan. 1864, p. 15. 



16 PACKARD. NOTES ON 

verging towards the front edge which is very straight, with the 
edge slightly revolute. Its surface is convex, often remarkably 
so, sometimes ending in a large mesial tubercle. The mouth 
parts do not afford good family characters in distinction from 
the Sesiidse and the higherBombycides — the mandibles are slen- 
der, curved, with dense setse applied upon the well developed 
maxillae. Labium small equilaterally triangular. However 
there is a distinct form of the maxillary palpi, which are long, 
slender, acute, slightly ascending, but porrect: the third joint is 
long, acute, thinly scaled, and very free from the head ; the 
first and second joints very equal in length, and with long thin 
scales beneath. 

Thorax moderately stout, longer than broad. The pro-thorax 
is well developed, especially the scutum (collar), the two halves 
of which are partly separate, large suborbicular, and often gaily 
colored. The meso-scutum is small, quadrangular, shoiter than 
broad, the sides bent down angularly under the patagia. which 
are half as long as the meso-thorax in Zyga^na. but more gener- 
ally much longer. Scutellum nearly as long as broad, lozenge- 
shaped, the posterior half longer, being more produced than the 
anterior half. The meta-thorax much as usual, though the 
scutellum is a little longer and more elevated than in the other 
families. The flanks cannot be properly described without alco- 
holic specimens, however, they are slightly inclined— the middle 
flanks occupy more than half the lateral surface of the whole 
side of the thorax, while the hind flanks are one fourth to one 
half as broad as the middle ones. -Wings long and narrow, 
though often triangular, with very short nervules one third as 
long as the wing. The primaries equal the body in length ; they 
are nearly three times longer than broad, while the costal and 
inner edge are more parallel than in the other moths, except 
the iEgeriada?. Costa straight, apex much rounded ; outer edge 
full, half or two-thirds as long as the inner, internal angle well 
rounded. The costal space is narrow. The nervules more gen- 
erally arise far beyond the middle of the wing, and are of very 
equal lengths, thus making their interspaces very equal. The 
s.c. nervules are unusually short, especially the fourth, while the 
fifth equals in length the median nervules. Both the subcostal 
and median nervules curve inwards and throw off the discal 
nervules at opposite points, which are together curved very 
regularly inwards, thus making the discal space which is nar- 



FAMILY ZYG.ENID.iE. 17 

row, less triangular than usual, and less angular at its centre 
and broader end. The fourth median arises much farther out 
beyond the middle of the wing than usual, and hence much 
nearer the three first, the three interspaces being of nearly the 
same size. 

Secondaries nearly twice as long as broad, though more 
generally one half longer than broad, reaching half way 
to, or more rarely beyond the tips of the abdomen. Costa 
straight, but a little convex in the middle. Apex acute and 
much produced, or obtuse. The outer edge is nearly as long 
as the costa, the internal angle much rounded, and the internal 
edge is one half to a third shorter than the outer edge. The 
neuration differs greatly as in the primaries. In the typical 
Zygsenidse the subcostal goes straight to the apex, and the sin- 
gle fifth nervule arises by an angle connecting with the discal 
nervules, being equal in length to the four median nervules 
which are remarkably short, arising at the outer third of the 
wing. In Ctenucha and also in Alypia the subcostal sends off 
a branch as usual, which is not angulated near its origin, 
while the median nervure has only three branches, which arise 
near the middle of the wing. 

The legs are rather stout, but well proportioned, the joints, 
in the typical species of very uniform size throughout, and 
thinly scaled, while in the Castniares they are stouter, more 
sphingiform with long sharp spines, and hairy femora, while 
the anterior tibiae are densely pilose. 

Abdomen short, being generally twice the length of the tho- ' 
rax, and thick, obtusely pointed at the tip, sometimes partly 
truncate. The scales in this family are fine, powdery and 
scattered thinly over the surface, often leaving naked spots on 
the wings. Upon the thorax and head the squamation is so 
fine and thin that the different parts beneath can be often 
easily distinguished. In the Castniares the scales become 
larger, more hair-like, approaching somewhat the Sphingidas. 

Often when in doubt about the position of some genera of this 
family, the peculiar dark coloration of this group aids to settle 
the question. The general color of the Sphingidaa is cinereous, 
that of the Bonibycidas is brown, the iEgeriadaa and Zygasnidae 
differ wholly in being bluish, with purplish shades of black or 
entirely black alternating with gay colors, golden, bronzed, 
or white and red. However the typical genera are ornamented 

ESSEX INSTITUTE PROCEED. VOL. IV. C. 



18 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

with green and bright red patches (Zygasna), or are wholly 
green (Ino), or as in Procris, Ctenucha and allies, deep Prus- 
sian blue, or with shades of dark brown with red about the 
head or pro-thorax. An exception to this general rule is Eu- 
dryas with its remarkable arrangement of colors. 

Of the two subfamilies into which this family is divided, the 
Castniares approach nearest the Sphinges, while the lower sub- 
family, the Zygaeninae, have the closest affinities with the iEge- 
riadae. They both in the structure of the head resemble much 
the iEgeriadae, since in them the clypeus is square, being 
broader in front than in the Zygaenidae. But in the last named 
group the epicranium is shorter, so that the antennas arise 
nearer the base of the head ; also in the iEgeriadas, the occi- 
put is nearly obsolete ; and they are remarkable from the fact 
that the head is greatly advanced in front of the insertion of 
the primaries. This is owing to the great length of the thorax, 
which agrees with the slender abdomen, and long and narrow 
wings. Owing to the last character the style of neuration 
differs from the Zygaenidaa in the branches of the nervures pro- 
ceeding straight out to the outer edge, and being parallel with the 
costa and inner edge, which last is greatly elongated, and parallel 
to the costa. Thus while the nervules in both families are very 
short, one third as long as the whole wing, all arising very 
near the outer edge ; in the typical Zygaenidas they are curved 
more downwards, and are even shorter. In all the wing charac- 
ters there is a much greater variation than in the Sesiadae, and 
we have broad wings, becoming almost geometriform, being 
equilaterally triangular, as in Euremia from India and China, 
with long nervules, arising within the middle of the wings. 

Another character of importance is the form of the meso- 
scutellum which differs from the Sphingidae and iEgeriadae in 
being much longer, especially produced behind, where it is much 
rounded. In Sphingidae it is subacute. In the typical Bom- 
bycidae (Attaci) it is perfectly square behind. The tergum of 
the meso-thorax affords better family characters than the other 
parts of the thorax. 

Among the typical genera (Zygaena, &c.) the abdomen is 
shorter than in the families mentioned above, though this is 
a character of little value. 



FAMILY ZYGiENID^. 19 

Larva. It is difficult to give even in general terms the 
family characteristics of the larvge of the Lepidoptera, since there 
are so many exceptional forms. In characterizing those of the 
Zygaenidae we select that of the European Zygsena, and say 
from the figures and descriptions of authors that they are short 
and thick fleshy cylindrical larvas, whose bodies taper rapidly 
towards either end. The head is very small and partially 
retractile within the anterior part of the pro-thoracic ring. The 
tip of the abdomen is likewise very small and more acute than 
in the typical form of other families. The feet are sixteen in 
number. The rings are convex, short, and with transverse rows 
of unequal tubercles which give rise to thin fascicles of very 
short evenly cut hairs, which are seldom dense enough to obscure 
in the least degree the outlines of the body, and are often nearly 
absent. Often there are one or two transverse^bands of gay 
colors or of dark spots between the rows of tubercles and the 
edges of each ring. The colors are greenish or yellowish. This 
form is more especially that of the subfamily Zygseninae. 

When we depart from this typical form and ascend to the 
neighborhood of Alypia and allies we find them elongated, with 
large heads, and with a supra-anal tubercle towards which the 
body imperceptibly increases in size : the colors are gay, and 
the long unequal sparse hairs arise from minute tubercles. This 
form is evidently influenced by the close approximation of the 
genera to the Sphinges. This is the prevalent form of the 
Castniares. On the other hand in descending towards the 
Bombycidse, we find the larvae again elongating, but not by any 
means so much so as in the Castniares, while the head still in- 
creases in size, and the body is rather thickly clothed with hair, 
with mesial tufts of larger and party-colored hairs. 

The larva of Ctenucha resembles the Arctians very remarka- 
bly. Stoll* figures the larva of a genus which resembles closely 
the larva of Halesidota, which is still longer than Arctia, being 
related to Orgyia. It is elongated, very hairy, with long pen- 
cils of party-colored hairs before and behind. The pupa is like 
that of Arctia, while the moth belongs to the old genus Glau- 
copis, having feathered antennas and a Sesia-like body. 

When the larva is about to pupate, it constructs a dense 
silken cocoon generally, but Eudryas and Castnia make no 

^Supplement a POuvrage, intitule Les Papillons exotiques. Par M. Pierre 
Cramer. PI. xi. fig. l,a, b, c, (J. 



20 PACKARD. NOTES ON THE 

cocoon, and as we show below that of Ctenuchais formed simply 
of hairs. There is but one brood in the year, since the larvae 
hybernate, and at the beginning of summer pupate, to become 
moths in the middle of the season. 

Pupa. The pupa of Zygaena is represented as of a form 
intermediate between iEgeria and Arctia, being much stouter 
than the first and somewhat more so than the last. The head is 
prominent and the tips of the abdomen subacute. Ctenucha is 
more arctian, while Castnia and Alypia are elongate slender, 
with the head made especially prominent by the tuberculous 
clypeus. 

In common with the Sphingidas and iEgeriadae, the Zygae- 
nidse are confined to the temperate and tropical regions. The 
family type Zygcena has its metropolis about the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, and thence spreads to the north of Europe, and south- 
ward to the Cape of Good Hope. Z. exulans is found as far 
north as Lapland, and in vertical distribution rises 6000 to 
7000 feet in the Alps of Styria. 

The types of the Castniares however are tropical American. 
Alypia is the most northern genus, extending into the Hudson 
Bay Territories. Glaucopis and allies which form an immense 
number of species are almost exclusively tropical American. 
In Australia as Klug observes, Castnia is represented by Syne- 
mon. The American genus Eudryas is represented by very 
closely allied South African genera. 

From the study of the illustrations of Hiibner, Moore and 
Herrich-Schaaffer we are convinced that there are forms which 
lead from Castnia to Zygasna so gradually as to unite the old 
families of Castniares and Zygaenidas into a single group equiv- 
alent in value to the Sphingidae, Noctuidae or Phalaenidse of 
Latreille's families of moths, first proposed in 1807 in the " Gen- 
era Crust, et Insectorum." The genera Eusemia, Neochera, 
Anagnia, Milionia, Eterusia, Pintia and Agalope show this 
transition. They have the simple antennas, in most cases ; the 
broad secondaries, the long nervules, stout hairy palpi and 
bands and spots of the Castniares, with more superficial but 
striking resemblances to the Glaucopides among the Zygaenidas. 

It follows, therefore, that the two subdivisions of the groups 
are subfamilies, each of which I would consider as the equiva- 
lent of the Lithosiidas, the Atticidae or any other one of the 
subdivisions of the family Bombycidae. 



FAMILY ZYGMmVM. 21 

In retaining Latreille's term "family" for these large groups 
of moths, I am aware that I go contrary to the practice of mod- 
ern lepidopterists who give names to very small groups of 
genera after raising them to the rank of "families," 

Subfamily Castniares Boisduval.* 

The family name given by Boisduval to this group is adopted 
instead of Latreille's term Hesperi-Sphinges. 

This group is a difficult one to characterize, owing to the 
great diversity among the genera, so few of which we have been 
able to examine. As it is, this description must be considered 
as but provisional. 

The most trenchant characters are, the large head, the prom- 
inent front, the long simple filiform, subclavate or subprisma- 
tic antennae, the stout bushy palpi, with the terminal joint very 
slender and projecting much beyond the head. The convex 
clypeus is square, but often narrows in front, and is provided 
with a mesial tubercle projecting beyond the hairs. The body is 
stout and the thorax often pilose. The meso-scutum is longer 
than in the Zygcenmce, approaching more in this respect the 
Hesperiadse. The fore-wings are stout, broad triangular, with 
long nervules. Secondaries broad, with very obtusely rounded 
apices, while the internal angle reaches nearly to the tip of the 
abdomen, which is moderately long and terminates in a slender 
subacute tip. The legs are stout, often very hairy and some- 
what tufted. 

The larval characters given below are drawn from the cater- 
pillars of Alypia and Eudryas preserved in alcohol, and from 
figures of those of Psycomorpha epimeais Harr. drawn by 
Abbot and now in the library of the Boston Society of Natural 
History; of the Australian Agarista glycines Boisd. {Phalce- 
noides glycince Lewin) ; and of the East Indian genera Eitse- 
mia Dalman, Hypsa Hiibner, Anagrtia Walker, Atteva 
Walker, Lyclene Moore and Blzone Walker, which are figured 
in Horsfield and Moore's " Catalogue." 

The body is elongated, cylindrical, the eighth ring is either 
considerably enlarged, towards which the body increases in size, or 
it is simply humped on the upper surface of the ring. From this 
ring the end of the body rapidly diminishes in size, laterally and 

*Monogr. Zygsenides, 1829. 



22 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

especially from above where it slopes down suddenly to the 
supra-anal plate which is short, broad and lunate. 

There are six rows of small tubercles, or spots representing tu- 
bercles, which are largest above, and decrease in size on the sides 
of the body. On each ring the four tergal rows arrange their 
tubercles in a trapezoid. There are three rows on each side, 
and another row at the base of the legs. These give rise to 
single hairs, or slender spine-like hairs. The rings themselves 
are not very convex, and between the hairs and edge of the 
ring are crossed by bright or dark colored narrow lines or rows 
of spots which gives the larvae a gay appearance. 

The head is rather large and free from the pro-thorax. It is 
broad above, as well as below, and three-fourths as wide as the 
body. The clypeus is larger and its anterior division long, 
being equal in breadth to the length of the posterior division : its 
edge is not thickened, but when seen from beneath is slightly 
arched upwards. 

The labrum is not very deeply bilobate. Each lobe may be 
divided into an outer corneous portion and an inner softer fleshy 
part. The labium and maxillae are large and broad. 

Castnia Fabricius. 

In examining Castnia, a moth which is so completely Hes- 
perian in its analogies, we are not at all baffled in ascertaining 
its family characters. Though with the broad head, long thorax 
and peculiar shape of the wings which belongs to the Hesperians, 
and the form of the abdomen of that group it still differs essen- 
tially even in these parts. 

The head is one half narrower, the clypeus is still square, 
and the antennae are inserted much higher up the front than in 
Hesperia. The epicranium (vertex) is one-half shorter than in 
Hesperia. The antennae do not differ greatly from Zygaena, 
and often resemble that genus much more than the antennas of 
the Sphingidaa. The palpi are more like the higher butterflies ; 
in Alypia they are more like those of Hesperia. 

The meso-thorax, as well as the pro-thorax, is greatly elong- 
ated. The meso-scutellum is very long and rounded behind 
instead of being short and acute posteriorly as in the Bomby- 
cidae ; in this respect closely resembling the Hesperians and 
butterflies generally. 

In the triangular primaries, with their regularly curved costa, 



FAMILY ZYQMBIDM. 23 

the produced and acute apex, and the very straight outer edge 
and rectangular internal angle ; and in the peculiar form of the 
secondaries, the analogies to the Hesperians are remarkably 
close. This is shown especially in the fact that the internal 
edge of the secondaries is longer than the outer edge, much of 
which goes to make up the broadly rounded apex. They also 
reach out even with the tip of the abdomen ; in Coronis, 
Cocytia and Alypia they are considerably shorter. 

But in considering the neuration, we find it pursuing a plan 
very diverse from all the butterflies, which at a glance reveals 
the affinity of Castnia to the other Zygaenidae. The subcostal 
nervule in the butterflies throws off its five very short nervules 
upon the costa. In Castnia all the nervules are remarkably 
long, and are directed in just the reverse direction from the 
Hesperians, i. e., downwards and outwards upon the outer edge. 

The four median nervules are remarkably long and continu- 
ous with the nervure. In Hesperia and other butterflies the 
first median often becomes the "independent" of authors, and 
the ' three below are grouped together separately. Castnia 
and the allied genera have an additional nervure, the submedian, 
which is generally in the Lepidoptera obsolescent. In the 
secondaries the subcostal is like that in Hesperia, but there 
are four median nervules, while in Hesperia there are three 
only, and they are much longer, arising very near the base 
of the wing. 

The coloration and squamation which are so near the Hespe- 
rians have always been remarked by authors. 

Alypia Hiibner. 

Head small ; front long, pilose, the scales surrounding the 
conical projection of the clypeus, but not concealing its apex. 
Antennas long, a little thickened in the middle, with scattered 
lateral setae. Clypeus square, the front margin very obtusely 
rotund-pointed. First and second joint of the palpi stout, 
pilose ; third joint long slender ; the whole palpus porrect, the 
third joint passing beyond the front of the head. 

Thorax more then usually pilose, especially the pro-thorax 
and patagia. Wings short and broad. The primaries are one- 
half as broad as they are long, being broadly triangular. The 
nervules are rather short, and arise at a greater angle with the 
main nervures than in Eudryas. Secondaries rounded, trian- 



24 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

gular, the outer margin full, rounded at the apex and also at 
the internal angle. 

The legs have the first pair of femora and tibise densely 
spreading pilose and stretched out in front of the body as insome 
Notodontians. The hind pair of legs are large and long, with 
stout tibias armed with two unequal pairs of spines, of which the 
terminal pair is the shorter. 

In coloration the species are black moths with large white and 
yellow rounded patches upon both pairs of wings, and with deep 
vermillion upon the pro-thorax. 

Pupa. The specimen described is from the cast skin, con- 
sequently broken, from Dr. Harris' Cabinet, kindly loaned me 
by Mr. Scudder. Compared with that of Eudryas the body is 
not at all contracted at the base of the abdomen, there being a 
continuous curve from the pro-thorax to the tips of the abdomen, 
while that of Eudryas is very sensibly contracted at this point. 
The head is too much injured to describe. The pro-thorax 
differs in being square behind, where in Eudryas it is a little 
pointed. The meso-scutellum is not at all defined in outline, 
nor is the whole meso-notum so much produced behind, being 
more bluntly rounded, thus making the meta-thorax longer. 
The wings are in form, relative size and position as related to 
the abdominal rings, much as in Eudryas. The basal abdominal 
rings are beneath, broader than in Eudryas, and the spiracles 
are much more distinct. 

The abdomen tapers much the same in both genera, the chief 
difference lying in the tenth ring and the genital parts. This 
ring is much smaller and one-half shorter. Seen from above 
the ring is larger ; the upper pair of tubercles are broad and 
squarely docked, and the tergum is lengthened out even with 
them, while the surface has longitudinal rugse. The lateral 
tubercles are obsolete. Beneath is a distinct curved line, which 
is the trace of the claws of the anal legs of the larva. This 
mark is obsolescent in Eudryas. The larva previous to pupa- 
ting constructs an earthen cocoon, like that of JEgeria, ac- 
cording to Harris 

Eudryas Boisduval. 

Head rather large, eye3 and ocelli large and full. Antennae 
not thickened in the middle, with short lateral setse in the male 
and pubescent beneath. Front prominent, densely pilose, though 
the hairs hardly conceal the conical clypeal tubercle, which 



FAMILY ZYGJENIDjE. 25 

last is very large and truncated at the apex. The clypeus in 
front is square. Palpi large, porrect ; two basal joints evenly 
pilose to the tip of the second. Third joint small, cylindrical, 
short, porrect reaching nearly one-half its length beyond the 
front. 

Thorax pilose, with a broad median crest of metallic-colored 
scales, succeeded by a dorsal row of similar tufts upon the basal 
half of the abdomen which diminish in size from the thorax. 

Wings shaped as in Alypia, but the primaries are more 
rounded at the apex, internal angle rounder. The nervules are 
nearly continuous with the dh-ection of the main branches. Sub- 
costal nervules long, first subcostal arising one-third of the distance 
out to the apex of the wing. The hind wings hardly reach to the 
outer fourth of the abdomen, being much as in Alypia. Outer 
margin a little scalloped below the apex, below straight and 
parallel with the costa of the primaries. Discoidal nervules 
situated within the middle of the wing. The femora and tibiae 
of the fore-legs are very pilose, forming a dense tuft projecting 
in a mass over the first tarsal joint. Hind pair of legs stout, 
with longer tibial spines than in Alypia. 

The very intimate relationship of this genus to * Alypia may 
be better seen after a more detailed comparison. 

The head of the genus under consideration is much larger, 
the eyes are nearly twice larger, more globular, and occupy a 
larger extent of the sides of the head. The whole front of 
Alypia is proportionally narrower than that of Eudryas, the 
ocelli and antennae are therefore more approximate in the former 
genus. The occiput is much developed in Alypia, occupying a 
much larger area than in Eudryas, where it forms but a narrow 
rim. The convex epicranium is larger in Eudryas, being twice 
as broad as long, and having a slight ridge between the ocelli. 
In Alypia it is nearly two-thirds as long as broad, convex, and 
narrow in comparison with Eudryas. The clypeus in Alypia 
is very distinctly rectangular, the sides being exactly parallel, 
and the angles well pronounced, while the same piece in Eudryas 
narrows rapidly anteriorly, is longer than broad and has the 
angles of the anterior edge a little rounded. Both genera pos- 
sess a large truncated conical tubercle rising from the surface of 
the clypeus a little in advance of the middle, but it is smaller 
and slenderer in Alypia. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. D. 



26 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

The mandibles of Alypia are equilaterally triangular, as is also 
the labruin. In Eudryas these parts, at least in the specimens 
at hand, are much less developed. Beneath, the head of Eudryas 
is narrower between the eyes, and the labium is larger and longer 
than that in Alypia. The antennas of Alypia are most Zygaenid 
in character, being swollen a little beyond their middle : those 
of Eudryas are Xoctuid, being filiform, tapering gradually toward 
the tip, and setose. The palpi of the two genera do not differ 
essentially, though in Eudryas they are stoutest, most thickly 
scaled, and the most depressed, being porrect, while the third 
joint does not go so far beyond the front as in Alypia. They 
also agree in the structure of the legs : in both the fore tibise 
are thickly tufted, but especially so in Eudryas, wherein this 
genus resembles closely some Notodontians. In both genera 
also, the hind tibiae, are large and thick with four nearly equal 
spurs, but longer and more slender in Eudryas. 

The wings agree very nearly in outline. In Eudryas the 
costa of the primaries is straighter, the apex more rectangular 
and also the outer edge is straighter than in the other genus. 
The neuration is very similar in both genera, but Eudryas has 
its nervules longer, arising at about the middle of the wing, 
while in Alypia their origin is carried farther out beyond the 
middle ; thus the first, second and third subcostals are farther 
apart at their origins, longer and more parallel to the costa, 
since by their decrease in length in Alypia. they go to the costa 
and apex more rapidly and at a greater angle. In Eudryas the 
third subcostal subdivides at the inner third of its length, 
but in Alypia nearer its middle. The intercostal space has the 
inner side shorter than the outer in Eudryas, while in Alypia 
it is longer than the outer side. The fifth subcostal remains 
in the former genus attached to its nervure, while in Alypia it 
is detached, being removed towards the middle of the median 
area. The nervules of the median are more approximate at 
their origins in Eudryas. The first and second median are 
nearest together at their origin in the last named genus : the 
second and third are nearest together in Alypia, where also the 
median area of the wing is shorter and broader than in Eudryas, 
which has a longitudinal crease reaching from the base of the 
wing to the point of juncture of the two discal nervules. 

The secondaries also agree remarkably well in their form and 
neuration. The nervules are still very long. But the first 
median in Eudryas is continuous with its nervure. and its origin 



FAMILY ZYG.ENID2E. 27 

is identical with that of the lower discal nervule, while the 
course of the nervule in Alypia is much more flexuous. 

The abdomen in Alypia preserves the peculiar family form ; in 
Eudryas however it is slenderer and gradually tapers towards 
the pencilled tip. 

The Bombycid characters of Eudryas are found in the pecu- 
liar squamation : i. e., in the thickly scaled thorax, the middle 
of which is covered with the steel colored large and broad scales 
which occur in the same place in Tolype, and it resembles He- 
terocampa and Datana, near which the genus was placed by Dr. 
Harris, who has given quite full details about the habits in his 
descriptions of the two species E. grata and E. unio. 

Mr. F. W. Putnam has observed the larvae of E. grata feed- 
ing on the grape vine in Bridport, Vt., and collected the larvae 
and pupae in alcohol, which are in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Cambridge. The moth of E. unio has been collected 
by a friend in Bangor, Maine. 

Dr. Eitch has raised the larvae of both species from the grape. 
He says of E. unio* that it "is equally common with the pre- 
ceeding, and the worms are so much alike that we as yet know 
not whether there are any marks whereby they can be distin- 
guished from each other." p. 899. 

Larva. The head is ofgood size, being three-fourths as 
wide as the body. It is nearly as broad across the vertex, as 
in front ; above it is rather deeply impressed by the median line. 
The V-shaped epicranium is large not sunken below the level 
of the front; its apex is rather blunt, its sides bulge out 
from the apex to the anterior third of its length, where it is 
slightly contracted ; and when it joins the clypeus its edge is 
linear. The short transverse clypeus is as broad as the epicrani- 
um is long, its front edge being straight and very slightly raised. 

The labrum is divided half of its length by a sinus, into two 
lobes which are farther sub divided into two portions, the outer 
corneous and hard, and shaped somewhat like the mandible of 
the mature moths of this family, while the inner portions meet 
on the median line, and are more fleshy. 

The two jointed antennae are placed directly opposite the 
thick sub triangular truncated mandibles. 



*Third Report Insects N. Y. 1856. 



28 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

The labium and basal portion of the maxillge are broad and 
thick. 

The body is elongated and gradually increases in width to 
the eighth ring, which is much enlarged and raised into a 
hump, from which the body rapidly narrows, and the tergum 
falls down at an angle of about 45° to the broad lunate sujfra- 
anal plate. 

The rings are slightly convex ; across their middle is a row 
of tubercles ending in hairs equal in length to that of the ring 
itself. Upon the tergum of each ring are four large tubercles 
arranged in a broad trapezoid, two in front and two more dis- 
tant, on the middle of the ring ; on the thoracic rings these 
tubercles are arranged in a single transverse line and on the supra- 
anal plate in a square. Below is a lateral row of similar warts, 
one for each ring, immediately below which is the row of stig- 
mata, behind which, on each ring, is a minute wart. On the 
pleural line of the body, formed by the triangular raised portion 
of the side of each ring is a tubercle ; and at the base of all the 
legs is a single similar wart. On the sternal side of the body 
on the segments between the legs, is a transverse row of smaller 
warts than those above, which are inclined to be geminate 
between the true and false legs. There is a distinct thickening 
of the skin on the sides of the anal legs, as in the Bombyces. 

The coloration of the body generally, is a light hue, with 
linear transverse tergal stripes, about six for each ring, and 
nearly black in color, which are interrupted near or between the 
tubercles. 

On the vertex of the head are four black spots ; below in a 
curvilinear line are three black spots on each side of the epicra- 
nium, and two on the front edge of the clypeus. Around 
the V-shaped apex of the epicranium are smaller dots. There 
is a single dot within and opposite the eyes which are arrang- 
ed in a line forming a little more than a semicircle. All these 
spots give rise to minute hairs. 

In another lot (which may possibly be the young of E. unio) 
are some smaller than the specimens noticed above. The head 
is much the same, but the clypeus is smaller, and its sides do 
not bulge out. The spots on the head are the same, but the 
eyes are not surrounded with black. The eighth ring is more 
distinctly humped. The whole body is smoother, since -the 
tubercles in Eudryas grata are here merely black spots, and 
much smaller, so that the transverse tergal lines are much more 



FAMILY ZYG.ENIDJE. 29 

prominent. There are no hairs on the body, while in Eudryas 
grata they are prominent. 

Pupa. Dr. Harris (p. 427) merely remarks that " the 
chrysalis is dark brown, and rough with elevated spots." The 
whole body is elongate and rather slender ; both the head and 
pro-thorax taper continuously towards the clypeal tubercle, 
which is quite prominent. The antennse do not reach to the 
end of the wings. The pro-thorax is twice as broad as long ; 
slightly carinated. The sides of the body are continuous and 
straight from the base of the wings to the fourth abdominal ring, 
while the body itself is hardly depressed or constricted at the 
juncture of the thorax and abdomen. The wings meet upon the 
sternum, reaching to the middle of the body. Fifth to seventh 
rings of the abdomen separated by deep sutures, while the sur- 
face of each ring is flat, not convex, with two rows of small 
teeth ; while lower down on the sides of the body are four tuber- 
cles, being the remnants of the two middle pairs of prop legs. 
The remaining rings are less angulated. The tips of the abdo- 
men is obtusely conical, ending in four tubercles, the pair above 
long and truncate, those below broad and short. On the under 
side are two minute approximate tubercles. 

The whole chrysalis is of a dark mahogany brown, with the 
surface finely granulated. 

Length, .80 ; breadth, .20 inch. 

Subfamily Zyg^nitoe. 

We use for the subfamily name one previously employed by 
Swainson in 1839 for a family of Sharks. He was evidently 
mistaken in saying that Cuvier was the first to adopt the name 
Zygsena. That name was long before proposed by Fabricius 
in 1775, and adopted by Latreille in 1807. 

The head is large and prominent ; the front very convex, 
nearly square, with the angles well defined, with rather long or 
short scales. The occiput and epicranium together equal in 
length the clypeus which is square, convex. The antennse are 
inserted therefore midway between the front edge and the base 
of the head. They are in the typical genus simple, much 
thickened towards the extremity or, as in the lower genera, well 
pectinated. The two ocelli are situated at either end of the 
raised suture or ridge between the occiput and epicranium, and 
immediately behind the insertion of the antennas. The eyes 
are large, globose. Labrum short and broadly triangular. 



30 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

Mandibles long and narrow, the tips incurved, the dense setae 
on the inner side converge over the base of the maxillae, which 
last are well developed, reaching when unrolled, nearly to the 
posterior trochanter. The three-jointed labial palpi are large 
and long, ascending, and often reaching beyond the front by the 
length of the third joint. The joints are nearly equal in length, 
from the two basal joints depend long scales : those on the third 
are short and generally fine. 

Thorax but moderately stout, being a little wider than the 
abdomen. The two prothoracic scales (scutum) large, orbicular 
and very distinct. Patagia often large and long. Meso-scutum 
shorter than broad. The large scutellum encroaches upon it, 
being one-half and sometimes two-thirds as large as the scutum. 
It is a little longer than broad, very equally produced before 
and behind, being longitudinally somewhat lozenge shaped. 

Meta-thorax short, scutellum transversly linear, while the 
scutal pieces are small and narrow, being crowded away on the 
sides of the thorax. 

Wings long and narrow, and the nervules arise beyond the 
middle of the wing in nearly every genus, being much shorter 
than usual, and having their origins very approximate and equi- 
distant. Primaries nearly three times as long as broad. Costal 
edge convex near the base and towards the obtusely rounded 
apex. The outer margin is on the average one-fourth shorter 
than the internal margin with which it is nearly continuous, the 
internal angle being obscure. 

Marginal and subcostal nervures at nearly equal distances from 
each other, subcostal nervules short, their origins approximate, 
and all arise beyond the middle of the wing. Third generally 
forked. Fourth either independent, being removed towards the 
middle of the discal space, or simply branching out from its ner- 
vure as usual. 

The four median nervules are very short, nearly equal in 
length ; their origins nearly equidistant, all four being grouped 
closely together, since the fourth is remarkably short. Sub- 
median often present, or its place when absent indicated by 
a well marked fold. Internal long, terminating near the end 
of the fourth median. 

Secondaries long, narrow, and acute, rarely short and 
obtuse. Costa long, inner margin one-half as long as the outer. 
Nervules generally short and very equal in length. Discal 
space divided by a well marked curve ; discal nervules directed 



FAMILY ZYGiENID^D. 31 

inwards to meet it. Subcostal and median nervules as described 
in the primaries. Submedian most often present. 

The trochanters are very nearly vertical, or in the slender- 
bodied genera much inclined, and are then long and slender. 
Legs long and slender, all the joints slender, and of very uniform 
thickness ; the tibial spurs are small, the tarsal joints long, very 
slowly diminishing in size. 

The abdomen is hardly twice as long as the head and thorax 
together, generally stout and obtusely pointed at the tip, which 
is rarely tufted ; sometimes slender. The scales that cover the 
body are fine and powdery ; on the wings they are especially 
so, and are often absent in the middle, making them transparent. 
Moths of this family are of brilliant rich and gay colors, being 
of different hues of green, deep blue, black, black and white ; 
red and brown, yellow and black, and white and red with bright 
bands and spots. The crust of the body is often shiny black. 

The characters of the typical larvse and pupse have been con- 
sidered under those of the family, and farther on in the descrip- 
tion of Ctenucha. 

Harrisina nov. gen. 

Under this name may be placed the Procris americana of 
Dr. Harris, Aglaope coracina Clemens and another undescribed 
form from the middle states communicated by Mr. F. G. San- 
born. Without attempting to improve upon Dr. Clemens' ex- 
cellent description of this genus*, we would merely point out 
some marked differences from Procris Fabr. and Aglaope 
Latr. From the latter genus Harris statesf that the amer- 
icana entirely differs. With Fuessly's figure of Latreille's 
infausta from Southern Europe before us, which has broad 
wings and bright colors, and differs throughout, we are con- 
vinced of Boisduval's mistake in referring our species to it. 

However it differs nearly as much from Procris vitis and 
allies of Europe. The wings are a third longer and much nar- 
rower, the apex is much more rounded and the outer margin 
much more oblique. One of the best distinctions lies in the 
very ovate secondaries of amei'icana, owing to the convex outer 



* Contributions to American Lepidopterology, vn, p. 533. 
t Loc. cit. p.33. 



32 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

edge, which in Procris and Ino as well as Zygcena, is angulat- 
ed in the middle, thus giving the wing in those genera a squarish 
appearance. The nervules are longer and more parallel with 
the costa. When expanded the secondaries only reach to the 
basal third of the abdomen, while in Procris they reach to the 
basal two-thirds. The abdomen is remarkably square, a little 
flattened and slightly spreading in the female of Uarrisina, 
in Procris it tapers gradually to an obtuse point. 

Dr. Harris has given ample details of the history and trans- 
formation of the americatia, and it is most appropriate to 
dedicate to his memory the genus to which it belongs. 

Dr. Fitch also gives the following summary of its aspect 
and habits. " In August standing in a row side by side on 
the under surface of the (grape-vine) leaf, eating its edges, 
and leaving only the coarse veins, little yellow worms about 
.60 (inch) long and slightly hairy, with a transverse row 
of black spots on each ring ; forming their tough oblong oval 
cocoons in crevices ; the moth appearing the following July." 
Third Report, 1856, p. 398. 

Harrisina Sanborni nov. sp, Another interesting species 
belongs here, kindly loaned me by Mr. Sanborn, to whom 
it is dedicated. It is half the size of H. americana^ has 
shorter wings ; primaries with a more convex costa, while 
the costa in the secondaries is straight. The neuration also 
differs. The costal nervure goes more rapidly towards the 
i costa, and. in fact the whole costal area is broader, the median 
nervures are more angulated at their origins, and are wider 
apart, with, consequently larger interspaces than in H. amer- 
icatia. The abdomen is much shorter. The antennas likewise 
differ in having stouter pectinations. 

It would at first, from the similarity of its colors, be easily 
mistaken for a dwarfed americana, but it differs throughout. 
From Dr. Clemens' A. coracina, of which unfortunately no 
measurements are given by that author, it will be known by 
having a saffron collar which is however smaller than in amer- 
icana. 

Our species is wholly deep blue black, the tinge being decid- 
edly bluish and not greenish as in americana. Length, fe- 
male. 20 ; Exp. wings, female, .61 inch. 

We would place after this genus, Pyromorpha dimidiata 
H.-Sch., Exot. Schm. 1855, of which Malthaca perlucidula 



FAMILY ZYG^NID^. 33 

Clemens Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sc. Nov. 1860, is evidently a 
synonym. Of the former genus a figure -was simply published, 
Dr. Clemens has however given a careful description of the 
genus as named by him. 

Cte nucha Kirby. • 

In 1839 Dr. Harris* placed Ctenucha as a subgenus of 
Glaucopis immediately after the subgenus Lycomorpha, and 
including C. semidiaphana Harris in it, gives generic charac- 
ters to suit the admission of this last named species. 

In 1854 Walkerf divides the genus Ctenucha into four 
groups of species. Group 1. Ctenucha proper, includes C. 
latreillana Kirby. Group 2. P/iiloros, includes three species 
from Mexico and New Grenada. Group 3. Scepsis, includes 
a single species $. fulvicollis, and group 4. Aglaope is 
restricted to A. americana Boisd. for which Mr. Walker thus 
makes a new synonym Ctenucha americana Walker. His 
description of the species is copied verbatim from Harris, except 
that the measurements are omitted, though three specimens are 
referred to as coming from Georgia, and "presented by E. 
Doubleday Esq." p. 286. 

In 1860 Dr. Clemens^ excludes Aglaope americana Boisd. 
and divides Ctenucha into four groups, with C. latreillana 
Kirby as the type, discarding Walker's subgenera P/iiloros 
and Scepsis. 

We venture to say that of all the species referred to this, 
genus by Walker only C. virginica Grote (latreillana Kirby) 
andC. cressonana Grote belong properly to it, and would limit it, 
for the present, by the characters subjoined. Ctenucha virgo 
H-S. from the " Antilles" belongs to another genus. 

Mr. A. R. Grote has shown§ that Ctenucha latreillana Kirby 
is the Sphinx? virginica Charpentier. Edit. Esper's Exot. 
Schm. Sphing. Exot 1830 Plate 2, fig. 3 male, 4 female. He 
says also, " I have taken it in damp woods in the vicinity of Buf- 
falo, N. Y., as well as along the Canadian shore of the Niagara 
River. It has also been reported to me as having been taken in 
different parts of the Eastern and Middle States." 

* Cat. N. Amer. Sphinges. 

f List of Lep. Brit. Mus. Pt. II. Lepidoptera Heterocera. London, 1854, 
X Proc. Acad. N. Sc. Phil. Nov. 1860. p. 537. 
§ Proceedings Ent. Soc. vol. ii Dec. 1863, p. 334. 
ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. E. 



34 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

In this genus the front of the head is as broad as the distance 
from the insertion of the antennae to the front edge of the cly- 
peus. being full and convex. Ocelli large. Eyes full and 
globose, of the usual size. When denuded the clypeus is seen 
to be short and scutellate, as long as broad, rising between the 
antennas into a low obtuse point. In front it sweeps rapidly 
away from the eyes, rising from them, while the front edge 
contracts rapidly, the sides being slightly excavated just behind 
the square subtruncate front edge. w"hich seen from below is 
somewhat arched. On the surface is a slight mesial ridge ex- 
tending and increasing in size to the base of the piece. The 
two pieces behind, i. e.. occiput and epicranium are together in 
length equal to the clypeus. so that the antennas are situated 
very exactly midway from the' base to the front of the head. 
The <; vertex" of the head is clothed with much longer scales 
than the frontal ones which project out between the antennas. 
The occiput is regularly transversely oblong, being about four 
times as wide as long. The epicranium is narrower, subtrian- 
gular. truncate in front ; and at its base encroaches a little upon 
the occiput, than which it is one-fourth longer. The triangular 
labrum is short, broad and obtusely pointed. Mandibles slen- 
der, being nearly twice as long as broad, not very acute, with 
long setas converging over the maxillas which are well devel- 
oped, and when unrolled reach to the base of the abdomen. 
The palpi are long and slender, of good size, porrect, somewhat 
flexuous in their course, curving downward at their base, and 
then rising a little, in front of the head, while their tips are a 
little depressed. First joint nearly as long as the second, with 
long depressed scales beneath, but generally the scales are fine. 
Second joint twice as long as broad, and with the third 
which is a little shorter and acute, reaches out in front of the 
clypeus. 

Antennas half as long as the primaries, with long finely 
scaled pectinations, each of which bears a terminal seta. In the 
female the pectinations equal in length that of the joints of 
the antennas. 

Thorax and body generally, stout and finely scaled. Patagia 
large free from the tergum beneath. reaching behind nearly to 
the posterior edge of the meso-scutellum. while its posterior 
scales reach to the base of the abdomen. The protboracic scales 
are orbicular, large, and are unitedly considerably broader than 
the head. Meso-scutum short, broader than long : scutellum 



FAMILY ZYGiENID.^. 35 

large and pentangular, the longest side being the posterior 
edge which is a little convex, and scarcely angulated in the 
middle. . Wings broad ; the primaries a little less than half 
as long as broad. Costa full, convex towards the apex, which 
is rounded acute. Outer margin half as long as the costa, 
more than usually oblique. Inner edge two thirds as long as 
the costa. The costal area is very narrow in this genus, since 
the subcostal runs very near the edge of the wing, and its 
first, second and third nervules are very long and parallel to 
the costal edge. Third subcostal simple, the fourth arises 
midway between the apex of the wing and the origin of the 
second subcostal. Fifth slightly removed towards the middle 
of the discal area, arising directly opposite the first and 
second median nervules, the origins of which are united, the 
second being straight, while the first and third are arched, the 
last named one arising very near the two first. They then 
enclose a very regular semioval area. Fourth median arises 
at a distance from the third equal to the length of the two discal 
nervules, which are straight, and unitedly are directed exactly 
at right angles to the costa. 

The secondaries are broadly triangular, reaching nearly to 
the tips. The costa is decidedly convex within its middle, the 
apex is produced, but very much rounded, as in the internal 
angle, though the inner edge is itself very straight, and is one 
half as long as the costa. The lower discal nervule is directed 
obliquely outward, and both are curvilinear. The space between 
the first and third median is acutely triangular, since the ner- 
vules are nearly straight. 

The legs are long and slender, the hind tibiae with two pairs 
of small acute unequal spurs, of which the inner pair are the 
smaller. Hind tarsi longer than the hind tibias, and the first 
tarsal joint is a little shorter than the three succeeding ones 
taken together. Abdomen twice the length of the thorax, pro- 
vided with minute lateral tufts, slowly tapering towards the tip 
which is subacute, though not abruptly pointed. 

The colors of the genus are deep indigo blue, with a smoky 
tinge on the primaries, a lighter blue abdomen and saffron 
"collar." The nervules may be concolorous or as in the very 
interesting C. cressonana from Pike's Peak, described by Mr. 
Grote — to whose kindness I am indebted for a specimen of this 
rare species — the median and submedian nervules are white 
and thus remarkably distinct. The size of the genus is large, 
both species expanding two inches and a half. 



36 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

I find after receiving a specimen of C. cressonana from 
Mr. Grote that there will have to be no modification of the 
generic characters given above, which were drawn from a 
single species C. virginica Grote. In the first named species 
the palpi are more curved up in front of the head than in the 
latter, otherwise the differences are merely those of coloration. 

Larva. The head is large, being nearly as wide as the pro- 
thoracic ring. The vertical region is largely developed, and is 
considerably narrower above than in front. The epicranium is 
small, being nearly equilaterally triangular, the clypeus is nar- 
rower than the epicranium is long, and is raised, thickened, and 
its front edge distinctly convex. The labrum is short, and divided 
into two remote broad and short lobes. The mandibles are very 
broad, short obtuse and thick. The labium and maxillse can 
not very well be made out in my specimen, they are fleshy and 
with no determinate form for comparison. 

The body is short and rather thick, the rings moderately 
convex, and in consistence the skin is softer and more flexible 
than usual. On each side of the body are six rows of tubercles 
— the tergal ones much the largest. There are on each ring of 
the abdomen four tergal warts, arrayed in a broad trapezoid, 
becoming linear in position on the thoracic rings, and on the 
supraanal plate. These tubercles give rise to dense fascicles 
of evenly cut hairs, which radiate out on every side so as nearly 
to conceal the body, and give it when viewed from above a regu- 
lar broad elliptical form, with very even sides. The eighth 
ring is not enlarged, but the body from that ring tapers posteriorly 
rather rapidly to the tip, though not by any means so much so 
as in Eudryas. The abdominal legs are short, thick and hairy 
and the thoracic legs are still more bristly. 

The hairs on the upper part of the larvae are collected into a 
mesial line of slight tufts. The head seen from above is con- 
cealed by dense overarching hairs True and false (abdominal) 
legs covered by lateral radiating hairs. The outline of the ter- 
gum is hardly tufted, but rather scalloped, the scallop on the 
third and twelfth rings of the body being the most prominent, 
becoming short thick tufts. The hairs when magnified are seen 
to have long thickset spinules. 

The specific characters are these. The body of the larva is 
purplish livid covered with white and yellow hairs. Those 
hairs on the first two thoracic, and last two abdominal 
rings are all white. The head is a bright shiny red, black in 



Proceedings Essex Institute .Yol. IV". 



PI. 1. 




H 



^iJLU : 





2 a 











Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PI. 1 




X.3xQuvBlot,OTi storifeiromnat;. 



FAMILY ZYdmmVJE. 37 

front. There is a subdorsal and lateral row of bright yellow 
elongated spots, one for each ring, which are conspicuous 
through the hairs. Thoracic legs black, abdominal legs red- 
dish, nearly concolorous with the' head. 

A few specimens in the fourth (?) stage, i. e. : that next to 
the last moulting differed thus : They are more oblong in out- 
line. Those hairs which in the fullfed larva were described as 
black are here white. The mesial line of scallops here become 
actual tufts and black in color, of which the first and last are 
the longest. The hairs overarching the head and tip of the 
abdomen are whitish gray. The colors of the body and the"two 
rows of yellow spots are the same as in the mature larva. The 
' Trass" is short thick cylindrical with no markings. 

These larvas in both the stages of growth above described were 
found June 6th, 1862, on the spears of grass, which grew in a 
sunny place upon a high neck of land running out into Casco 
Bay, Maine. Most of the caterpillars were feeding, a few 
mature larvae were running about restlessly. A year after at 
the same place but a single specimen in the fourth (?) moul- 
ting was found May 16th. This one was kept in confine- 
ment until July 8th. Towards the last it languished until 
numerous Braconid larvae issued in different directions from the 
body and spun their silken cocoons in a bunch upon the outside 
of the larva, when it died. 

June 13th the Ctenucha larva began to construct its cocoon. 
Early in the morning it described an ellipse upon the side of 
the glass vessel of hairs plucked from just behind the head. 
From this elliptical line as a base, it had by eight o'clock built 
up rather unequally the walls of its cocoon ; in some places a 
third of the distance up, by simply piling upon each other the 
spinulated hairs, which adhered firmly together. At four 
o'clock in the afternoon, the arch was completed, and the larva 
walled in by a light thin partition. Soon afterwards the thin floor 
was made. No silk is spun throughout the whole operation. I 
afterwards carefully examined portions of the cocoon under the 
microscope, and could detect no threads of any kind. 

Four days after, the pupa appeared, and July 15th the moth 
came out. The female laid smooth green spherical eggs in a 
patch, side by side upon the side of the vessel, which hatched 
out July 28th. The young larvae were about twice the size of 
those of Orgyia when of the same age. They had large heads, 
and the body gradually decreased in size towards the opposite 



38 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

extremity. The hairs were sparse, long and rather uneven, much 
resembling young Orgyise. Owing to my absence the larvae 
could not be raised. It will be seen that the larva lives twelve 
days in the egg, about ten months as a larva, since there is but 
a single brood in the year, and they must hybernate when two- 
thirds grown ; it spends about twenty days in the pupa state, 
and but a few days as a moth. 

I have taken the moth late in July at Perry, Me., and early 
in August at Brunswick. It flies in the- hot sun, hovering over 
flowers, and is not difficult to capture, since its flight is not 
strong or rapid. In cloudy days it clings to the stems of 
plants, and can be' easily taken with the hand. 

A good illustration of the larval characters of the family 
compared with those of the Bombycidas, is seen in the growth 
of the young Ctenucha, which at first has a very large head and 
long unequal hairs, like the larvae of Orgyia and in a less de- 
gree like the Ceratocampadas in their first stage. Afterwards 
in the third and fourth stage of growth they resemble the 
Bombycidse in having tufts of longer hairs than those around 
and differing from them in color. This act of throwing off the 
characters of a lower family in the course of its growth, is an 
index of the relative rank of the two groups. The young 
Ctenucha thus resembles a mature Arctian perhaps as much 
as any Bombycid, but no particular genus, since the resem- 
blance is only very general. S toll's figure, before referred to, 
shows us a perfect Zygaenid, evidently higher than Ctenucha 
which resembles strikingly Halesidota which is one of the 
loivest Arctian genera. If we follow the general law of em- 
bryology too rigidly in classification we shall be led into occa- 
sional errors. 

Pupa, female. The pupa is short and thick, approaching rather 
closely in form that of the Arctians, being shorter than that of 
Eudryas. Seen from above the body is of nearly equal thick- 
ness from the thorax to the fourth abdominal ring, thence it 
diminishes a little in size, until at the eighth ring it suddenly 
terminates in a mucronate point. At the third abdominal ring 
however the body is somewhat swollen. 

The head is of good size but not at all prominent, very 
slightly projecting beyond the pro-thorax, with which it is very 
continuous since there is no clypeal tubercle. The vertex 
(epicranium and occiput) forms a continuous piece with the 
clypeus ; next to the pro-thorax it spreads out, and has a slight 



FAMILY ZYGMNIDM. 39 

mesial ridge, continuous with that of the pro-thorax. The 
scutellate clypeus is as Jong as the base is broad, the sides 
narrow somewhat towards the square front edge. There is an 
appearance of a short transverse oblong piece like that in the 
pupa, (the clypeus-antenor Newport ?) to which are attached 
the minute triangular labrum, and on each side are the mandi- 
bles, whose form cannot be distinctly made out. Tlie space 
between them is filled in with a piece whose surface is longitu- 
dinally convex.* 

The eyes cover a much broader space than in the imago but 
are flatter, from their under side depend the broad flattened 
maxilhe, whose bases are excavated next the eyes, the inner side 
being the longer, and between them is a minute triangular piece, 
the homologue of which in the imago we do not know. They do 
not extend along the abdomen quite so far as the antennae, 
whose tips partially embrace them. The antennas are crossed 
by the sutures which define the joints, which are very short. 
Only two pairs of legs are exposed in the pupa. The hind pair 
are long and narrow especially towards their base, while the 
more anterior (probably the first pair) are twice as broad as 
the others near their base. All these appendages with the wings 
extend as far as the posterior edge of the fourth abdominal ring. 
The wings are not broad, and the outer edge is much more 
oblique than in Eudryas. 

The thorax is very short. Pro-scutum consisting of the two 
scales united into one piece by a raised median line ; convex 
behind, in front deeply excavated by a triangular incision. The 
surface of the meso-scutum is very convex, the hind edge 
rounded and encroaching deeply into the meta-scutum, which 
is very short, expanding triangularly on the sides. 

On the sternal side of the ninth ring are seen the traces of 
the genital armor of the imago, consisting of two triangular 
pieces closely approximated upon the mesial line of the body, 
appearing as if coming out from under the eighth ring, since 
the ninth is carried under the preceeding one at this point. A 
longitudinal impressed line in the middle of the tenth ring 
marks the site of the anal opening. The two minute obtuse 

* The accuracy of this description of the mouth-parts will have to he tested 
by renewed observations The supposed division of the clypeus into two pieces, 
which do not appear in the imago, is of great interest in a morphological 
point of view. 



40 PACKARD, NOTES ON 

spines which are very closely united terminate the obtuse tip of 
the abdomen, and are no doubt homologous with the supraanal 
plate of the larva. 

The surface of the pro-thorax and abdomen is finely punc- 
tured. The color of the pupa is a uniform dark shiny mahogany. 

Length, .65; breadth, .20 inch. 

While the form of the pupa of Arctia Isabella is almost iden- 
tical in its general outlines and proportions with Ctenucha, 
there are still important differences which it will be interesting 
to notice. The head parts are less distinctly marked ; the 
vertex and clypeus are broader ; the antennae and legs are very 
much shorter, not reaching to the ends of the wings, which meet 
in front of them, and are united at their tips by a distance 
equal to the length of the fourth abdominal ring. The wings 
of Arctia have the outer edge very much less oblique than in 
Ctenucha, the thorax is much longer throughout ; the female 
genital armor is the same, though the ninth ring is longer, and 
the supraanal spine is a large flattened single stout spine, its 
edges terminating in two slender small spines. 

One imago died just as it was breaking through the pupa 
case, affording a means of ascertaining the mode of exclusion of 
the imago. The meso-scutum was split widely apart, throwing 
the pro-thorax with the head and its mouth-parts forward and 
downwards ; this act likewise forced outwards and downwards the 
wing, thus allowing the feet and wings of the immature imago to 
become exposed to the air long enough to harden, and thus serve 
to aid the moth in freeing itself from the rest of the body, which 
remains whole, after the moth has escaped from it. The 
antennas were also drawn out and extended in front of the head ; 
to effect this, the eyes of the pupa were evidently separated 
from the pro- thorax, thrust downwards by a space equal to the 
width of the antennas, which were then enabled by the splitting 
asunder of the antennae and wings of the pupa, to be extended 
forward. 

By the pectinations of the antennas, the specimen is evidently 
a female, its genital armor agrees exactly with that of the pupa 
above described, so that the sexes of the two are the same. 

The hairs of the body within the pupa case are the same in 
density and coloration as in the mature moth. 

Scepsis Walker. 
The head is larger in proportion to the rest of the body than 



FAMILY ZYG-ffiNID^. 41 

in Ctenucha, since it is a little broader tban the pro-thorax, 
while in Ctenucha it is not as broad. The vertex is not so 
thickly scaled, the front edge of the clypeus is broader and 
straighter, thus making the "whole clypeus square, as long as 
broad since the sides do not narrow so much as usual towards 
the front edge. Upon removing the scales, the occiput and 
epicranium are together equal in length to the clypeus. The 
occiput is transversely oblong, and divided by a mesial impres- 
sion into two halves, considerably shorter than broad. The 
epicranium is subtrapezoidal, narrowing rapidly in front, and 
bilobed anteriorly by a deep mesial impression. The two 
ocelli are situated, not on either of the pieces, but just below 
the antennas, and at each side of the suture between the two 
above mentioned pieces. The clypeus is a little longer than 
broad. At its base it is obtusely angular between the antennas ; 
its sides narrowing slightly towards the front edge, which is 
nearly square. On the basal half of the piece is a narrow 
ridge. Mandibles very slender, directed outwards, with long 
fine dense bristles. Labrum small, equilaterally triangular. 
Maxillas well developed, reaching when unrolled beyond the 
base of the abdomen. 

Antennas like those of Ctenucha, but with longer and more 
hairy pectinations. In the female the pectinations are stouter, 
clavate, ending in setas which are more apparant than in Ctenucha. 
Palpi ascending, acute and slender, reaching beyond the front 
by a distance equal to that between the bases of the antennas. 
Thorax rather slender, a little longer than broad. The scutal 
pieces of the pro-thorax are united closely along the medial suture, 
each half not being so separate, or so orbicular as in Ctenucha. 
The patagia are narrow, not reaching to the end of the meso- 
scutellum. Owing to the thin scanty squamation the form of 
the tergal pieces of the thorax can be very distinctly seen : the 
meso-scutellum is hardly as long as broad, and is very obtusely 
pointed behind. It is much narrower and longer than in Cten- 
ucha : so also the meta-scutellum, which is rounded behind, and 
very slightly produced into a slight obtuse angle. 

Primaries three times as lon^ as broad, beins; long and nar- 
row. Costa straight to the outer third, where it is curved slowly 
around to the somewhat produced apex. Outer margin one- 
half as long as the inner, very oblique. 

The costal nervure terminates at the outer third of the wing, 
and runs very close throughout its length to the edge of the 

ESSEX INSTITUTE PROCEED. VOL. IV. F. 



42 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

wing. First subcostal arises very near the upper discal ; second 
subcostal arises a little beyond the middle of the first subcostal; 
third subcostal is short, and arises a little beyond the middle 
of the distance-between the apex of the wing and the origin of 
the upper discal nervule. The fourth subcostal branches off 
very near the apex, and is very short, being but one fourth as 
long as the fifth subcostal, which last arises at a less angle from 
its nervure than in Ctenucha. The discal nervules are much 
more curved" inwards than in Ctenucha. The median beyond 
where it throws off its fourth median is bent upwards exactly 
parallel with the costa. Though longer, the nervules are thrown 
off from the nervure much as in Ctenucha, but the distance be- 
tween the origins of the third and fourth median is proportion- 
ally greater than in Ctenucha. 

Secondaries not quite half as broad as they are long, being 
much produced towards the apex, and behind reaching to the basal 
third of the abdomen. Costa straight, convex near the base. 
Apex acute. Outer edge nearly three times as long as the 
inner; straight on the outer half of its length, but becoming a 
little convex towards the internal angle, which is well rounded, 
while the inner edge itself is straight. The subcostal goes re- 
markably straight to the apex where it curves a little down- 
wards ; it throws off a single straight nervule a little within the 
outer third of its length. The upper discal is a third longer 
than the lower, which is the stouter of the two The three 
first medians are very short, one third as long as the whole me- 
dian, the third shortest. First curved, second and third straight, 
fourth curved downwards near its origin. The submedian is 
obsolete at its basal third, the terminal portion being more like 
a nervure than a mere fold. It is close to the internal and re- 
mote from the median. Internal straight, cutting off a large 
triangular area comprising the internal angle. 

Legs rather long, slender, thinly scaled, the spines minute 
and weak. The hind legs differ from Ctenucha in being much 
slenderer not at all swollen. There are the same proportions 
in the length of the joints. 

Abdomen broad, and acutely pointed at the tip in both sexes, 
with slight lateral tufts along the sides. The female tip is more 
obtuse than in the male, thus approaching female Procris with its 
truncated tips, more than Ctenucha with its simple pointed tip. 
The genitals are simple and concealed within the eighth ring of 
the abdomen. There is apparent a tergal piece, and a sternal 



FAMILY ZYGiENIDiB. 4o 

pair of short cla vate appendages. Without more alcoholic speci- 
mens of this and the other genera it is useless to study these parts, 
which a casual inspection of dry specimens assures me afford 
excellent generic and specific characters in this family. 

In coloration it differs from Ctenucha in the saffron pro-thorax, 
and dark head, and the semihyaline secondaries. 

While at first sight distinguished from Ctenucha by its long 
wings and. slender body, and obtusely pointed, almost triangular 
tip of the abdomen, and. the difference in the tergum of the tho- 
racic rings, there are additional characters which separate the 
two genera, and show conclusively that Scepsis should be con- 
sidered as a group of equal value with Ctenucha itself, and not 
a subgenus of it. These are : the curved palpi which are consid- 
erably shorter ; the thicker clavate pectinations of the antennas, 
the marked differences in the neuration, and the slender hind 
femora. The clypeus is much wider, and the mesial ridge is 
not so prominent or so long as in Ctenucha, the clypeus of which 
narrows much more rapidly towards the front edge. 

To show how accurately, in insects at least, the generic char- 
acters can be discovered from the inspection of a single species 
of the group, I would state that the above description was 
drawn up from specimens of S. fulvicollis only. Upon com- 
paring afterwards specimens of a Californian species in the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, which is closely 
allied to the species first mentioned, I find that the characters 
considered above as generic will in no case have to be altered. 
In the Californian species the style of coloration is the same, the 
palpi are a little more curved, the antennas are the same, so 
also the pro-thorax, the neuration is identical throughout, and 
there is the same broad obtusely pointed tip of the abdomen. 
The specific distinctions are these ; a light tint of brown, a 
brownish abdomen, instead of deep blue, and a more hairy 
thorax than in &. fulvicollis ; while in size, the two species are 
much alike. 

Scepsis fulvicollis Walker is found in Canada West (St. 
Catharines, Coll. S. H. Scudder) It will no doubt occur in 
southern New England. 

Lycomorpha Harris. 

The front of the head is provided with long scales extending 
to the base of the maxillaa. When the head is denuded, the 
clypeus is' broadly scutellate, the length being equal to the 



44 PACKARD, NOTES ON THE 

breadth, with the basal margin produced backwards and en- 
croaching more upon the epicranium than usual. The front edge 
contracts suddenly into a square portion resting above the man- 
dibles and maxillge. The epicranium is small and short, deeply 
impressed by a mesial line and divided thereby into two trian- 
gular halves; while the occiput is transversely oblong, being 
twice as broad as long. 

The antennae have short setiferous densely scaled pectinations; 
in the female they are serrated, the teeth terminating in single 
setse. Mandibles rather long and slender projecting out beyond 
the scales of the front. 

The body of this genus is long and narrow, slender. The 
thorax is narrow, and the pleurse of each thoracic segment are 
very oblique. Pro- thoracic scales (being the two halves of the 
pro-scutum) ovate elliptical. The meso-scutum is remarkably 
small, being shorter than broad, and no longer than the scutel- 
lum, which is of much greater length than usual. The iorm of 
this last piece is much different from what we find in Ctenucha. 
In form it is pentagonal, the front edge being transverse, the 
two posterior sides forming a triangle, while the two anterior 
sides are, though nearly parallel, yet slightly divergent. Wings 
remarkably long and narrow : primaries nearly three times as 
long as broad, being remarkably long and narrow as in the 
Lithosia3. Costa straight as far as the apex, which is much 
rounder than usual, as is also the internal angle, while the inner 
edge is but one-fourth shorter than the costal. The nervules 
arise remarkably equidistant, and their origins are much shorter 
and nearer the outer edge than in the allies of the genus. The 
short subcostal nervules run rapidly to the costal edge. First, 
second, and fifth of equal lengths, the third not branched and 
equal in length to the fourth, while the origins of each are 
opposite the inner third of the fifth, which arises near the middle 
of the discal space. Two discal nervules of equal length meet 
to form an angle pointing inwards, from which a fold is " 
thrown inwards along the middle of the discal space. 

Median nervules much straighter than usual, their interspaces 
oblong and of very equal size. Origins of second, third and 
fourth equidistant. Submedian nervure long and distinct. 

Secondaries long and narrow, the apex much produced, the 
inner angle not reaching to the tips of the abdomen. Costa 
convex, a little excavated just before the apex. Outer margin 
two-thirds as long as the costa, angulated slightly on the second 



FAMILY ZYG^ENID^S. 45 

median. Inner edge very short, being one-half as long as the 
costal. First and second subcostal nervulcs nearly equal in 
length. The upper discal is very long and oblique, and with 
the lower discal is parallel with the outer edge of the wing. 
But three median nervules present. First, obsolete ; second 
and third parallel ; third and fourth shorter than the second and 
directed downwards. Distance between the two first median 
nervules one-third as great as that between the third and fourth. 

The slender abdomen is a little more than twice the length 
of the head and thorax. The male genital armor is large and 
well developed in the genus. The two tergal pieces consists of 
a semielliptical horizontal piece, beneath which comes out 
another tergal piece of the same length, but linear, and curving 
downwards and inwards. The side pieces are large, concave, 
broad and lono;. nearly meeting beneath, along the mesial line 
of the body. Each piece is widest in the middle, thence nar- 
rowing rather rapidly, becomes truncate at the extremity, end- 
ing in a pair of hooks separated by a deep sinus. 

The coloration is prussian blue, with saffron bases to the 
wings, somewhat as in Pyromorpha. . 

Compared with other genera of the subfamily this inter- 
esting genus presents some notable differences, all the characters 
being, as it were, influenced by the close relationship to the Litho- 
sise. This is seen in the dentated antennae, neither simple as in 
the Lithosise, or pectinated as is the rule in its own group. 
The Lithosian characters also appear in the head, in the form 
of the clypeus especially ; and in the unusually slender body, 
with its narrow wings, and elongated scutellum of the meso- 
thorax. Though after all the Zygsenid characters prevail so 
extensively that it is a little strange that observers after Dr. 
Harris' time should change his location of the genus to a 
place among the Lithosiidas. Though the larva is a lichen- 
feeder and thus in this early stage is like Lithosia and allies, 
we must consider the insect as simply analogous in its habits as 
well as structure to that genus, and not be misled by these very 
strong resemblances. 

I have taken L. Pholus on the wing in the daytime about 
stone walls on which lichens were plentiful, in Brunswick, 
Maine. 

Anatolmis nov. gen. 

Head of moderate size, broad and short. Occiput and epi- 
cranium together equal in length to the clypeus ; epicranium 



46 PACKARD. NOTES OX THE 

bilobate, much as in Lycomorpha, "with much the same propor- 
tions. The clypeus is very broad, scutellate, just as broad as 
long, covered with broad flat scales which converge towards the 
median line. Eyes small, hemispherical, their diminished size 
adding to the breadth of the broad clypeus between them. An- 
tennas situated nearly midway between the front edge and the 
base of the head ; rather slender, with very short broad pectina- 
tions, equalling in length the joints, and covered densely, espe- 
cially on the sides, with stout hairs, and terminating in a single 
seta. Maxillge well developed, longer than the head is broad. 
Palpi long porrect, reaching beyond the front : third joint min- 
ute conical subacute, nearly continuous with the second, which 
is not very broad. 

Body slender, thorax not much broader than abdomen: wings 
remarkablv loner and narrow. Primaries a little more than 
three times as long a3 broad ; costa very straight, a little con- 
vex on the outer third ; apex rounded ; outer edge very convex, 
very sLort ; inner edge remarkably long, and nearly parallel 
with the costa, very straight, the usual convexity near the in- 
sertion very slight. 

Costal very near the margin and impinging on the middle of 
the first subcostal ; third subcostal of very equal length, first 
curved towards the costa, the third shorter than first ; fourth 
branched within its middle, enclosing a narrow long triangular 
apical interspace; fifth, not removed from its nervule at its ori- 
gin. Median nervules arise at the outer third of the wing. 
First and second are united at their base ; third and fourth, are 
equidistant from the second. Submedian curve long well mark- 
ed, but no nervure. Very long internal nervure. Fringe 
rather long, especially just below the apex. 

Secondaries very long, twice as long as broad, narrow trian- 
gular, hardly reaching to tip of abdomen. Apex much produ- 
ced, though obtuse. Costa very straight, outer edge very long, 
remarkably straight , internal angle rectangular not reaching 
much beyond the base of the anal tuft. 

Subcostal subdivides near the outer fourth of the wing ; first 
and second median very short, nearly parallel ; third, very re- 
mote but of the same length. 

Legs long and slender, finely scaled. Hind tibial spurs very 
small unequal acute, inner pair very remote, and half as large 
as the terminal pair. Tip of abdomen provided with large anal 
valves, of unusual size, being laterally broad lanceolate. 



FAMILY ZYGJENIBiE. 47 

The squamation is fine and powdery. Compared with Lyco- 
rnorpha, to which it is nearest allied, besides the very different 
style of coloration, the primaries are narrower, costa straighter; 
secondaries more triangular, owing to the rectangular inner an- 
gle. But in the structure of the head, of the antennas, of the 
thorax and abdomen it agrees closely with Lycomorpha, and 
these characters are those which place it without doubt in the 
Zygasnidas, though after a casual glance one would not hesitate 
to call it a Lithosian. The bluish scales of the body, the dark 
mahogany colored tegument, the fine powdery squamation, and 
the slender very equally jointed legs and pectinated antennas aid 
in determining the true systematic position of this interesting 
genus. 

From the resemblance to the parallel genera Hypoprepia 
and Alolmis, among the Lithosiidse, I have proposed the name 
above given. 

A. Grotei nov. sp. Vermillion red and smoky purple ; head 
and appendages purple , thorax red ; primaries red throughout 
except the purple fringe and the edge of the outer third of the 
costa. Secondaries red on the basal third, beyond smoky pur- 
ple ; the red extends from just within the middle of the inner 
edge to near the apex upon the costal edge. Legs purple, con- 
colorous with the abdomen. Beneath colored the same as above. 
There are no other markings on the wings. 

Length, .38 ; exp. wings. 1.20 inch. 

Pike's Peak, Colorado Terr. (Coll. Phil. Ent. Soc.) 

Dedicated to Mr. A. R. Grote, to whose kindness in secur- 
ing for study this and many other rarities I am under special 
obligations. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Piate I. Fig. 1. Ctcnucha virginica Grote. la, Palpus enlarged. 
16, Head denuded and enlarged, lc, Primary wing. Id, Secondary wing. 

Fig. 2. Larva seen from above. 2a, side view. 2c, front view of head 
enlarged. 2d, last abdominal ring seen from above. 

Fig. 8. Young larva, after the fourth moult. 

Fig. 4. Pupa seen from above. 4a, side view. 

Plate II. Fig. 1. Jllypia octomacvlata Hubner, head denuded and 
enlarged. l<z, Primary wing. 16, Secondary wing. 

Fig. 2. Pupa of Eudryas grata Boisduval. 2a, dorsal view. 

Fig. 3. Head of the same, denuded and enlarged. 3a, Primary wing. 
86, Secondary wing. 

Fig. 4. Lycomorpha Pholus Harris, head dennded and enlarged. 4a, 
Primary wing. 46, Secondary wing. 



48 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

IV. Catalogue of the Birds found at Springfield, Mass., 
with No'es on their Migrations, Habits, fyc. ; together 
with a List of those Birds found in the State not yet ob- 
served at Springfield. By J. A. Allen. 

( Communicated May 2, 1864. ) 

Nearly all the land birds known to inhabit New England are 
found in the Valley of the Connecticut, at one season or anoth- 
er ; and during spring and fall the number of passengers from 
the northern to the southern parts of the country, and vice 
versa, is immense ; even some of those species usually esteemed 
quite rare occur in considerable numbers. The number of in- 
dividuals of land birds, during the periods of migration, seems 
to be much greater at Springfield than at most localities in the 
eastern part of the State ; yet some species are more numerous 
in Eastern Massachusetts than at Springfield ; and some are 
common there through the breeding season, which at Spring- 
field are almost unknown, or at least occur in much fewer num- 
bers. Among such may be mentioned Coccyzus americanus, 
Hirundo bicolor, Carpodacus purpureas, the Ammodromi, 
&c. The rapacious birds, owing to the absence of extensive 
woods, are comparatively rare, especially in summer and win- 
ter, and the water birds are limited to the fresh water or river 
Ducks and Gralhe, which are, with few exceptions, far from 
numerous. 

Among some of those species noticed as of very rare occur- 
ence here, may be mentioned Nyctale Richardsonii, Picoides 
arcticus, Centurus carolinus, Helminthophaga peregrina, 
H. celata, Dendroica tigrina, Icteria viridis, Mimus poly- 
glottus (found breeding), Melospiza Lincolnii, Coturniculus 
Henslowii, Corvus carnivorus, &c. The " Turdus alicia?" 
of Baird, I have found to be not rare ; and from a careful exam- 
ination of many specimens of both T. alicia and T. Sivainso- 
nii, have found alicim to be based on faintly colored specimens 
of Swainsonii, and not to be a distinct species, as heretofore 



BIRDS OE SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 49 

supposed. This subject is noticed at length under Turdus 
Swausonii. 

Springfield being situated near the northern confines of the 
Alleghanian Fauna, some of the more southern species found 
here are represented merely by a few individuals in the breed- 
ing season, while the southern limit of many others properly 
belonging to the Canadian Fauna is removed but a few miles to 
the north, varying from sixty to one hundred miles in the Val- 
ley of the Connecticut, and in the mountainous districts of Wes- 
tern Massachusetts falls nearly as low as Springfield. 

I have designed to include no species, in the following list, 
which I have not known taken or observed in the immediate 
vicinity of Springfield, (except in the case of a few Ducks, 
noticed below,) preferring to err in omitting some really existing 
in the prescribed region than .to include a single species not be- 
longing to the locality. I have introduced, however, those very 
probably occurring, which have not, to my knowledge, been 
observed here ; but these are not reckoned as a part of the list. 
The times of migration given are generally an average of obser- 
vations covering several years. 

In order to render the list as complete and valuable as 
possible, I have not failed to solicit aid from others, and 
am pleased to be able to acknowledge valuable assistance ; 
chiefly from Messrs. C. W. Bennett and L. Hyde, whose 
very complete collection of our native birds forms a val- 
uable part of the collections of local natural history in the 
"Ethnological and Natural History Museum" established a 
few years since in Springfield ; to Mr B. Hosford, for various 
useful notes, and to Dr. Wm. Wood, of East Windsor Hill, Ct., 
who has kindly furnished me with many valuable facts, particu- 
larly in reference to the water birds. The names of contribu- 
tors follow the facts resting on their authority. Several of the 
Ducks included in the list, (Aythya vallisneria, Bucephala 
albeofa, Harelda glacialis, Melanetta velvetina,) are inserted 
from their having been taken on the Connecticut River, by Dr. 
Wood, some fifteen miles below Springfield ; and though not 
known to have been taken here, undoubtedly occur, and have 
only been overlooked from a want of more thorough searching 
on the part of collectors. The whole number of species inclu- 
ded in the Springfield list is one hundred and ninety-five ; the 
number of those found in Massachusetts not observed at Spring- 
field is ninety-two, of which the greater part are truly coast 
species. 

ESSEX INSTITUTE PROCEED. VOL. IV. G. 



50 J- A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

In order to give a complete list of the birds of our State, I 
have appended a catalogue of those found in Massachusetts not 
yet noticed at Springfield. No species is included of which 
there is not good evidence that it has been taken in the State. 
Some occasional visitors may have been overlooked, but it is 
believed such instances are few. Those probably occurring 
but not to my knowledge detected, are also mentioned but are 
not counted as a part of the list. To present a general view 
of the Ornithology of our State in a condensed form, I 
have appended tabular lists of those birds that are resident the 
whole year in the State, those that breed, those that are sum- 
mer, winter, or spring and autumn visitors, and those that 
are merely rare, occasional, or chance visitors, &c. 

1. Falco anatam Bonap. Duck Hawk. Very rare. 
One or two pairs are known to breed regularly on Mount Tom, 
some fifteen or twenty miles north of Springfield. Nest on the 
rocks, very early in the season, the young being full grown by 
the last of June. Mr. C. W. Bennett, who gives me these 
facts, took some young birds from the nest a few years since. 
This species has also been found breeding on Talcott Mountain, 
Ct., a few miles south-west of Hartford. Four nearly full-fled- 
ged young were taken from the nest June 1st,. 1861, and the 
female was shot.* (Dr. W. Wood, in Hartford, Ct., Times, June 
24th, 1861. See a valuable series of twenty-one articles, by 
Dr. Wood, on the Rapacious "Birds of Connecticut," publish- 
ed in the Hartford Times, March 14th to August 9th, 1861.) 

2. Hypotriorchis columbarius Gray. Pigeon Hawk. Very 
rare. Seen in spring and fall. May 7th, 1861, obtained a 
male in perfectly adult plumage. 

3. Tlnnunculus sparverius Vieill. Sparrow Hawk. Not 
common. Seen in spring and fall. Has been found breeding 
at Williamstown, Mass. (Brewer's N. Am. Ocil. pt. I. p. IT.) 

4. Astur atr icapillus Hona,]). Goshawk. "Partridge Hawk." 
Winter visitant. Usually rare, but was quite common in the 
winter of 1859-60. Arrives about the first week in November. 

* Since the above was written, the eggs have been obtained (April 19th, 
1S64,) from a nest on Mount Tom, by Mr. C. W. Bennett, of Springfield. 
The female was also obtained, and the identity of the eggs ascertained 
beyond question. 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 51 

5. Accipiter Cooper Ii Bonap. Cooper's Hawk. t: Chicken 
Hawk." Common summer visitant, breeding, but is most nu- 
merous in September. 

6. Accipiter fuscus Bonap. Sharp-shinned Hawk. " Pi- 
geon Hawk. ; ' Summer visitant, breeding; common, particu- 
larly in spring and fall. 

7. But.eo borealis Vieill. Red- tailed Hawk. " Hen 
Hawk." Probably resident, but most numerous in fall and 
spring, and breeds here. 

8. Buteo lineat.us ' Jard. Red shouldered Hawk. Not un- 
common, arriving early in spring, and breeds here. Is most 
common in autumn, -when those that breed further north are 
mio-ratino; southward. 

9. Buteo pen.nsylvauicus Bonap. Broad-winged Hawk. 
Quite rare ; breeds. 

10. Arckibuieo lagopus Gray. Rough-legged Hawk. 
Winter visitant. Not common, except occasionally, and in par- 
ticular localities. 

11. Archibvteo sancti-johannis Gray. Black Hawk. Rare 
winter visitant. 

12. Circus hudsonius Vieill. Marsh Hawk. '• Blue 
Hawk." "Bog-trotter" of sportsmen. Common summer vis- 
itant ; arrives early in" March, and nests on the ground in the 
marshes, often many years on the same site. It is by far our 
most common Hawk. Both sexes incubate. 

13. Halicetus leucocephalus Savigny. White-headed Ea- 
gle. "Bald Eagle." Not common; sometimes breeds on Mt. 
Tom, about twenty miles north of Springfield 

14. Pandion carolinensis Bonap. Fish Hawk. A few 
are seen along the Connecticut and its tributaries during the 
spring months. Have never heard of its breeding in this vicinity. 

15. Bubo virginianus ~Bom?p. Great Horned Owl. ," Cat- 
Owl." Rather common. Resident, but seems to be more com- 
mon in autumn and winter. 

16. Scops asio Bonap. Mottled or Red Owl. " Screech 
Owl." Resident, and probably our most common species of Owl. 

17. Oius americanus Bonap.*. Long-eared Owl. Not 

* Striq americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, (1728) 288; Otus Wilsonianvs 
Less. Traite d'Orn., I, (1832) 130. — Why the specific name americanus 
has not been adopted for this species by the laterbrnithologists I cannot 
perceive, it being that having the priority of all others. 



52 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

common. Probably resident, but most frequently taken in au- 
tumn. 

18. Brachyotus Cassinii Brewer. Short-eared Owl. Re- 
sident. Rather common in autumn and winter. Dr. Wood 
has found it breeding in Connecticut, a few miles from Spring- 
field. 

19. Syrnium nebulosiim Gray. Barred Owl. Quite 
common. Resident. 

The Great Gray Owl (S. cinereum Aud.) may occur occa- 
sionally, but I have never known it taken here. 

20. Nye tale acudica Bonap. Acadian Owl. "Little Owl." 
Pretty rare. Resident. 

21. Nyctale Richardsonii Bonap. Richardson's Owl. Ve- 
ry rare winter visitant. Obtained a specimen in December, 
1859. A specimen in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, taken at Maiden, Mass., and one taken by Dr. W. 
Wood, in East Windsor, Ct., were obtained the same winter. 

22. Nyctea nivea Gray. Snowy Owl. Winter visitant, 
and usually rare ; in some winters quite common. Has been 
taken third week in November. 

23. Coccygus americanus Bonap. Yellow-billed Cuc- 
koo. Extremely rare ; in the eastern part of the State it 
occurs frequently. Though it has been an object of special 
search with collectors here for several years, but one specimen 
has been obtained. Dr. Wood says it is " very rare'' at East- 
Windsor Hill, Ct., where he has found its nest and eggs. 

24. Coccygvs erythrophthalmus Bonap. Black-billed 
Cuckoo. Rather common summer visitant, arriving about 
May 10th. 

25. Picks villosus Linn. Hairy Woodpecker. Resident, 
but quite rare in summer ; more common in winter. 

25. Picus pubescens Linn. Downy Woodpecker. Resi- 
dent, and common at all seasons. 

27. Picoides arcticus Gray. Black-backed Three-toed 
Woodpecker. A very rare or accidental winter visitant. The 
only specimen I have known taken here I shot in January, 
1860 ; a Woodpecker, however, was seen here for several 
weeks in March of the same year, which I think, from descrip- 
tions of it. must have been this species. 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 53 

28 Sphyropicus varius Baird. Yellow-bellied Woodpeck- 
er. Hot common, and only seen in fall and spring when mi- 
grating. I have never seen this species in summer, and do not 
think it breeds here, though they breed plentifully on the hills 
in Western Massachusetts, twenty or thirty miles west of 
Springfield. (W. H. Niles.) 

29. Century s caroUnns Bonap. Red-bellied Woodpecker. 
Summer visitant. Accidental. Saw one May 13th, 1863. It 
has been taken several times in Connecticut, but occurs in New 
England only as a straggler. Found in the breeding season in 
Western Massachusetts by Prof. Emmons. (Peabody's Rep. on 
the Birds of Mass.) 

30. Melanerpes erythrocephahis Swain. Red-headed 
Woodpecker. Very rare summer visitant. Have taken but 
two specimens in five or six years. Three were taken in 1860 
by Messrs Bennett and Hyde. A few are still known to breed 
within about twenty miles, in several directions, (at Amherst, 
Mass., C. W. Bennett.) Twenty-five or thirty years ago they 
were very abundant here. 

31. Colaptes auralus Swain. Golden-winged Woodpecker. 
" Yellow Hammer." " Wakeup." Summer visitant, breeding 
very abundantly. Arrives about the first of April or last week 
in March ; leaves about October 12th. 

32. Trochilus colubris Linn. Humming Bird. Common 
summer visitant, breeding plentifully. Arrives 'early in May, 
and in August is very abundant wherever the Impatiens fulva 
abounds. 

33. Chcetura pelasgia Steph. Chimney Swift. u Chim- 
ney Swallow." Abundant. Usually arrives about the first of 
May, but are frequently seen the last week in April ; greater 
part leave early in September, but some often remain till the mid- 
dle of September, and even sometimes till near the first of Oc- 
tober. Arrives earlier and commonly remains later than any of 
the true Swallows, except perhaps Hirundo bicolor. Raises 
two broods, the last young sometimes not leaving the nest be- 
fore August 15th or 20th. 

34. Antrostomus vociferus Bonap. Whip-poor- Will. Com- 
mon summer visitant, arriving about April 25th. A few of the 
males are musical till into September ; . have heard them 
throughout the summer till September 25th, about which time 
they leave us. 



54 " J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

•35. Chordeiles popetne Baird. Night Hawk. Common 
summer visitant Arrives early in May, and departs south 
early in September. Many leave in large straggling parties 
during the latter part of August. 

36. Ceryle alcyon Boie. Belted Kingfisher. Common. 
Chiefly a summer visitant, arriving in March, but a few usually 
remain about open streams during winter. 

37. Tyrannus carolinensis Baird. King Bird. Sum- 
mer visitant, breeding very abundantly. Arrives about May 
10th. and departs early in September: usually by the 10th or 
12th. sometimes by the 1st. 

38. Myiar chits crinilus Cab. Great-crested Flycatcher. 
Rare summer visitant Have taken it May 15th, and Sept. 
17th. Breeds on Mt. Tom (C. W. Bennett), and in some oth- 
er parts of the State. 

39. Say amis fuscus Baird. Pewee. Phoebe. Common 
summer visitant, arriving about the last of March. Begins 
nesting in April, and have found freshly laid eggs the middle 
of August, it raising two, perhaps occasionally three, broods, 
in a season. 

40. Conlopus borealis Baird. Olive-sided Flycatcher. 
Summer visitant : not very rare. Arrives about May 12th, 
and breeds in high, open woods, far away from which it is sel- 
dom seen. Leaves about the middle of September. 

41. Contopus virens Cab. Wood Pewee. Very common 
summer visitant, breeding in the open woods quite abundantly, 
and occasionally in orchards. Arrives about May 15th, and 
leaves September 10th to 15th. 

42. Empidonax Traill'ri Baird. Traill's Flycatcher. Rath- 
er rare summer visitant ; arrives May 10th to 15th, and prob- 
ably breeds. 

43. Empidonax minimus Baird. Least-Flycatcher. A- 
bundant summer visitant. Arrives the last of April ; some- 
times as early as April 20th. Most abundant in orchards. and 
cultivated grounds, where it commonly breeds, but also fre- 
quents open woods. Leaves before, or by, the middle of Sep- 
tember. Exceeds in abundance all the other Empidonaces 
taken together. 

44. Empidonax acadicus Baird. Acadian Flycatcher. 
Rather rare summer visitant. Breeds in swamps and low 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 55 

moist thickets, which are its exclusive haunts. Under Musci- 
capa qiierala (Small Green-crested Flycatcher), Wilson, in a 
few words, has very correctly indicated the habits and notes of 
this species. It is the most spirited and tyrannical of all our 
Empidonaces, with which its sharp, quick note, like que- 
queah, uttered sharply and hurriedly, and its erect, Hawk-like 
attitude eminently accord. It is very quarrelsome with its own 
species, a battle ensuing whenever two males meet ; they pursue 
each other fiercely, with snapping bills and sharp querulous 
twittering notes. It is also a very shy and difficult bird to 
collect, frequenting exclusively, so far as I have observed, 
thick alder swamps and swampy thickets, keeping either 
concealed among the thick bushes, or at too great a distance 
from the collecter. 

45. Empidonax Jlaviventris Eaird. Yellow-bellied Fly- 
catcher. Rare. Have taken it from May 15th to June 5th. 

46. Turdus mastelinus Gmelin. Wood Thrush. Sum- 
mer visitant, arriving May 1st to 10th. Not common, usually 
breeding in deep, moist woods. Is more terrestrial in its habits 
than the other Wood Thrushes. 

This species has commonly been described by authors as re- 
markable for its shyness of man, and for selecting for its haunts 
the most secluded woodlands ; and though this is generally true, 
there are some noteworthy exceptions. So far as I have seen, 
however, it is not so recluse in its habits as has been very gen- 
erally supposed ; having found it (in May) where there were 
but few trees and a scanty undergrowth, and even within the 
limits of a thickly peopled village. Mr. W. H. Hall has inform- 
ed me of a nest of this species, which he found in the summer 
of 1861, built within a few yards of the road leading up Mt. 
Holyoke. For three successive summers a single Wood Thrush 
has lived among the elms and maples of Court Square, Spring- 
field, spending the whole season in its immediate vicinity, pour- 
ing out his melodious strains at early dawn, and at various 
hours of the day till late in the evening, as wholly undisturbed 
hj the people on the walks beneath him, or by the noise and 
rattle of moving vehicles in the contiguous streets, as though in 
the usual wild- wood haunts of his species. His superior musi- 
cal powers have caused him to become a well-known and 
protected favorite with the people, familiarly searching for 
his food along the gravel walks of the Square. 



56 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

47. Turdus Pallacii Cabanis. Hermit Thrush. Abund- 
ant in spring and autumn. Seen in small parties from April 
15th to May 10th in spring, and in fall from October 1st 
till November, sometimes till the 10th, commonly in swamps 
and low woods, and occasionally in open, plowed fields. Never 
sings while here, and is quite unsuspicious. Have not found it 
breeding here. 

48. Turdus fuscescens Stephens. Tawny Thrush. Wilson's 
Thrush, Veery. Abundant summer visitant. Breeds in swamps 
and low woods, nesting on or very near the ground, beginning 
to sit the first week in June ; have found its eggs May 29th. 
Arrives about May 10th, and leaves early in September. Dur- 
ing the summer months is quite arboreal in its habits, collect- 
ing a large part of its insect food among the foliage of the 
trees. It is the most numerous here of all the woodland 
Thrushes, and the only one that breeds here in abundance, and 
the only one, excepting T. mustelinus. Have found three 
nests in an hour's walk. 

49. Turdus Swai?isonii Cab. ( Turdus ISwainsonii and 
T. alicice of Baird.) Swainson's Thrush. Olive-backed Thrush. 
Common in spring and fall. Seen in spring from May 15th to 
June 3d, usually in small parties about woodlands, but often 
frequents open fields, and even gardens ; is quite unsuspicious, 
and seldom sings while here. 

After a critical examination of a very extensive series of spec- 
imens, including many fresh, I am forced to the conclusion 
that T. alicice, and T. Siuainsonii form but one species. I have 
carefully studied the bills, feet, wings, size, and proportions for 
specific differences, and find that, though there is more or less 
variation in all these, as there is among individuals of almost 
every species, there is nothing that approaches to constant spe- 
cific difference. Indeed, the principal character that has ever 
been urged as separating them is that of the color. But this I 
fad is not a constant character. I have had specimens before 
me during the last year exhibiting every gradation in the color 
of the breast, sides of the neck, eye circle, &c, from the strongly 
buff-tinted of the true T. Swainsonii to the pale gray of the 
typical "alicice" where the buff was scarcely perceptible or 
quite obsolete. 

Prof. Baird, in his original description of alicice {P. R. R. 
Exp. and Surv. IX. 217) observes : " These parts [sides of 
the neck and breast] are not of as pure white as the belly, 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS, ETC. 57 

having the faintest possible shade of yelloivish red, but it is 
barely appreciable, nor is it any more distinct in raising 
the feathers. There is the faintest possible shade of 
reddish in the tail and its coverts above, but this is only 
to be observed on a close examination. This species 
comes much nearest to Turdus Swainsonii, the Olive- 
backed Thrush, agreeing with it in the dark greenish olive 
of the upper surface. This, however, is decidedly darker, 
and showing a clearer greenish than usual in the other. 
The absence of any buff on the throat, breast, and sides of 
the head, and the predominating ashy on the latter, with a 
white ring instead of a reddish yellow round the eye, are 
strong points of distinction. The bill appears more 
slender, and the whole bird is larger. It is barely possible 
that it may constitute a variety only of T. Siuainsonii; 
but if so a very strongly marked one." 

Detecting T. " alicice " among specimens I had collected, 
and many specimens intermediate in color between this 
form and strongly marked T. Swainsonii, I began to 
search for some more constant character than color to 
separate the two forms ; and found by extensive measure- 
ments that both the largest and the smallest specimens 
occurred in the form recognized as T. Swainsonii, though 
some T. alicim were larger than the average of the series. 
On comparing the proportions of the primaries, some 
alicice agreed with Siuainsonii while others differed. 
Comparisons made between the bills, feet and other 
characters, gave similar results ; while in color the 
majority of the specimens ranged between those having 
the greatest amount of reddish-yellow and those in which 
the buff was scarcely appreciable. The difference in color 
is merely one of intensity, dependent neither upon sex 
nor season, possibly upon age, and extends throughout 
the plumage ; thus those that have the breast of the 
brightest buff, have also more of this tint pervading the 
whole plumage, the paler specimens being of the purest 
dark olive above, without the brownish cast observable in 
the more rufous individuals. 

Among individuals of Turdus fuscescens, collected the 
past summer at Springfield, I have detected a dif- 
ference similar in kind and as great in degree as that 
separating forms heretofore considered typical respecr 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. H. 



58 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

tively of T. Sioainsonii and T. ' alicice. Thus one 
specimen is very highly colored throughout, being very 
bright reddish brown above, and has the breast bright 
reddish buff, of about the same tint as in highly colored 
T. Sioainsonii, and the spots very distinct, while the 
other is very pale throughout, being of a decided yellowish 
brown above, and has the breast pale buff, and the spots 
more indistinct than in the first. Both specimens were 
taken May 29th, 1863. The depth of color also varies 
more or less in different specimens of Turdus Pallasii, 
though hardly so marked as in T. Sioainsonii ; but even in 
T. Sioainsonii the gradations from one extreme to the 
other are so minute and complete that the state described 
as T alicice can now hardly be considered " a very strongly 
marked" variety. 

50. Turdus ( Planestieus ) migratorius Linn. Robin. 
Abundant summer visitant. Are sometimes seen in 
February, but commonly arrive in March, from the 15th 
to the 25th. Are last seen in autumn from the 7th to the 
14th of November. Breeds plentifully in orchards and 
gardens, often in the woods, and is a familiar inhabitant 
in the village and city. Have observed it at all seasons in 
the eastern part of the State, where many are resident. 
Some also spend the winter along the south side of Mount 
Holyoke, feeding on the berries of the red cedar. 

51. Sicdia sialis Baird. Blue Bird. Abundant, often 
arriving in February, and is generally common by the 
15th to the 25th of March. Nests early, the first brood of 
young generally leaving the nest as soon as June 1st, and 
the second during the third week in July. Commonly 
leaves about the last week in October. 

52. Becjulus calendula Licht. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 
Common spring and autumn visitant. Seen in spring 
from April 15th to May 12th; in autumn from October 1st 
to 20th. Have never seen it here in winter. 

53. Regulus satrajpa Licht. Golden-crested Kinglet. 
Abundant winter visitant. Arrives about October lst y 
and departs north again about April 10th to 15th. 

54. Anthus ludovicianus Licht. Titlark. " Sky Lark". 
Spring and autumn visitant. Seen for a week or ten days 
in the early part of October, often in large flocks, fre- 



BIRDS OP SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 59 

quenting stubble and newly-plowed fields, and the muddy 
banks of streams and ponds ; also for a few days in May. 

55. Mniotilta varia Vieill. Black and White Creeper. 
Common summer visitant. Have found it breeding, nest- 
ing on the ground. It appears to nest in various situa- 
tions, according to different observers ; in hollow trees, 
on the ground, and in crevices among rocks. Arrives 
about April 25th, and for several weeks is very abundant, 
but the greater part going further north to breed, is not 
so common in summer, but becomes abundant again 
the last of August and early in September. 

56. Parula americana Bonap. Blue Yellow-backed 
Warbler. Very common, particularly in May. Many 
remain through the summer and breed, nesting about June 
1st. Seem to prefer high mixed woods and thick spruce 
and larch swamps, keeping almost wholly in the tops of 
the taller trees and near the extremities of their larger 
branches. On their first arrival, about May 5th, they fre- 
quent the orchards, and keep lower among the undergrowth 
in the woods than they do later in the season. Leaves 
10th to the 15th of September. 

57. Geothlypis triclias Cab. Maryland Yellow-throated 
Warbler. Summer visitant. Very abundant, breeding 
plentifully in all swampy situations, nesting on the ground. 
Arrives about May 10th, and leaves the first or second 
week in September. 

58. Geothlypis Philadelphia Baird. Mourning Warbler. 
Very rare. Have taken two specimens about the middle 
of September. Five specimens of this Warbler were taken 
in Lynn, a few years since, from the 4th to the 29th of 
September, by S. Jillson. (Ms. notes of S. J.) 

The Connecticut Warbler ( Oporornis agilis Baird) may 
probably be found here as an extremely rare species, but I 
have not known it detected here. 

59. Icteria viridis Bonap. Yellow-breasted Chat. Ex- 
tremely rare. Has been seen here but a few times. In 
May, 1863, 1 saw a few pairs which appeared likely to breed 
here, but being harrassed and some of them killed, by 
collectors, the others sought a safer haunt. Was seen here 
in September, a few years since, by R. B. Hildreth, Esq. 

60. Helminthophaga ruficapilla Baird. Nashville War- 



60 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

bier. Abundant in May, and in the early part of autumn. 
Arrives May 1st to oth, and for two or three weeks is a 
common inhabitant of the orchards and gardens, actively 
gleaning insects among the unfolding leaves and blossoms 
of the fruit trees. Nearly all go north, but a few retire to 
the woods and breed. During June, 1863, I frequently 
saw them in my excursions in the woods, often three or 
four males in an hour's walk. Its song so much resembles 
the song of the Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendrmca penn- 
sylvanica) that it might readily be mistaken for it. To 
this cause, and to the difficulty of seeing such small birds 
in the dense summer foliage, is doubtless owing the fact 
of its being so commonly overlooked by naturalists during 
the summer months, rather than to its extreme rarity in 
this latitude at that season. I have found the nest of 
this species for two successive seasons, as follows : — 
May 31st, 1862, containing four freshly laid eggs. The 
nest was placed on the ground, and sunken so that the top 
of the nest was level with the surface of the ground, and 
protected and completely concealed above by the dead 
grass and weeds of the previous year. It was composed 
of fine rootlets and dry grass, lined with fine dry grass and 
a few horse hairs, and covered exteriorly with a species of 
fine green moss. The eggs were white, sprinkled with 
light reddish brown specks, most thickly near the larger 
end. Longer diameter sixty, and the shorter fifty, one- 
hundredths inches. The following year, June 5th, 
1863, I found another nest of this species, within three or 
four feet of where the one was discovered the 'previous year, 
and containing three eggs of this species and one of the 
Cow Bunting, in all of which the embryos were far ad- 
vanced. The nest in every particular was built and ar- 
ranged like the one above described, and the eggs must 
have been laid at just about the same season. In both 
cases the female bird was secured, and the identity of the 
nests ascertained beyond question. The locality of the 
nests was a mossy bank, at the edge of young woods, 
sloping southward, and covered with bushes and coarse 
plants. Probably the male of the first nest, mating again, 
selected the same site for the second nest ; and it may 
have been occupied for a longer time. 

61. Hdminthopliaqa celata Baird. Orange-crowned 



BIRDS OF SPRTNGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 61 

Warbler. Very rare; perhaps accidental. Shot a single 
specimen May 15th, 1863. Saw quite a number of this 
species among the fruit trees of the garden and orchard, 
then in blossom, but thinking them only pale individuals 
oCH. ruficapilla, which thronged every tree, I neglected 
at first to shoot. Finally, being strongly in doubt, I shot 
one, and the specimen proved to be H. celata, which, as 
the group immediately passed on to a piece of woods, 
was the only one I secured. 

62. Helmintliopliaga peregrina Cab. Tennessee War- 
bler. Very rare. Have taken it September 19th, and 
May 29th. 

The Golden-winged Warbler (H. chrysoptera Cab.) prob- 
ably rarely occurs here, as it is occasionally taken in other 
parts of the State. Probably also the Blue-winged Yellow 
Warbler (H. pinus Baird) and the Worm-eating Warbler 
(Hehnitherus vermivorus Bonap.) may yet be detected here, 
but they must occur only as very rare visitants. Of the 
Helminthopliagce, H. ruficapjilla is abundant and breeds 
here, while all the others appear to be extremely rare. 

63. Siurus aurocapillus Swain. Golden-crowned Wag- 
tail. " Oven Bird." Very abundant summer visitant, 
breeding plentifully, in every thicket and patch of wood- 
land. Arrives about May 10th, immediately making 
known its presence by its loud echoing song, heard every- 
where in the deep woods. Leaves first or second week 
in September. 

64. Siurus noveboracensis Nutt. Water Wagtail. Not 
uncommon in spring and fall, and apparently a few breed 
here, having seen them in June, July, and August ; is very 
rare during the summer months. Arrives May 12th to 
20th. 

The Large-billed Water Wagtail (Siurus ludoviciana Bo- 
nap.) ought to occur here, but after several seasons of 
careful search I have not found it. 

65. Dendroica virens Baird. Black-throated Green 
Warbler. Abundant in May, and the last week of August 
and the first part of September. Though some breed, it 
is not much observed in summer, as it keeps mostly in the 
tops of the trees in thick woods. Arrives May 5th and 
later, being most numerous in spring from May 15th to 



62 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OP 

25th, when it is often seen in the gardens and orchards, 
gleaning insects among the opening foliage. 

66. Dendroica canadensis Baird. Black-throated Blue 
Warbler. Common from May 15th to 25th, and again the 
fore part of September. Found in the breeding season on 
Mt. Holyoke (C. W. Bennett), and along the ridges in the 
western part of the State (B. Hosford). 

67. Dendroica coronata Gray. Golden-crowned War- 
bler. Myrtle Bird. Yellow-rumped Warbler. Very abun- 
dant spring and autumn visitant. Commonly arrives first 
week in May, in great numbers, but generally passes rap- 
idly northward, and is usually abundant but four or five 
days. Stragglers are sometimes seen the last of April, 
and a few as late as May 15th. Are often so abundant as 
to seem to be in an almost continuous loose flock, equally 
common in orchards, thickets, cultivated grounds and 
woodlands, keeping up a constant motion northward, others 
continually arriving to fill the places of those which have 
passed on. In autumn they are longer in passing, moving 
much more leisurely than in spring ; are very abundant 
for ten days to two weeks in the fore part of October. 
Often alights on the ground, particularly in autumn, and 
is then rather more common about cultivated fields, flying 
along fences and hastening from field to field, than in deep 
woods. None breed here. 

68. Dendroica Blackburnice Baird. Blackburnian War- 
bler. Not very uncommon. Arrives about the middle of 
May. A few probably breed, having taken it here June 
24th. Most common in mixed or hard wood forests. The 
nest was found in the eastern part of the State some years 
since, by Dr. Brewer. (Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. v., 73.) 

69. Dendroica castanea Baird. Bay-breasted Warbler. 
Very rare. Have taken it May 20th and May 25th. One 
taken in July, 1862, by B. Hosford. 

70. Dendroica pinus Baird. Pine Warbler. Very com- 
mon, breeding plentifully. This is the earliest warbler to 
arrive in spring, except perhaps D. palmar um, and remains 
till the second week of October. In 1861, they were com- 
mon in the pine woods April 4th, though the ground was 
covered with several inches of snow, some of which re- 
mained for a week after their arrival. During the last 



BIRDS OP SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. G3 

weeks of April and the early part of May they frequent 
open fields, obtaining much of their food from the ground, 
associating with D. palmarum, and at this time closely re- 
sembling it in habits. A little later they retire to the pine 
forests, where they almost exclusively remain during sum- 
mer, keeping mostly in the tops of the taller trees. Dur- 
ing a few weeks, about October first, they again come 
about the orchards and fields. 

71. Dendroica pennsylvanica Baird. Chestnut-sided War- 
bler. Common. Arrives about May 9th, and many spend 
the summer and breed. Mostly frequents, in the breeding- 
season, low woods and swampy thickets, nesting in bushes, 
and is not generally found much in high trees. Leaves 
early in September. 

72. Dendroica striata Baird. Black-poll Warbler. A- 
bundant spring and autumn visitant. Arrives the lates.t 
of the Warblers in spring, seldom being seen before May 
20th, and remains till June 1st. None breed. In fall be- 
comes common the latter part of September, and remains 
till the last of October. 

73. Dendroica cestiva Baird. Yellow Warbler. Sum- 
mer Yellow Bird. Abundant summer visitant, arriving 
early in May, and breeds in great numbers among the wil- 
lows of river meadows, and among the fruit and ornamen- 
tal trees of the city. Does not frequent the woods, and in 
many localities is rare, except in May, seeming to prefer 
the vicinity of water courses and alluvial meadows. 

74. Dendroica maculosa Baird. Black and Yellow War- 
bler. Spotted Warbler. Common spring and autumn vis- 
itant. Seen in spring from May 15th to June 1st, and in 
autumn as late as September 20th. Does not breed here. 

75. Dendroica tigrina Baird. Cape May Warbler. Very 
rare. Took a single male May 15th, 1863. Has been 
taken at East Windsor Hill, Conn., by Dr. W. Wood. 

76. Dendroica palmarum Baird. Yellow Red-poll 
Warbler. Common in spring from the first or second 
week of April to the middle of May, frequenting, in com- 
pany with D. pinus, the edges of thickets, orchards, and 
open fields, and is much on the ground. Is not seen in 
summer, but becomes common again the last week of Sep- 
tember, and is seen throughout October, >and sometimes 



64 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

the first week of November, remaining the latest of all the 
Warblers. Is sometimes seen in spring before the snow 
is gone. 

77. Dendroica discolor Baird. Prairie Warbler. Usually 
very rare, but was rather common in May, 1862. Have 
not known it detected here in summer, though it breeds 
in other parts of the State. The region is not of the kind 
they appear partial to, rather preferring rocky barrens, 
with scattered, dwarfish cedars and pines. Its habits are 
peculiar, and its notes are very much so. 

Of the twenty-two species of Dendroica inhabiting the 
United States, thirteen have been found at Springfield, and 
one other (D. cmrulea) may occur as accidental or ex- 
tremely rare. Four of them' (D. virens, pinus, pennsylva- 
nica, cestiva) are known to breed here, and two others 
(D. Blackburnice, castanea) have been taken in the breeding 
season. None are permanent residents, and none are seen 
in the winter. The remaining five (D. coronata, striata, 
maculosa, tigrina, pjalmarum) are at present known merely 
as spring and autumn visitants. D. coronata is most abun- 
dant ; striata next so ; virens, canadensis, maculosa,, cesti- 
va and pjalmarum are but little less common ; Blackburnice 
is more rare ; castanea and discolor are quite rare, while 
tigrina is extremely rare. The earliest to arrive are pinus 
•and palmar um, commonly appearing early in April ; striata 
is rarely seen before May 30th ; the others commonly ar- 
rive from May 5th to 12th, and stragglers remain till June. 
D. coronata is decidedly gregarious in its migrations, and 
is everywhere about equally abundant. The others are 
usually seen in small parties, and keep pretty closely to 
the woods, except D. cestiva and pjalmarum, cestiva being 
never found in the deep woods. 

78. WHsonia* pusilla Bonap. Black-capped Flycatch- 
ing Warbler. Rare. Have taken it May 12th to the 18th, 
and August 23d. Probably breeds. Generally found in 
swampy thickets. 

Probably the Hooded Flycatching Warbler (Wilsonia 
mitrata Bonap.) will yet be found here. 

* The prior use of Wilsonia in Botany does n )t appear to me to be suffi- 
cient reason for discarding its use in Ornithology. 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 65 

79. Euthlypis canadensis Cabanis. (Myiodioctes cana- 
densis Aud.) Canada Flycatching Warbler. Common 
spring and autumn visitant, frequenting all woody situa- 
tions. Arrives May 12th to 20th, and stragglers are seen 
till June 3d ; returns about the first week of September. 
Has been found breeding at Lynn, Mass., by George Wells. 
(Dr. T. M. Brewer, Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. vi., p. 4.) 

80. Setopliaga ruticiUa Swain. Redstart. Very com- 
mon in all wooded places during the greater part of May, 
and for two or three weeks about September 1st. A very 
tew breed, but the greater part retire to the mountains or 
northward. 

81. Pyranga rubra Yieill. Scarlet Tanager. Rather 
common summer visitant, in high open woods, where it 
breeds. Occasionally visits open fields, and have known 
a pair nest in an apple tree, remote from any forest. Ar- 
rives about May 15th, and leaves early in September. 
Gathers its insect food almost wholly among the foliage of 
the forest trees. 

82. Hirundo /iorreorim Barton. Barn Swallow. A r ery 
abundant from about May 1st to September 1st. A few 
usually seen the last week in April ; stragglers often seen 
till the middle of September. One season knew some Barn 
Swallows to take possession of the nest of a pair of Cliff 
Swallows, placed as usual under the eaves of a barn, driv- 
ing off the Cliff Swallows ; the next year they built a nest 
themselves under the eaves, in place of the old one that 
had fallen down. Have known Barn Swallows to attempt 
to build in the same place since, but after persistent efforts 
generally fail, and take to their old quarters inside the 
barn. 

83. Hirundo lunifrons Say. Cliff Swallow. " Eave 
Swallow." About equally common with the preceding ; 
arrives commonly a few days later, and leaves a week ear- 
lier. Nests under the eaves of buildings. 

84. Hirundo bicolor Vieill. White-bellied Swallow. 
Not very common ; apparently least abundant of the 
Swallows, while in some of the maritime parts of the State 
it is the most abundant, arriving in numbers the second 
week in April. 

85. Cotyle riparia Boie. Bank Swallow. Common, 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. I. 



66 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

arriving about the second week of May ; leaves last of Au- 
gust. Arrives the latest, and leaves the earliest, of the 
Swallows. Breeds in communities. 

86. Progne purpurea Boie. Purple Martin. Not a- 
bundant. Arrives early in May ; leaves last of August. 

All the Hirundines are gregarious during the latter part 
of summer, and at other times as much so as the duties of 
incubation will admit. 

87. Ampelis garrulus Linn. Bohemian Wax-wing. 
Winter visitant. Accidental. One was taken a few years 
since a few miles south of this city. — (East Windsor Hill, 
Ct.— Dr. W. Wood.) 

" 88. Ampelis cedrorum Baird. Cedar Bird. Cherry 
Bird. " Wax-wing.' 7 Abundant during the summer. Is 
quite irregular and roving in its habits ; seen here at near- 
ly all seasons. Seems to be influenced in its wanderings 
by the supply of food rather than by climate, having ob- 
served it in Cambridge in every winter month, where it is 
often excessively abundant in February and March, feed- 
ing on cedar, ash, and hawthorn berries. Are also found 
in winter along the south side of Mount Holyoke. (C. W. 
Bennett.) Have observed them often in February and 
March at Springfield, but they are not common settled vis- 
itors till late in May. Seldom begins nesting before the 
15th or 20th of June, often laying its first eggs as late as 
the 25th ; have seen the young of the second brood scarcely 
fledged September 12th. In May they gorge themselves 
to excess with the petals and stamens of apple blossoms, 
and generally depend on the smaller fruits for sustenance ; 
they also take many insects, darting from a perch upon 
them, like the Flycatchers, and towards the end of summer 
hunt them in the air for half an hour together, pursuing 
them like the Swallows, but more clumsily, and apparently 
for amusement rather than from necessity. Gregarious at 
all seasons, but seen in smaller parties while breeding. 

89. Colly rio borealis Baird. Great Northern Shrike. 
Butcher Bird. Regular winter visitant, but not very com- 
mon. Seen from last of October to middle of April. 

90. Vireo (Vireosylvia) olivaceus Vieill. Red-eyed 
Vireo. Abundant, breeding iu open woods everywhere, 
generally fixing its nest to bushes and saplings, four to 



BIRDS OP SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 67 

ten or twelve feet from the ground. Arrives about May 
5th, and is common till the last week of September. 
Most abundant of the Vireos ; as numerous as all the 
others together. 

91. Vireo gilvus Bonap. Warbling Vireo. Common. 
Arrives first w-eek in May and remains till last week of 
September. Frequents orchards and gardens, and is very 
common among the shade trees of the city, but is very 
rarely seen about woods or thickets. Continues its song 
throughout the season. 

92. Vireo (Lanivireo) solitarius Vieill. Solitary Vireo. 
Quite rare. Probably some breed. Arrives in spring 
about May 1st. Frequents open woods. 

93. Vireo ( Lanivireo) flavifrons Vieill. Yellow-throat- 
ed Vireo. Rather common, and breeds. Arrives second 
week in May. Frequents open woods and the shade trees 
of the city. 

Have never known the White-eyed Vireo ( V. novebora- 
censis Bonap.,) taken here, and if occurring, as it very 
probably does, being not very uncommon in the eastern 
parts of the State, must be excessively rare. In above 
a thousand specimens of the smaller land birds taken at 
Springfield during the last three years, by different col- 
lectors, not a single White-eyed Vireo has been found. 
Vireo philadelphicus Cass, may also occur, having been 
taken the past season at Waterville, Me., by Prof. C. E. 
Hamlin. (A. E. Verrill.) 

Of the thirteen species of Vireo described by Prof. 
Baird as inhabiting the United States, only three ( V. oliva- 
ceus, gilvus, flavifrons) are at all common here, but one other 
( V. solitarius) occurs, and perhaps two more ( V. novebo- 
racens is 'and philadelphicus ) will yet be detected here. All 
but V. philadelphicus, of the above mentioned, are known 
to breed within the State. V. olivaceus is rarely seen 
outside the woods, and gilvus as rarely elsewhere, while 
flavifrons is common to both situations. 

94. Mimus polyglottus Boie. Mocking Bird. Very 
rare. Appears to be its extreme northern limit. Have 
been known to breed in Springfield several times within 
five years, and in 1860 two pairs nested here. June 20th, 
1860, I found a nest containing three freshly laid eggs, 



68 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

incubation not having been begun. Locality, a sandy 
field growing up to pitch pines, in one of which the nest 
was placed, about three feet from the ground. The paii 
was secured, with the nest and eggs. 

95. Galeoscoptes carolinensis Cab. (Mimus carolinensis 
Gray,). Cat Bird. Ver} r abundant, breeding in hedges, 
thickets and swamps everywhere. Arrives the last week 
in April; leaves about middle of October. 

96. Harporhynchus rufus Cab. Brown Thrush. Brown 
Thrasher. Abundant summer visitant. Breeds in hedges 
and thickets, occasionally in fields, near woods or thick- 
ets. The nest is very generally placed on the ground ; very 
rarely in bushes, one to three feet from the ground. Among 
scores of nests I have seen here, only three were placed in 
bushes, though most authors describe it as always nesting 
in bushes. But whether the nest is placed on the ground 
or in bushes may depend upon the nature of the soil, as 
many birds vary the situation of their nest according to 
circumstances. Those nests I have observed on the 
ground have all been in dry and sandy, and consequent!} 
warm, localities, favorable for nesting in such a manner 
while in some cases where the nest has been found ii: 
bushes the ground was cold and wet. Here in the Con 
necticut Valley the nest is almost universally placed on 
the ground, and only in a few exceptional cases in bushes. 

97. Troglodytes aedon Vieill. House "Wren. Summer 
visitant. Xot very common. Breeds. 

98. Troglodytes ( Anorthura) hyemalis Vieill. Winter 
Wren. Rare spring and autumn visitant ; occasional in 
winter. Found in swampy thickets and borders of moist 
woodlands. A specimen was taken in January, 1863, 
by Mr. B. Hosford. 

All the Wrens are quite rare here, and though I have 
really detected no others, probably others occur very 
sparingly, as Telmatodytes palustris Cab., and very possibly 
Cistothorus stellaris Cab., and Troglodytes americanus Aud. 
Dr. W. Wood has found the short-billed Marsh Wren 
( Cistotlwrus stellaris) breeding in the river marshes, at 
East Windsor Hill, Ct. 

99. Certhia americana Bonap. Brown Creeper. Com- 
mon. Resident; but most numerous in winter. Found 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS, ETC. 69 

mostly in high open woods, but is also common in the city. 
Breeds sparingly. Mr. Bradley Hosford showed me a 
nest of this species, June 2d, 1863, containing young, that 
apparently had been hatched some four or five days. The 
nest was in a large elm, in Court Square, Springfield, 
about ten feet from the ground, and built behind a strip of 
thick bark that projected in such a way as to leave a pro- 
tected cavity behind it. 

100. Sitta carolinensis Gm. White-bellied Nuthatch. 
Resident. Very common, especially in autumn. Prefers 
open woods, but frequents orchards in the fall and spring. 

101. Sitta canadensis Linn. Red-bellied Nuthatch. 
Winter visitant. Usually common ; sometimes very rare. 
Seen in the woods from the first week in October till the 
last of April. 

The Blue-gray G-natcatcher ( Polioptila cmrulea Scl.^ 
perhaps will be found as a rare summer visitant. 

102. Paries atricapillus Linn. Chickedee. Black-capped 
Titmouse. Resident, and abundant at all seasons. Seems 
to be the only Titmouse yet observed here. 

103. Eremophila cornuta Boie. Shore Lark. Sky 
Lark. A few are seen in spring and fall. 

104. Pinicola canadensis Cab. Pine Grosbeak. Wir ' 
visitant. Rare. Occurs in small parties at irregular in- 
tervals. Were seen in the winter of 1859 — 60. 

105. Garpodacus purpureus Gray. Purple Finch. 
Chiefly a spring and autumn visitant. But very few breed, 
and rarely stragglers are met with in the winter. Rather 
common in April, September and October, but are never 
so abundant as I have seen them at Cambridge, where, in 
the spring of 1863, they were the most numerous species 
of bird for several weeks, occurring in flocks from March 
25th to April 20th. Not uncommon in winter on Mount 
Holyoke. (C. W. Bennett ) 

This species seems to have greatly increased in numbers, 
in the last twenty-five years, in this State, as well as in 
other of the Eastern States, judging from the accounts of 
the older naturalists. 

106. Astrigalinus tristis Cab. ( Ghrysomitris tristis Bo- 
nap.,) Yellow Bird. Goldfinch. Resident. Abundant 
at all seasons. Breeds very late, often having unfledged 



70 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

young September 1st. Is gregarious most of the year, 
especially in winter, and of roving habits. 

107. Chrysomitris ('I) pinus Bonap. Pine Finch. Reg- 
ular winter visitant, but not abundant. Arrives first or 
second week in October, and are seen in small parties 
till second or third week of May ; often frequents orchards 
in autumn and in May to feed on a species of Aphis that 
infests the appletrees. A nest of this species, found in 
Cambridge a few years since, is in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology. 

108. JEgiothus linaria Cab. Red-poll Linnet. Lesser 
Redpoll. Irregular winter visitant, occasionally abundant, 
occurring in very large flocks, as in February and March, 
1860, and again are not seen for several years. 

109. Citrvirostra americana Wilson. Common Cross- 
bill. Red Crossbill. An irregular and often very abun- 
dant visitor. Though seen here at all seasons I have 
never been able to find it breeding. But few are generally 
observed here, but at intervals of several years the pine 
woods are found in the winter to abound with them, as in 
the winters of 1853-4, and 1859-60, when in February 
and March they were in full song ; were also abundant in 
the spring of 1863. Are at all times gregarious, and are 
sometimes seen in large flocks. 

110. Curvirostra leucoptera Wilson. White-winged 
Crossbill. Winter visitant, occurring at irregular inter- 
vals in large flocks. Have never seen them later than 
April 15th. Were very abundant in 1854 and 1860. Are 
much less frequent visitors than the preceeding. 

111. Plectrophanes nivalis Meyer. Snow bunting. 
Regular winter visitant, roving about in flocks, and most 
numerous in severe weather. Stragglers are sometimes 
seen the last of October. Mr. C. W. Bennett tells me 
that a pair spent the summer of 1862, and reared their 
young, in Springfield. 

The Lapland Longspur ( Centrophanes lapponicus Kaup, 
Plectrophanes lapp>oideus SelbyJ may rarely occur. 

112. Passerculus savanna Bonap. Savanna Sparrow. 
Chiefly a spring and autumn visitant. Have never found 
it breeding. Not common. 

113. Pooecetes gramineus Baird. Crass Finch. Bay- 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 71 

winged Sparrow. Summer visitant, breeding abundantly 
in open sandy fields and dry pastures. Arrives about 
April 1st, and remains till the first week in November. 
Breeds two or three times in a season, first young leaving 
the nest the last week of May. 

114. Coturniculus passerinus Bonap. Yellow-winged 
Sparrow. Abundant summer visitant. Arrives about the 
first week in May, and leaves in autumn the earliest of the 
Sparrows, generally about the middle of September. 
Breeds in dry fields and pastures, raising two broods in 
the season. 

115. Coturniculus (?) Henslowi Bonap. Henslow's Spar- 
row. Yery rare summer visitant. Took a male May 18th, 
1863, and heard another in June. It probably occasionally 
breeds, as it has been found to do in other parts of the 
State. (Berlin, Mass.— E. S. Wheeler. Proc. B. S. N. H. 
vii, p. 137. — Near Lynn, Mass. — E. A. Samuels. Agr. Mass., 
1863, Secy's Rep., A pp. p. xxiv.) 

116. Zonotrickia leucoplirys Swain. White-crowned 
Sparrow. Rare spring and autumn visitant, possibly 
breeds here. Have taken it May 22d, and October 1st to 
15th 1860 ; May 7th to June 6th 1861 ; and May 14th 1863. 
In 1861 were not very rare in May, and remained latest 
in spring of all those migratory Finches that do not breed 
here. Arrives in autumn with the White-throated Sparrow. 

117. Zonotrichia albicollis Bonap. White-throated 
Sparrow. Common spring and autumn visitant. Seen in 
spring from the last week in April till May 20th: in fall 
from last week in September till the last week in October. 
Its favorite haunts, while here, are moist thickets, but is 
found much elsewhere. The males do not attain their mature 
Colors till the second spring. The young males sing equal- 
ly well with the adults, and probably breed in this plumage. 
Observing many birds singing in the garb of the female 
drew my attention to the subject, and dissection showed 
them invariably to be males. This accounts for the great 
proportion of birds in the livery of the female, both in 
spring and fall, often observed. 

118. Junco hyemalis Sclater. Snow Bird. Spring and 
autumn visitant; a few are occasionally seen in winter. 
Arrives from the north about October 1st, and is abundant 



72 J. A. ALLEN. CATALOGUE OF 

till the last of November : appears in spring early in March ; 

is very abundant till the middle of April, and stragglers 
are seen till May. Are in full song on their arrival in 
spring, and at all times are seen in loose flocks. While the 
snow is passing off in spring they seem to be more num- 
erous than all other birds. Breed among the mountains 
of Berkshire County, according to Prof. Emmons, and as 
far south in Hampden County as Blandford and adjoining 
towns. 

119. SpizeUa monticolo. Baird. Tree Sparrow. Com- 
mon winter visitant. Seen from October 20th to about 
May 1st. In winter inhabits sheltered ravines and swamps, 
and feeds much on the seeds of weeds that remain above 
the snow in open fields. Are gregarious, and when feed- 
ing, particularly in severe weather, keep up a peculiar 
tinkling twitter. This species was found breeding in the 
eastern part of the State in the summer of 1855, its nest 
and eggs being found bv Mr. E. Samuels. (Proc. B. S. 
X. H.. vol. v. p. 213.) 

120. SjyizeUo. socialis Bonap. Chippjing Sparrow. 
Very common summer visitant, breeding everywhere in 
the vicinity of farm-houses, in the city, and even in re- 
mote fields, nesting in trees. Arrives about April 1st ; 
leaves second or third week of October. Is not so grega- 
rious while here as its congeners. 

121. SpiseUa pusitta Bonap. Field Sparrow. "Wood 
Sparrow. Common summer visitant. Breeds in old bushy 
fields, nesting on the ground. In one or two instances 
only have I found it nesting in bushes. The males sing 
the whole summer, and almost constantly from April till 
July. Arrives about April 1st. collects into loose flocks 
in August and September, and leaves about the middle of 
October. Tn autumn emit tinkling notes, similar to those 
of S. monticdor. 

122. Mdoepiza mdodia Baird. Song Sparrow. Abun- 
dant summer visitant. Breeds about meadows and in 
moist situations. Arrives the last of March, and is ex- 
tremely abundant during April, but is not properly grega- 
rious, though occasionally found in considerable flocks 
when feeding : retires south late in October. 

123. Helosjjiza Lincolnii Baird. (Mdospisa Lincolnii 



BTRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 73 

Baird.) Lincoln's Sparrow. Very rare. Shot one in May, 
1860, and another May 14th, 1863. No account of its 
previous capture in New England.* 

124. Helospiza paluslris Baird. (Melospiza palustris 
BairclJ Swamp Sparrow. Not uncommon in spring and 
fall, and, probably some breed, though I have never taken 
it later than May 25th. In spring arrives first or second 
week in April, and appears fully as aquatic as the Water 
Thrush ( Siurus noveboracensis BonapJ, associating with it 
about the margins of ponds and streams, hopping in the 
shallow water, and is very rarely seen away from watery 
situations ; in autumn is found in bushy marshes and wet 
places, becoming common about the last week of Septem- 
ber, and continuing till the last week of October. Said 
by Audubon to be abundaant, in ivinter, about Boston. 

125. Passerella illiaca Swain. Fox-colored Sparrow. 
Abundant in fall and spring, in small parties, scratching in 
thickets and moist woods. Arrives in fall October 15th ; 
leaves last of November ; appears again early in March, 
occasionally in February, in open winters, and leaves 
about April 10th. Often sings finely while here in spring, 
and sometimes in fall. Audubon was mistaken in saying 
this species is abundant about Boston, in summer. 

126. Guiraca ludoviciana Swain. Rose-breasted 
G-rosbeak. Summer visitant, breeding in open woods. 
Not abundant. Arrives May 10th to 15th. One of our 
most noted woodland songsters, the male occasionally 
singing while sitting on the nest, both sexes incubating. 
Nest placed in shrubs and low trees, often in evergreens, 
six to ten or twelve feet from the ground. Seems to have 
increased in numbers in the last twenty-five years, in all 
parts of the State. 

127. Cyanospiza cyanea Baird. Indigo Bird. Not 
very common summer visitant. Breeds in bushes, near 
gardens, orchards, edges of woods, and in bushy meadows. 
Arrives about the middle of May ; leaves middle of Sep- 
tember. 



* Since the above was written I have taken another specimen (shot May 
25th, 1864.) It was a female, and the largest eggs contained in the ovary 
were not bigger than a common pin's head. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. J, 



74 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

128. Pipilo erythrophthalmus Vieill. Chewink. Towhe 
Bunting. G-round Robin. Very abundant summer visi- 
tant, breeding in thickets, edges of woods and swamps 
everywhere, nesting on the ground. Arrives last week 
in April; leaves second week in October. Somewhat 
gregarious in autumn. 

. 129. Dolichonyx oryzivorus Swain. Bobolink. " Skunk 
Blackbird." Summer visitant. Arrives about May 10th. 
Abundant in orchards and meadows. Is scarcely grega- 
rious in the breeding season, though many are usually 
found nesting in the same meadow, but begin to collect 
into flocks about the third week in July, at which time the 
old birds are beginning to moult. 

130. Molothrus pecoris Swain. Cow Bird. Cow Black- 
bird. Abundant summer visitant. Polygamous, and more 
or less gregarious at all seasons. In spring and fall are 
sometimes seen in flocks of many hundreds, particularly 
in fall. Arrives first to third week in March, and common- 
ly leaves last week in October. Dr. Brewer was mistak- 
en in saying that the Cow Bird leaves Massachusetts before 
the first of July, or earlier, <fec. (See Aud. Orn. Biog., 
vol. v, p. 490.) 

131. Agelceus phceniceus Vieill. Bed-winged Black- 
bird. Marsh Blackbird. Summer visitant, arriving in 
small parties about the second and third weeks of March. 
Breeds plentifully, in communities, in the marshes. Rove 
about the country in considerable flocks during the latter 
part of the season, and leave the last of October. 

132. Sturnella magna Swain. Meadow Lark. Com- 
mon summer visitant. Breeds in meadows and moist 
pastures. Arrives second or third week in March ; leaves 
about the first week in November ; a very few remain in 
winter. Partially gregarious, especially in autumn. 

133. Icterus BaltimoreDaMd. Baltimore Oriole. "Golden 
Robin". Abundant summer visitant. Breeds plentifully 
in orchards and shade trees, the elm and the apple being 
its favorite nesting trees. Arrives about May 10th, and 
remains till the second week of September. In August 
and September hunts much in the tall deciduous woods, 
where it sometimes breeds, feasting, in loose, roving par- 
ties of sometimes several dozens, upon the caterpillars 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 75 

and beetles that infest the trees, and are then seldom seen 
in the orchards they so much frequent in the breeding 
season. 

134. Icterus spurius Bonap. Orchard Oriole. Rare 
summer visitant. A few pairs breed every season. 

135. Scolecophagiis ferrugineus Swain. Rusty Grakle. 
Rusty Blackbird. Rather rare. Stragglers are seen in 
fall and spring ; occasionally small flocks. In spring ar- 
rives early, and is seen as late as May ; seen in autumn 
from the last week in September till November : have 
seen it November 24th. 

136. Quiscalus versicolor Vieill. Purple Grakle. Crow 
Blackbird. Common summer visitant, breeding in com- 
munities, but is not generally dispersed over the country. 
Arrives last week in March, and earlier. 

137. Corvus carnivorus Bartram. American Raven. 
Accidental. One was taken by Mr. C. W. Bennett, in the 
fall of 1859. One was killed at Tyngsborough, Mass., a 
few years since. (Agr. of Mass., 1859, Secy's Rep., p. 143.) 

138. Corvus americanus Aud. Common Crow. Resi- 
dent. Very abundant in spring and fall, appearing in 
immense flocks. Seems to have diminished ver} T materially 
in numbers in the last six or eight years, hundreds, and 
probably thousands, having been killed in the State by the 
use of strychnine almost every year. Fewer have bred 
here for the last few years than formerly. 

139. Cyanura cristata Swain. Blue Jay. " Corn Bird." 
Common resident. Somewhat gregarious. Resides in the 
woods, but makes frequent excursions over the open coun- 
try, visiting the orchards for piratical purposes in the 
summer, and the farmer's corn crib in the winter. In 
winter have found in its stomach the eggs of the common 
tent caterpillar in abundance. 

140. Ectopistes migratoria Swain. Wild Pigeon. Seen 
in some years in great numbers ; in others very rarely ; 
are usually more or less common at all seasons, except 
winter, and a few generally breed. Lays but one egg at a 
time, but breeds two or three times in a summer. 

141. Zencedura carolinensis Bonap. Carolina Turtle 
Dove. "Mourning Dove." Very common summer visi- 



76 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

tant. Often nests in orchards, and generally in low pine 
woods. Lays two eggs, and breeds more than once in a 
• season. Arrives second week in March, or earlier ; have 
seen it March 5th. Collects into loose flocks the last of 
July, frequenting old rye fields, and for two months is 
abundant, and much hunted by sportsmen, so that at all 
seasons it is a shy bird. The greater part leave about the 
1st of October, but some remain till the second or third 
week. 

142. Bonasa umbellus Steph. Ruffed Grouse. " Part- 
ridge.''" Common resident. In autumn many are taken in 
snares. 

143. Ortyx virginiana Bonap. Quail. Resident, and 
now extremely rare. As late as 1851 it was quite abun- 
dant, but severe winters and sportsmen have nearly 
exterminated the species in this vicinity. 

144. Herodias egretta Gray. White Heron. A single 
specimen was taken a few years since. There is a fine 
specimen of this species in the Springfield Museum, taken 
in West Brookfield, Mass., in 1860. 

145. Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. " Blue 
Crane." Regular summer visitant, breeding. Xot com- 
mon. Arrives early in April. 

146. Ardetta exilis Gray. Least Bittern. Extremely 
rare. Has been taken here. (C. W. Bennett.) Have 
seen specimens taken in other parts of the State. 

147. Botaurus lentiginosus Steph. Bittern. " Stake- 
driver." Common in the marshes and river meadows. 
Arrives first week in April : remains till second week of 
October, or later. 

148. Butorides virescens Bonap. Green Heron. 
" Shitepoke." Common. Breeds plentifully in trees in 
the vicinity of marshes. 

149. Nyctiardea Gardeni Baird. Xight Heron. 
" Squawk." Common. Arrives about the middle of 
April. In August have seen several dozens in the air at 
once, near their feeding grounds, soon after sunset. Are 
gregarious and breed in communities. Says Dr. Wood, in 
a letter to the writer, " I know of a swamp some fourteen 
miles from here [East Windsor Hill, Ct.] where thousands 
breed. I have counted eight nests on one maple tree. 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 77 

I knew two sportsmen shoot a business wagon body full 
one forenoon — probably two hundred." 

150. Charadrius virginicus Borck. Golden Plover. 
Spring and autumn visitant. Not Common, except occa- 
sionally. 

151. Oxyeclius vociferus Reich. (^Egialitis vociferus 
Cass.) Killdeer Plover. Summer visitant, and breeds. 
Common only in particular localities. 

152. JEgialeus semipalmatus Reich. (JEgialitis semi- 
palmatus OabJ Semipalmated Plover. Spring and autumn 
visitant. Not rare. 

153. PMlohela minor Gray. Woodcock. Common 
summer visitant, arriving early in April. Breeds. 

154. Gallinago Wilsonii Bonap. Wilson's Snipe. 
Spring and autumn visitor; sometimes abundant. Prob- 
ably a few breed. 

155. Pelidna americana Coues. (Tringa alpina var. 
americana CassJ Red-backed Sandpiper. Spring and au- 
tumn visitor ; not generally common. 

156. Actodromas maculata Cass. [Tringa maculaiaYi- 
eill.) Jack Snipe. Occasionally taken in autumn. 

157. Actodromas minutilla Coues. (Tringa Wilsonii 
Nutt.J Least Sandpiper. Occasionally taken towards au- 
tumn ; probably occurs also in spring. Bonaparte's Sand- 
piper (Actodromas Bonapartii CassJ is undoubtedly to 
be found here occasionally in autumn. 

158. Symphemia semipalmata Hart. Willet. Spring 
and autumn visitant. Not common. Perhaps a few occa- 
sionally breed. 

159. Gambetta melanoleuca Bon. Greater Tell-tale 
Tatler. Rare spring and autumn visitant ; less common 
than the next. 

160. Gambetta flavipes Bon. Lesser Tell-tale Tatler. 
" Yellow Legs." Spring and autumn visitant. Not un- 
common. 

161. ' Rhyacopliilus solitarius Wils. Solitary Tatler. 
Spring and autumn visitant ; not usually common. 

162. Tringoides macularius Gray. Spotted Sandpiper. 
Summer visitant, breeding abundantly. Most common of 
the Grallce. 



lb J. A. ALLEX, CATALOGUE OF 

163. Bartramia laticauda hens. (Actiturus Bartramius 

BonapJ Field Plover. Bartranrs Sandpiper. Summer 
visitant : breeds, and towards autumn is often very common. 

164. Tringites rufescens Cab. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 
Hare spring and autumn visitant. 

165. BaRus virginianus Linn. Virginia Eail. "Water 
Hen'*. Xot common. Occasionally breeds here ; a pair 
of young in the Springfield Museum taken here. 

166. Porzana Carolina Yieill. Common Rail. Sora 
Bail, Arrives in April, and some remain till November. 
Breeds, and is pretty common in September and October. 

The Yellow Rail (P. noveboracensis), being found in 
other parts of the State, may be looked for here, but only 
as a rare species. 

167. Fulica americana Gm. Coot. Occasionally taken. 
Dr. W. Wood says : " I have taken five in a season. They 
come after most ducks have gone north, and resort to the 
small and inland ponds.'" Breed in some parts of Massa- 
chusetts. 

168. Bemicla canadensis Boie. Canada Goose. " Wild 
Goose/' Common spring and autumn visitant, but seldom 
seen except flying in the air. Pass to the north in March 
and April, and to the south in November. Have seen 
flocks as early as September 28th, and as late as December 
10th. Were unusually abundant in the fall of 1859. No- 
vember 19th, 1859, between the hours of 10 A. M. and 12 
M., I noted ten flocks in a breadth of two miles, estimated 
(more than half being actually counted) to contain more 
than seven hundred geese, a remarkably large number for 
the length of time Probably does not breed in the State, 
though supposed to by Audubon. 

169. Bemicla brenta Steph. Brant. Not common ; 
seen at the same seasons as the preceding. 

170. Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. Taken near here 
by Dr. Wood, and undoubtedly occurs here, but is very 
rare, as it is in all parts of the State. 

171. Anas obscura Gm. Black Duck. Abundant. Ar- 
rives in March and remains till May : becomes common 
again in September and remains till late in November ; a 
few sometimes seen in winter. Our most common Duck. 
Breeds in the mountainous parts of Western Massachusetts. 



BIRDS OF SPRINGFIELD, MASS., ETC. 7!) 

172. Dafila acuta Jenyns. Pin-tail Duck. " Sprig- 
Tail." Rather rare winter visitant. 

173. Nettion carolinensis Baircl. Green-winged Teal. 
Common. Dr. W. Wood tells me they pass north later 
and return earlier than most Ducks. 

174. Querquedula discors Steph. Blue-winged Teal. 
Common, but less abundant than the preceding. 

175. Cliaidelasmus streperus Gray. Gadwall. Gray 
Duck. Rare. Specimen in Springfield Museum taken 
here. Said to breed in the State, but the authority is 
doubtful. 

176. 3Iareca americana Steph. American Widgeon. 
Bald-pate. Not very common, in spring and fall. 

177. Aix sponsa Boie. Wood Duck. Summer Duck. 
Not an uncommon summer visitant, breeding. Arrives 
early in spring, and leaves late in November. 

178. Ay thy a vallisneria'B on. Canvass-Back Duck. Very 
rare ; found occasionally near here (Dr. Wood), and 
undoubtedly is to be found here. Occurs in other parts of 
the State. Probably the Red-head (A. americana Bon.,) is 
also to be found here. 

179. Bucepliala americana Baird. Golden-eye Duck. 
" Whistler." " Whistle-wing." Not uncommon in winter. 
Dr. Wood, says it is abundant on the river in winter, but 
very difficult to obtain unless you are pretty familiar with 
its feeding grounds. 

180. Bucepliala albeola Baird. Buffel-headed Duck. 
" Butter Ball." Occasionally taken here in winter. 

181. Harelda glacialis Leach. Long-tailed Duck. "South 
Southerly." Occasionally taken near here (Dr. Wood), 
and undoubtedly occurs at Springfield. 

182. Melanetta velvetina Baird. Velvet Duck. Rare. 
Dr. Wood has taken two specimens at East Windsor Hill, 
Ct., and it must occur here. 

183. Erismcdura rubida Bon. Ruddy Duck. Rare : 
there is a specimen in the Springfield Museum taken here 
by Mr. L. Hyde. 

184. Mergus americanus Cass. Sheldrake. Goosander. 
Common winter visitant. Said by Audubon to breed in 
the State, which is not improbable. 



80 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

185. Mergus serrator Linn. Red-breasted Merganser. 
Common winter visitant ; rather more common than the 
preceding. Breeds in the State, according to Audubon. 
(Orn. Biog., vol. v, p. 93.) 

186. Lophodytes cucullatus Reich. Hooded Merganser. 
Winter visitant ; rather less common than either of the 
two immediately preceding. 

187. Thalassidroma Leachii Temm. Leach's Petrel. 
Very rare ; probably accidental ; has been taken here in a 
few instances only. Common oif the coast of the State. 

188. Larus SmitJisonianus Coues. (Larus argentatus 
Briinn.j Herring Gull. Not very uncommon at times 
along the river, especially in spring and fall. Abundant 
along our coast in autumn, winter, and early spring. 

189. Chro&cocephalus Philadelphia Lawr. Bonaparte's 
Gull. Occasionally observed here. Common along the 
coast. 

190. Colymbus torquatus Briinn. Great Northern Di- 
ver. " Loon." Resident, occasionally breeding. Not 
common. 

191. Colymbus septentrionalis Linn. Red-throated Div- 
er. Rare winter visitant : chiefly young that are seen 

192 Podiceps (Pedecethya) Holbolli Reinh. (Podiceps 
griseigena Gray.,) Red-necked Grebe. Chiefly a winter 
visitant ; not common. Possibly breeds, as it has been 
taken here the third week of May in full breeding plumage 

193. Podiceps cristatus Lath. Crested Grebe. Rare 
winter visitant. 

194. Podiceps (Dytes) cornutus Lath. Horned Grebe. 
Rare ; chiefly young taken here. A pair was killed here 
a few years since, about June 1st, in full breeding plumage. 

195. Podilymbus pjodicep>s Lawr. " Dipper Duck." 
Common in spring and fall. 

List of Birds found in Massachusetts not observed, at 
Springfield . 

To complete a catalogue of the Birds known to exist in 
the State of Massachusetts, I have added, in the following- 
list, all those known to have been obtained within the 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 81 

State that have not been noticed at Springfield. The list 
will be seen to consist mainly of those Water Birds that 
frequent the coast and are not found far inland, with a few 
rare or accidental visitors. No species is admitted of 
which there is not good evidence of its capture in the 
State ; and when the species is extremely rare, the author- 
ity is cited on which it is inserted. Consequently some 
species that have been attributed to Massachusetts, from 
their occurrence in adjoining States, though probably to 
be found here as rare visitors, and are thus mentioned, are 
not counted as a part of the list ; very careful observers 
will, doubtless, yet detect most of them here. 

1. Catkartes atratus Less. Black Vulture. Acciden- 
tal. One was obtained in Swampscott. in November, 1850. 
(S. Jillson, Proc. Ess. Inst., Vol. I, p. 223 —Brewer's N. 
Am. Oology, pt. I, p. 5.) Another was taken the past 
season, Sept. 28, at Gloucester, by Mr. William Huntsford. 
(A. E. Verrill.) 

2. Cathartes aura 111. Turkey Vulture. Accidental. 
Two were taken in the State in 1863. (E. A. Samuels, 
Agr. Mass., 1863, Secy's Rep , App , p. xviii.) 

3. Falco candicans Gin. Jer Falcon. Accidental in 
winter. One was shot at Sekonk Plains, about 1840. (S. 
Jillson, Proc. Ess Inst., vol. I, p. 226.) Has been seen 
here by Nuttall and others. 

4. Aquila canadensis Cass. Golden Eagle. Extremely 
rare ; but few recorded instances of its capture in the 
State. (Lynn, S. Jillson, Proc. Ess. Inst., vol. I, p. 203. 
Lexington, Dr. Kneeland, Proc. B. S. N. Ii., vol. v, p. 272. 
Near Boston, Brewer, N. Am. 061,. pt. I, p. 45. — Upton, 
Agr. Mass., 1859, Secy's Rep., p. 141.) 

5. Syrnium cinereum Gmelin. Great Cinerous Owl. 
Occasional in winter. (Marblehead, February, 1831, and 
January, 1835 ; S. Jillson, Proc. Ess. Inst., vol. I, p. 204.) 
Seven were taken in the State during the year ending- 
February, 1843. (Dr. S. L. Abbot, Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. 
i, pp. 57 and 99.) Two specimens in the Mus. Comp. Zo- 
ology were obtained in 1848, in the Boston markets, and 
were probably killed in the State. 

The Hawk Owl ( Surnia idida Bon.) is said by Prof. 
Emmons to have been seen in autumn. Though T have 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. K. 



82 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

found no notice of its capture, it is not improbable that it 
may occasionally occur along the Green Mountains in the 
Western part of the State. 

The Banded Three-toed Woodpecker (Plcoides Mrsutus 
Gray) has been repeatedly attributed to the State, and may 
occur as a very rare or accidental winter visitor. 

6. Hylotomus pileatus Baird. Pileated Woodpecker. 
"Log Cock." Rare. Driven from most parts of the State 
by the absence of extensive forests, but is still found in 
the wooded, mountainous parts of Berkshire County. 

The Varied Thrush (Ixoreus ncevius Bon. J- is said by 
Prof. Baird, in the Reports on the Pacific Railroad Explo- 
rations and Surveys, vol. ix, pp. xxi and 219, to be 
accidental near Boston, quoting Dr. Cabot (Proc. Bost." 
So. X. H., vol. in, p. 17) as authority. Dr. Cabot states 
that a specimen of this species was obtained in Boston 
market, but adds that it was shot in New Jersey. This is 
the only notice I can find respecting this species being 
found in Massachusetts, either by Dr. Cabot or others. 

7. Oporornis agilis Baird. Connecticut Warbler. Very 
rare. Was taken in Berlin, in the summer of 1845. (Dr. 
S. Cabot Jr., Proc. Bost.' So. N. H., Vol. n, p. 63.) 

8. Helmitlierus vermivorus Bon. Worm-eating Warbler. 
Very rare. Its nest has been found in Cambridge. (Pea- 
body's Rep. Orn. of Mass., p. 312.*) 

9. Helmitlierus Swainsonii Bon. Swainson's W'arbler. 
Audubon states, on the authority of Dr. T. M. Brewer, 
that one was taken in Massachusetts by Mr. S.Cabot Jr. 
(Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. v, p. 462.) Mr. Peabody probably 
alludes to the same specimen (Rep. on Orn. of Mass., p. 
213.) Very rare in this State. 

10. Helminthophaga pinus Baird. Blue-winged Yellow 
Warbler. Summer visitant. Very rare. (S. Cabot Jr., 
Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. vi, p. 386.) 

11. Helminthophaga chrysoptera Baird. Golden-winged 
Warbler. Summer visitant. Very rare. (S. Cabot Jr., 
Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. vi, p. 386.) Have seen specimens 
in the Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, that were taken in 
the State. 

* Fishes, Reptiles and Birds of Massachusetts. 



BIRDS OP MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 83 

The Blue Warbler ( Dendroica ccerulea Baird.j is said to 
be a rare summer visitant, (F. W. Putnam, Proc. Ess. Inst., 
vol. I, p. 207.) but I have failed to find an authentic in- 
stance of its capture in this State. Audubon says it has 
been taken at Pictou, Nova Scotia, and so may very nat- 
urally be expected to occur in Massachusetts. 

12. Wilsonia minuta Bon. (Myioioctes minutus Baird.) 
Small-headed Flycatcher. This little known and rather 
doubtful species is said to occur in this State. (Ipswich, 
Dr. T. M. Brewer ; Berkshire County, Prof. E. Emmons. 
Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass., p. 297. — Salem, T. Nuttall, Man. 
Orn., vol. i, p. 297.) 

The Hooded Flycatcher ( Wilsonia mitrata Bon. ; Myi- 
odicetes mitratus Aud.) may be looked for in this State, as 
it has been found in Connecticut and New York. Mr. 
E. A. Samuels, in his recent list of the Birds of Massachu- 
setts, (Agr Mass., 1863, Secy's Rep., App., p. xxn,) gives 
it as a rare summer visitor. 

13. Pyranga cestiva Vieill. Accidental. "Two were 
taken in Lynn, after a severe storm, April 21st, 1852." 
(S. Jillson, Proc. Ess. Inst., vol. I, p. 224.) 

14. Vireo noveboracensis Bon. White-eyed Yireo. 
Summer visitant. Not very uncommon in the eastern 
part of the State, where it breeds. 

15. Cistothorus ( Telmatodytes ) palustris Cabanis. Marsh 
Wren. Summer visitant. Bare. 

16. Cistothorus stellaris Cab. Short-billed Marsh Wren. 
Summer visitant. Not uncommon. 

The Blue Gray Gnatcatcher ( Polioptila ccerulea SclatJ 
is said by Peabody to be found in Massachusetts, on the 
authority of Dr. Brewer, (Rep., p. 297.) Having been 
found in adjoining States, — in New York north of the 
latitude of Boston, as well as in Nova Scotia, and in Con- 
necticut,— it may be looked for as a rare straggler from its 
usual habitat. I have been unable as yet to learn of its 
actual capture in this State. 

The Crested Chickadee ( Lopthophanes bicolor Bonap >y ) 
though mostly a southern species, Audubon states (Orn. 
Biog., vol. v, p. 472) is common in Nova Scotia,, and 
hence may be expected to occur here. 

17. Pants hudsonicus Forster. Hudsonian Titmouse. 



84 J. A. ALLEN. CATALOGUE OF 

Occasional or accidental in winter. (Brookline, S.Elliot 
Green, Pea-body's Rep., p. 402.) Resident at Calais. 
Maine, but not common. | G. A. Boardman. Proc. B. S. 
X. FL.'vol. ix. p. 126.) 

18. Centrophomes lapponicus Kaup. Lapland Long- 
spur. Winter visitant. Occasional, or accidental. (F. 
W. Putnam. Proc. Ess. Inst., vol. 1, p. 210.) 

19. Ammodromus maritimus Swain. Sea-side Finch. 
Summer visitant. Common in the salt marshes along the 
coast, where it breeds. 

20. Ammodromus caudacutus Swain. Sharp-tailed 
Pinch. Common summer visitant in salt marshes, where 
it breeds. Have taken it in the marshes of Charles River 
the last week in October. 

21 Ghondestes grammaca Bon. Lark Finch. Acci- 
dental. "One found in Gloucester, about 1845." (S Jill- 
son, Proc. Essex Inst., vol. 1. p. 224.) 

-2. Eujspiza americoMa Bon. Black-throated Bunting. 
Probably rare or occasional. Said to be found here by 
Xuttall 1 Man. Orn.. vol. 1. p. 4G1). According to Pea- 
body, "' is found in high meadows near salt water marshes, 
from the middle of May till the last of August/'" (Rep. 
Orn. of Mass.. p. 319.) Mr. E. A. Samuels informs me that 
he has seen two specimens killed in this State : one was 
sent him from Woburn. Xuttall, in his account of the 
notes and habits of this species, as observed here, has de- 
scribed the peculiar song and habits of the Yellow-winged 
Sparrow ( Goturnicidus passerinus Bon.) with remarkable 
aptness, which species he evidently mistook for the Black- 
throated Bunting. Xuttall seems not to have known the 
Yellow-winged Sparrow, under its proper name, at the 
time he wrote, and it is difficult to tell what he had in 
mind when describing its habits and distribution in the 
breeding season ; his description of its song, which he 
strangely likens to that of the Purple Finch, and of its 
eggs, being not at all applicable to the Yellow-winged 
Sparrow. As Xuttall has been the authority chiefly de- 
pended on for the occurrence of Euspiza americana in this 
State. I strongly doubted its having been taken here, till 
assured of the fact by Mr. Samuels. 

The Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca ccerulea Swain J may be 



BIEDS OP MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 85 

looked for as an occasional visitor. Has been found at 
Calais, Maine, where it is " very uncertain, but common in 
the spring of 1861." (G. A. Boardman, Proc. B. S. N. H., 
vol. ix, p. 127.) 

23. Gardinalis virginianus Bon. Cardinal. Red Bird. 
Accidental summer visitant, according to Nuttall. (Man. 
Orn., vol. i, p. 519.) Seen " only at irregular intervals, in 
the villages on the Connecticut river." (Peabody, Rep. 
Orn. Mass., p. 329.) 

24. Quiscalus major Vieill. Boat-tailed Grakle. Acci- 
dental. Have heard of one that was killed in Cambridge 
a few years since. Mr. E A. Samuels tells me that a pair 
bred in Cambridge in 1861. 

25. Corvus ossifragus Wils. Fish Crow. An occasional 
visitor along the southern coast of the State. 

26. Tetrao canadensis Linn. Spruce Partridge. Acci- 
dental. Found in the hemlock woods of Gloucester, in 
September, 1851. (S. Jillson, Proc. Ess. Inst., vol. J, p. 
224.) 

27. Giopidonia cupido Baird. Pinnated Grouse. Prai- 
rie Hen. Nearly extinct in Massachusetts. A few are 
occasional visitors in the southeastern part of the State, 
from Long Island, where they still remain. (S. Cabot 
Jr., Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. v, p. 154.) About thirty years 
since were quite common in Martha's Vineyard (Audubon 
Birds Amer., vol. v, p. 101.) 

The Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Linn. J is now 
probably extinct in this State. Within a few years it has 
been said to occur wild on Mts. Tom and Holyoke ; but 
I can find no authentic instance of its recent capture in 
this State. The accounts of those recently taken seem to 
rest on the authority of hunters, who might readily mis- 
take a stray domestic turkey for a wild one, and not on 
the authority of reliable naturalists. It is well known 
that the domestic turkey will sometimes take to the woods, 
assuming the habits of the wild bird ; hence these reports 
may well be received with considerable caution. In win- 
ter the wild birds are found in Boston markets, but are 
brought from distant parts of the country, chiefly from 
the West. 

28. Garzetta candidissima Bonap. Snowy Heron. Ac- 



86 J. A. ALLEX, CATALOGUE OF 

cidental. Stragglers have been taken in a few instances. 
Have seen one that was killed near Boston, in 1862. 

29. Florida ccerulea Baird. Blue Heron. Stragglers 
only taken here. There is a specimen in the State Agri- 
cultural Cabinet, taken in the eastern part of the State. 

30. Ibis Ordii Bonap. Glossy Ibis. Occasional: ap- 
parently accidental. Have been taken here at irregular 
intervals. In June, 1830, three were obtained in the east- 
ern part of the State. (Xuttall, Man. Orn., vol. n, p. 88J 
Others have been taken. (Cabot, Proc. B. S. X. H., vol. 
in, pp. 313, 333, 355 : vol. iv, p. 316.) 

31. Octhodromus WUsonius Reich. ( 'JEgialitis WUso- 
nius Cass.) Wilson's Plover. .Occasional in summer. ^In- 
serted on the authority of Dr. Brewer, who found them, 
according to Peabody (Rep. Orn. Mass. p. 360), "abund- 
ant at Xahant, in August/' 1838. 

32. JEgicdeus mdodus. (JEgiolitis mdodus Cab.) Pip- 
ing Plover. Common visitant, mostly along the seacoast 
in summer, some breeding. 

33. Hcematopjus paMiatus Temn. Oyster Catcher. 
Very rare. Has been found in the State by Dr. Brewer. 
(Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass., p. 358.) 

34. Strepsilas interpres HI. Turnstone. Common 
spring and autumn visitant, along the coast. 

The American Avoset (Pecurvirostra americana Gmel.) 
and the Black-necked Stilt (Himardojnis nigricoUlsYieill.). 
from their general distribution, may be looked for in Mas- 
sachusetts as very rare species. 

35. Pkcdaropics WUsordi Sab. Wilson's Phalarope. 
Very rare. Found in the State by Audubon. (Birds Am., 
vol. v,p. 301.) 

36. Phalaropus hypjerboreus Temn. Northern Phalar- 
ope. Along the coast ; not common. 

37. Phalaropus fuMearius Bon. Red Phalarope. Oc- 
casional visitor, chiefly along the coast, in spring and 
autumn. 

38. MacrorhampJms griseus Leach. Red-breasted Snipe. 
Not very common. Spring and autumn visitant, near the 
coast. 

39. Ti'inga canutus Linn. Ash-colored Sandpiper. 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 87 

Knot. " Gray Back." Spring and fall ; sometimes very 
abundant in autumn, arriving in August. 

40. Arquatella maritima Baird. (Tringa maritima 
Briinn.) Purple Sandpiper. " Rock Snipe. 77 On the coast 
in autumn ; not generally common. 

41. Ancylochilus subarquata Kaup. Curlew Sandpiper. 
Coast; not common. 

42. Actodromas Bonapartii Cass. (Tringa Bonapartii 
Schl.) Bonaparte 7 s Sandpiper. Coast in spring and fall ; 
sometimes abundant. 

43. Ereunetes pusilla Cass. Semipalmated Sandpiper. 
Common along the coast in spring and autumn. 

44. Limosa fedoa Orel. Marbled Godwit. Rare pas- 
senger in spring and fall. 

45. Limosa hudsonica Swain. Hudsonian Godwit. 
Spring and fall. Not common. 

46. Numenius longirostris Wilson. Long-billed Cur- 
lew. Spring and fall. Not common. 

47. Numenius Jiudsonius Lath. Hudsonian Curlew 
Rare. Spring, fall and winter. 

48. Numenius borealis Lath. Esquimaux Curlew. 
Spring and fall ; occasionally in winter on the coast. Rare. 

49. Rallus crepitans Gm. Clapper Rail. Rare or ac- 
cidental. (S. Cabot Jr., Bost. So. N. H., vol. in, p. 326.) 

50. Porzana noveboracensis — ? Yellow Rail. Found 
in spring and fall ; perhaps breeds. Not common. 

51. GaUinula galeata Bonap. Florida Gallinule. Ac- 
cidental. Has been taken at Fresh Pond, Cambridge, by 
Mr. Cabot. (Peab. Rep. Orn. Mass., p. 258.) 

52. GaUinula martinica Lath. Purple Gallinule. Like 
the preceding, occurs as a very rare, chance visitor from 
the south, but is oftener met with. Has been taken but a 
few times in this State. 

53. Anser hyperboreus Pallas. Snow Goose. Winter 
visitant. Not common. 

54. Anser Gambellii Hartl. White-fronted Goose. Have 
seen specimens obtained in Boston market that were prob- 
ably taken in the State. 

55. Berniela Hutcldnsii Bonap. Hutchin's Goose. 



00 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

This species is introduced as a bird of Massachusetts wiib. 
considerable doubt. For its occurrence here, we have the 
authority of Nuttall, (Man. Orn., vol. n, p. 362) who men- 
tions it as a straggler on our coast, — and of Giraud, who 
says it is quite abundant some seasons on the coast of 
Massachusetts. Lindsley, in his Catalogue of the Birds of 
Connecticut, (Am. Jour. Sc. and Arts, vol. xliv, p. 249) 
says it is not unfrequently taken in Connecticut in spring. 

56. Bernicla leucopsis — ? (Anser erythropus Linn.) 
Barnacle Goose. Is said to have been shot at Quincy, 
Mass., by Dr. S. Cabot Jr., (Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. in, p. 
136.) Prof. Baird says, "its occurrence in North America 
is very doubtful, resting only on very insufficient evi- 
dence. (P. R. R. Ex. and Surv., vol. ix, p. 768.) 

57. Nettion crecca Kaup. English Teal. Accidental 
from Europe. Has been taken in the State. (Dr. H. Bry- 
ant, Proc. B. S. N. H., vol v, p. 195.) 

58. Spatula clypeata Boie. Spoonbill. Shoveller. Not 
uncommon. Chiefly seen in spring and fall. 

59. Mareca penelope, Bon. European Widgeon. Has 
been taken at several points along the eastern coast of the 
United States, and has been found apparently breeding on 
Long Island, (Dr. T. M. Brewer, Proc. B. S. N. H , vol. vi, 
p. 419) where it has been repeatedly found. One has 
been taken in this State. (E. A. Samuels.) 

60. Fulix marila Baird. Scaup Duck. Black-headed 
Duck. " Blue Bill." Not common. Found chiefly in 
spring and autumn ; occasionally in winter. 

61. Fulix affinis Baird. Little Black-headed Duck. 
Spring and fall. Not common. 

62. Fulix collaris Baird. Ring-necked Duck. Spring 
and autumn. Rare. 

63. Aythya americana Bon. Red-headed Duck. " Red- 
head." Autumn and winter. Not very common. Abundant 
in the markets of Boston in winter, but, like the Canvass- 
backs, are brought from the bays and rivers of the Middle 
States 

64. Histrionicus torquatus Bonap. Harlequin Duck. 
Winter visitant. Not common. 

65. Camptolcemus labradorius Gray. Labrador Duck. 
Rare winter visitant. 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 89 

66. Pelionetta perspicillata Kaup. Surf Duck. Com- 
mon in fall and spring, and some remain through the winter. 

67. Oidemia americana Swain. Scoter. Autumn and 
winter. Not uncommon ; often abundant. 

68. Somateria mollissima Leach. Eider Duck. Not 
uncommon in winter. 

69. Somateria spectabilis Leach. King Eider. Eare 
visitant in winter. 

The Smew (Mergellus alhellus Selby) Mr. E. A. Samuels 
attributes -to this State, having seen a specimen which 
he was told was taken in Massachusetts Bay. 

The American Pelican ( Pelecanus erythrorhyncus Gme- 
linj has recently been taken at Calais, Me., (G. A. Board- 
man, Proc. B. S. N. H., vol. ix, p. 130) and, according to 
DeKay, was formerly numerous on the Hudson and other 
rivers and lakes of New York. It probably occurs as a 
chance visitor in this State. 

70. Sula bassana Ross. Gannet. Occasional on the 
sea coast in fall and winter. 

71. Graculus carbo Gray. Common Cormorant. 
" Shag." Common near the coast in fall and winter. 

72. Graculus dilophus Gray. Double-crested Cormo- 
rant. Not uncommon near the coast in winter. 

73. Procellaria glacialis Linn. Fulmar Petrel. Spring 
and autumn visitant. 

74. Thalassidroma Wilsonii Bon. Wilson's Petrel. Not 
uncommon off the coast. Have seen specimens taken 
near Chelsea Beach. 

75. Thalassidroma pelagica Bon. Mother Cary's Chick- 
en. Rare, off the coast, as far south as Provincetown. 
(E. A. Samuels.) 

76. Puffinus major Bon. Greater Shearwater. Not 
common. Off the coast in winter. 

77. Puffinus fidiginosus Strick. Sooty Shearwater. 
Coast in autumn and winter. Not common. 

78. Puffinus anglorum Temn. Mank's Shearwater. 
Rare, off the coast in winter. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. L. 



90 J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 

79. Stercorarius pomarinus Temn. Pomarine Jager. 
Massachusetts Bay. Rare in winter. 

80. Stercorarius parasiticus Temn. Arctic Jager. 
Massachusetts Bay in winter. Not common. 

81. Stercorarius cepphus Lawr. Buffon's Skau. Rare. 
Has been taken near Boston. 

82. Lotus marinus Linn. Black-backed Gull. Not a 
common winter visitant. 

83. Larus delaioarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. Not 
very uncommon near the coast in winter. 

84. Larus leucopter us Fsibr. White-winged Gull. Rare 
winter visitant. 

85. Ghroecocephalus atricilla ' Lawr. Laughing Gull. 
Winter. Not common. 

86. Rissa tridactyla Bon. Kittiwake Gull. Very com- 
mon about the islands in Massachusetts Bay in autumn 
and winter. 

The Fork-tailed Gull (Xema Sabinii BonapJ may occur 
on our coast as an occasional visitor. 

87. Sterna aranea Wils. Marsh Tern. Rare summer 
visitor.. (E. A. Samuels, Agr. Mass. 1863, See's Rep. 
App., p. xxix.) 

88. Sterna fuliginosa Gm. Sooty Tern. Rare summer 
visitor. (E. A. Samuels, Agr. Mass., 1863, Secy's Rep., 
App., p. xxix.) Mr. Samuels informs me that it breeds on 
Muskegat Island, near Martha's Vineyard. 

89. Sterna liirundo Linn. Wilson's Tern. Common 
in summer, breeding on the rocky islands in the Bay. 

90. Sterna macroura Naum. Arctic Tern. Common. 
Chiefly a winter visitant. Sometimes breeds. 

91. Sterna paradisea Briinn. Roseate Tern. Very 
rare; perhaps merely accidental; from the south in sum- 
mer. Several instances known of its capture in the State. 
(Chelsea Beach, Nuttall, Man. Orn. vol. n, p. 278. — Bev- 
erly, Mass., 1847, S. Cabot Jr., Proc. B. S. N. H. vol. n, 
p. 248. — Have seen a specimen taken off our coast a few 
years since. 

92. Sterna frenata Gambel. Least Tern. Spring and 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 01 

autumn visitant. Not common. Occasional in summer. 
Other species of Sterna undoubtedly occur as rare 
visitors off our coast, as the Caspian Tern (Sterna 
caspia ¥ed\.) in winter, from the north ; and possibly, at 
the same season, Trudeau's Tern [Sterna Trudeauii Aud.J 
as a very rare, or accidental species. 

93. Hydrochelidon fissipes Gray. (Hydrochelidon plum- 
bea Wils.) Short-tailed Tern. Not common. Have seen 
specimens taken near Chelsea Beach. 

94. Colymbus arcticus Linn. Black-throated Diver, 
rare autumn and winter visitor. 

95. Utamania torda Leach. Razor-billed Auk. Not 
uncommon on the coast in autumn and winter. 

96. Mormon arctica 111. Arctic Puffin. Not uncommon 
in winter. 

97. Uria grylle Lath. Black Guillemot. Not very 
uncommon winter visitant. 

98. Cataracies troile Bryant. Foolish Guillemot. 
Murre. Not uncommon in winter, and perhaps a few 
breed. 

99. Cataractes ringvia Bryant. Murre. Common in 
winter. 

100. Cataractes lomvia Bryant. (Uria arra Pall .) 
Thick-billed Guillemot. Murre. Rather common in winter. 

101. 3fergulus alle Vieill. Little Auk. Sea Dove. 
Rather rare winter visitant. Has been taken on the 
Connecticut, at Greenfield, Mass., in one instance. 

The birds found in Massachusetts may be conveniently 
grouped into the following classes : I. Species that reg- 
ularly breed in the State. II. Resident species. III. 
Winter visitants. IV. Spring and autumn visitants. V. 
Summer visitants. VI. Accidental or irregular visitants. 

I. Species that regularly breed in the State. 

Those marked with a star, though repeatedly found breeding in some lo- 
calities, breed very sparingly, and not generally over the State. Some 
others are common in some parts of the State, but are unknown or very rare 



92 



J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 



in most parts. Several others have been known to breed, but apparently 
only accidentally, as in the case of Chrysomitris pinus, Spizella monticola, 
and a few others. A few not in the list may occasionally breed. 



1. Falco anatum Bonap.* 

2. Tinnunculus sparverius Vieill.* 

3. Accipiter Cooperii Bonap. 

4. " fuscus Bonap. 

5. Buteo borealis Vieill. 

6. " lineatus Jard. 

7. " pennsylvanicus Bon. 

8. Circus hudsonius Vieill. 

9. Haliaetus leucocephalus Sav.* 

10. Fandion carolinensis Bon.* 

11. Babo virginianus Bonap. 

12. Scops asio Bonap. 

13. Otus americanus Bonap. 

14. Brachyotus Cassinii Brewer. 

15. Syrnium nebulosum Gray. 

16. Nyctale acadica Bonap. 

17. Coccygus americanus Bon. 

18. " erythrophthalmus Bon 

19. Picus villosus Linn. 

20. " pubescens Linn. 

21. Sphyropicus varius Baird. 

22. Hylotomus pileatus Baird.* 

28. Melanerpes erythrocephalus Sw." 

24. Colaptes auratus Sicain. 

25. Trochilus colubris Linn. 
2G. Chffitura pelasgia Sleph. 

27. Antrostomus vociferus Bon. 

28. Chordeiles popetue Baird. 

29. Ceryle alcyon Boie. 

30. Tyraunus carolinensis Bd. 

31. Myiarchus crinitus Cab* 

32. Sayornis fuscus Baird. 

33. Contopus borealis Baird. 
84. " virens Cab. 

35. Empidonax Traillii Baird. 
86. " minimus Bd. 

37. " acadicus Bd. 

38. Turdus mustelinus Grnelin. 

39. " Pallassi Cabanis* 

40. " fuscescens Steph. 

41. " migratorius Linn. 

42. Sialia sialis Baird. 

43. Mniotilta varia Vieill. 

44. Parula americana Bon. 

45. Geothlypis trichas Cab. 

46. Icteria viridis Bon* 

47. Helmitherus vermivorus Bon.* 

48. Helminthophaga ruficapilla Bd. I 

49. Siurus aurocapillus Swain. 

50. " noveboracensis JVutt. 

51. Dendroica virens Baird. 



52. Dandroica canadensis Bd.* 
58. " Blackburnias 2?rf. 

54. " pinus Baird. 

55. " sestiva Bd. 

56. " discolor Bd. 

57. Euthlypis canadensis Cab.* 

58. Setophaga ruticilla Sic. 

59. Pyranga rubra Vieill. 

60. Hirundo horreorum Barton 

61. " lunifrons Say. 

62. " bicolor Vieill. 

63. Cotyle riparia .Boie. 

64. Progne purpurea Boie. 

65. Ampelis cedrorum Baird. 

66. Vireo olivaceus Vieillot. 

67. " gilvus Bonap. 

68. " noveboracensis 5o«. 

69. " fiavifrons Vieill. 

70. Mimus polyglottus Boie* 

71. Galeoscoptes carolinensis Cab. 

72. Harporynchus rufus Cabanis. 

73. Cistothorus palustris Ca6. 

74. " stellaris Cab. 

75. Troglodytes aedon Vieill. 

76. Certnia americana Bon. 

77. Sitta carolinensis Gmel. 

78. Parus atricapillus Linn. 

79. Carpodacus purpureus Gray. 

80. Astrigalinus tristis Cabanis. 

81. Passerculus savanna ^o«. 

82. Pocecetes gramineus Baird. 

83. Coturniculus passerinus 5o;i. 

84. " Henslowii Bon.* 

85. Ammodromus caudacutus Sic. 

86. " maritimus Sw. 

87. Junco hyemalis Sclater.* 

88. Spizella pusilla Bonap. 

89. " socialis Bonap. 

90. Melospiza mehodia Baird. 

91. Helospiza palustris Baird. 

92. Guiraca ludoviciana Swain. 

93. Cyanospiza cyanea Baird. 

94. Pipilo erythrophthalmus Vieill. 

95. Dolichonys oryzivora Swain. 

96. Molothrus pecoris Swainson. 

97. Agelceus phceniceus Vieill. 

98. Sturnella magna Swain. 

99. Icterus spurius Bon* 

100. " Baltimore 5o«. 

101. Quiscalus versicolor Vieill. 

102. Corvus americanus -#M<f. 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 



103. Cyanura cristata Sw. 

104. Ectopistes migratoria Sw. 

105. Zenasdura carolinensis Bon. 

106. Cupidonia cupido Baird.* 

107. Bonassa umbellus Steph. 

108. Ortyx virginianus Bonap. 

109. Ardea herodias Linn. 

110. Ardetta exilis Gray. 

111. Botaurus lentiginosus Steph. 

112. Butorides virescens Bon. 

113. Nyctiardea Gardeni Baird. 

114. Oxyechus vociferus Reich. 

115. JEgialeus melodus Reich. 

116. Squartarola helvetica Cuv. 

117. Philohela minor Gray. 



118. Gallinago Wilsonii Bonap. 

119. Symphemia semipalinata Ilartl. 

120. Tringoides macularius Uray. 

121. Bartramia laticauda Less. 

122. Rallus virginianus Linn. 

123. Porzana Carolina Vieill. 

124. Fulica americana Gmel.* 

125. Anas obscura Gmel.* 

126. Mergus americanus Cass.* 

127. " serrator Linn.* 

128. Aix sponsa J3oie. 

129. Thalassidroma Leachii Te.mm. 

130. Sterna hirundo Linn. 

131. " macroura JVaum. 



II. Resident Species. 

Of a few species more properly to be regarded as spring and autumn 
or summer visitors, a few individuals are sometimes found in winter, as of 
Ceryle alcyon, Turdus migratorius, Melospiza melodia, &c, but since the 
majority are migratory, they are not placed in the list of resident species. 

Certhia americana Bon. 
Sitta carolinensis Gmel. 
Parus atricapillus Linn. 
Astrigalinus tristis Cab. 
Corvus americanus Aud. 
Cyanura cristata Swain. 
Cupidonia cupido Baird. 
Bonasa umbellus Steph. 
Ortyx virginiana Bonap. 
Fulica americana Gmel. 
Anas obscura Linn. 
Mergus americana Cass. 

" serrator Linn. 
Colymbus torquatus Brunn. 



1. 


Falco anatum Bon. 


15 


2. 


Tinnunculus sparverius Vieill. 


10 


o. 


Buteo borealis Vieill. 


17 


4. 


Circus hudsonius Vieill- 


18 


5. 


Halisetus leucocephalus Savigny. 


19 


6. 


Bubo virginianus Bonap. 


20 


7. 


Scops a«io Bonap. 


21 


8. 


Otus americanus Bon. 


22 


9. 


Brachyotus Cassinii Brew. 


23 


10. 


Syrnium nebulosum Gray. 


24 


11. 


Nyctale acadica Bonap. 


25 


12. 


Picus villosus Linn. 


26 


13. 


" pubescens Linn. 


27. 


14. 


Hylotomus pileatus Baird. 


28 



III. Winter Visitants. 

Those species marked with a star are occasional or irregular visitors, but 
some of them sometimes occur in great abundance. A few individuals are 
often found in winter of some of those species properly to be considered as 
spring and autumn visitants, and as such are placed in the next list below. 

Collyrio borealis Baird. 
Troglodytes hyemalis Vieill. 
Sitta canadensis Linn. 
Parus hudsonicus Forst.* 
Eremophila cornuta Boie. 
Pinicola canadensis Cab.* 
Chrysomitris pinus Bonap. 
Curvirostra americana Wils. 

" leucoptera Wils.* 

iEgiothus linaria Cab.* 



1. 


Astur atricapillus Bon. 


11. 


2. 


Archibuteo lagopus Gray. 


12. 


3. 


" Sancti-Johannis Gr. 


13. 


4. 


Aquila canadensis Cass.* 


14. 


5. 


Syrnium cinereum Aud.* 


15. 


6. 


Nyctale Richardsonii Bon.*- 


16. 


7. 


Nyctea nivea Gray. 


17. 


8. 


Picoides arcticus Gray* 


18. 


9. 


Regulus satrapa Licht. 


19. 


10. 


Ampelis garrulus Linn.* 


20. 



<U 



J. A. ALLEYS'. CATALOGUE OF 



21. Plectrophaues nivalis .Meyer. 

22. Centrophanes lapponicus Kaup.* 

23. Spizella nionticolor Baird. 

24. Tetrao canadensis Linn* 

25. Arquatella maritima Baird. 

26. Anser byperboreus Pallas. 

27. ' : Gambellii Hurtl. 

28. Dafila acuta Jenyns. 

29. Bucepbala araericana Baird. 

30. " albeola Baird. 

31. Histrionicus torqnatns Bon. 

32. CamptolEemus labridorius Gr. 

33. Melanetta velvetina Baird. 

34. Pelionetta perspicillata Kaup. 

35. Oidemia americana Swain. 
3G. Somateria mollissima Leach. 

37. " spectabilis Leach. 

38. Erismatura rubida Bonap. 

39. Lophodytes cucullatus Ri-ich. 

40. Sula bassana Briss. 

41. Graculus carbo Gray. 

42. " dilopbus Gray. 

43. Puffinus major Faber. 

44. " fuliginosus St rick. 



I ft 

j 00. 

56. 



58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
I 65. 
66. 
67. 



Puffinus anglorum Temm. 
Stercorarius pomarinus Temm. 
" parasiticus Temm. 

" ceppbus JRoss. 

Larus leucoj>terus Faber.* 
" marinus Linn. 
*' Smitbsonianus Coues. 
" delawarensis 0/-<i. 
Chrct-cocephalus atricilla Lawr. 

" Pbiladelpbia Lawr. 

Rissa tridactyla Bonap. 
Sterna macroura JVaujn. 
Colymbus septentrionalis Linn. 
Podiceps Holbollii Beinh. 
" cristatus Lath. 
" cornutus £<z//i. 
Utamania torda Leach. 
Mormon arctica Illiger. 
Una grylle Latham. 
Cataractes troile Bryant. 
" ringvia -Bry. 
" lomvia Bry.* 
Mergnlns alle Vie ill. 



TV. Spring and Autumn Visitants. 

Of some species properly regarded as spring and autumn visitants, a few 
individuals remain tbrougb the winter, in sheltered situations, or through 
the summer, now and then breeding. Those of which some remain in winter 
are marked with this * ; those in summer, with this t- There may be a few 
other species of this character not thus marked, as Empidonax flaviventris, 
Vireo solitarius, &c, that should be. 



1. 



8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19 



Hypotryorchis columbarius Gr. 
Pandion carolinensis Bon. 
Empidonax flaviventris Baird. 
Turdus Pallassi Cab.j 
(, Turdus Swainsonii Cab. 
I " alicise Baird. 
Regulus calendula Licht. 
Anthus ludovicianus Licht. 
Geothlypis Philadelphia Bd. 
Oporornis agilis Baird 
Helmitherus Swainsonii Bon. 
Helminthopbaga pinus Baird. 
" chrysoptera Bd. 

" celata Baird. 

" peregrina Baird- 

Dendroica coronata Gray. 

" castanea Baird. 

" striata Bd. 

" maculosa Bd. 

" tigrina Bd. 



20. Dendroica palmarum Bd. 

21. Wilsonia pusilla Bon. 

22. Euthlypis canadensis CabA 

23. Vireo solitarius Vieill. 

24. Z6notnchia leucophrys Swain. 

25. " albicollis Bon. 

26. Junco hyemalis Sclai.*i 

27. Helospiza Lincolnii Baird. 

28. Passerella illiaca Sw. 

29. Scolecophagus ferrugineus Sw. 

30. Charadrius virginicus Borck. 

31. -Egialeus semipalmatus Reich. 

32. Strepsilas interpres Illig. 

33. Phalaropus Wifsonii Cab. 

34. " byperboreus Temn. 

35. " fulicarius Bonap. 

36. Macroramphus griseus Leach. 

37. Tringa canutus Linn. 

38. Ancylochilus subarquata Kaup. 

39. Pelidna americana Coues. 



BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. 



:)f, 



40. 


Actodromas maculata Cass. 


58 


41. 


" pusillus Coues. 


59 


42. 
43. 


" Bonapartii Cass. 
Calidris arenaria Illig. 


60 
61 


44. 


Ereunetes pusilla Cass. 


62 


45. 
46. 


Micropalama himantopus Bd. 
Gambetta melanoleuca Bon. 


63 
64 


47. 

48. 
49. 


" flavipes Bon. 
Rhyacophilus solitarius Bon. 
Tringites rufescens Cab. 


65 
66. 
67 


50. 


Limosa iedoa Ord. 


68 


61. 


" hudsonica Swain. 


69 


52. 


Numenius longirostris Wils. 


70 


53. 


" hudsonicus Lath. 


71. 


54. 


" borealis Lath. 


72 


55. 


Porzana noveboracencis ? 


73. 


56. 


Bern ic la canadensis Boie. 


74. 


57. 


" Hutcliinsii Bon. 





Bernicla brenta Steph. 
Anas boschas Linn. 
Nettion carolinensis Bd. 
Querquedula discors Steph. 
Spatula clypeata Boie. 
Chaulelasmus streperus Gr. 
Mareca americanca Steph. 
Fulix marila Baird. 

" affinis Bd. 

" collaris Bd. 
Aythya americana Bonap 

" vallisneria Bon. 
Harelda glacialis Leach. 
Procellaria glacialis Linn. 
Sterna frenata Gambel. 
Hydrochelidon fissipes Gray 
Podilymbus podiceps Lawr. 



V. Summer Visitants. 

Of some species of which the greater part are merely summer visitants a 
few individuals remain in winter, but not enough to entitle the species to be 
considered resident, and are marked thus * ; those of which the greater part 
pass north to breed, thus t ; those of which but few reach us in summer 
from the south, thus $. 



1. 


Accipiter Cooperii Bon. 


£8. 


Parula americana Bon. 


2. 


" fuscus Bon. 


29. 


Geotlilypis trichas Cab. 


o. 


Buteo lineatus Jard.* 


30. 


Icteria viridis Bon.% 


4. 


" pennsylvanicus Bon. 


31. 


Helmitherus vermivorus Bon. 


5. 


Coccygus americanus Bon. 


32. 


Helminthophaga ruficapilla Bd 


6. 


" erythrophthalnius Bp. 


33. 


Siurus aurocapillus Sw. 


7. 


Sphyropicus varius Baird. 


34. 


" noveboracensis Nidt.f 


8. 


Melanerpes erythrocephalus Sw. 


35. 


Dendroica virens Bd. 


9. 


Colaptes auratus Swain. 


36. 


" canadensis Bd.f 


10. 


Trochilus colubris Linn. 


37. 


" Blackburnite Bd.i 


11. 


ChEetura pelasgia Steph. 


38. 


" pinus Bd. 


12. 


Antrostomus vociferus Bon. 


39. 


" pennsylvanicus Bd. 


13. 


Chordeiles popetue Baird. 


40. 


" asstiva Bd. 


14. 


Ceryle alcyon Boie.* 


41. 


" discolor Bd. 


12. 


Tyrannus carolinensis Bd. 


42. 


Wilsonia minuta Bon. 


16. 


Myiavchus crinitus Cab.% 


43. 


Setophaga ruticilla Sw. 


17. 


Sayornis fuscus Baird. 


44. 


Pyranga rubra Vieilt. 


18. 


Contopus borealis Baird. 


45. 


Hirundo horreorum Bart. 


19. 


" virens Cab. 


46. 


" lunifrons Say. 


20. 


Empidonax Traillii Bd. 


47. 


" bicolor Vieilt. 


21. 


" minimus Bd. 


48. 


Cotyle riparia Boie. 


22. 


" acadicus Bd. 


49. 


Progne purpurea Boie. 


23. 


Turdus mustelinus Gmel. 


50. 


Ampelis cedrorum Baird. 


24. 


" fuscescens Steph. 


51. 


Vireo olivaceus Vieill. 


25. 


" migratorius Linn.* 


52. 


" gilvus Bonap. 


26. 


Sialia sialis Baird. 


53. 


" noveboracensis Bon. 


27. 


Mniotilta varia Vieill.i 


54. 


" flavifrons Vieill. 



96 



J. A. ALLEN, CATALOGUE OF 



55. Mimus polyglottus Boie.% 

56. Galeoscoptes carolinensis Cab. 

57. Harporhyncus rufus Cab. 

58. Cistothorus palustris Cab. 

59. " stellaris Cab. 

60. Troglodytes tedon Vieill. 

61. Cai-podaeus purpureus Gr.*t 

62. Passerculus savanna Bon. 

63. Pooacetes gramineus Bd. 

64. Coturniculus passerinus Bon. 

65. " Henslowii Bon. 

66. Ammodromus maritimus Sw. 

67. " caudacutus Sw. 

68. Spizella pusilla Bon. 
69 " socialis Bon. 

70. Melospiza melodia Baird. 

71. Helospiza palustris JB$. 

72. Euspiza americana Bon. 

73. Guiraca ludovicana Sw. 

74. Cyanospiza cyanea Baird. 

75. Pipilo erythophthalmus Vieill. 

76. Dolichonyx oryzivorus $u>. 

77. Molothrus pecoris Sw. 

78. Agekeus phoeniceus Vieill. 

79. Sturnella magna Swain* 

80. Icterus spurius ^ow4 



81. Icterus Baltimore Baud. 

82. Quiscalus versicolor Vieill. 

83. Ectopistes migratorius Sw. 

84. Zenasdura carolinensis Bon. 

85. Ardea herodias Linn. 

86. Ardetta exilis (?ra#. 

87. Botaurus lentiginosus Steph. 

88. Butorides virescens Bon. 

89. Nyctiardea Gardenii Bd. 

90. Oxyeehus vociferus Reich. 

91. Ochthodromus Wilsonius Reich.% 

92. iEgialeus melodus Ca6. 

93. Squartarola helvetica Cwr. 

94. Hsematopus palliatus Temm. 

95. Philohela minor C?rai/. 

96. Gallinago Wilsonii Bon. 

97. Symphemia semipalmata Harll. 

98. Tringoides macularius Gray. 

99. Bartramia lacticauda Less. 

100. Rallus virginianus JLinn. 

101. Porzana Carolina Vieill. 

102. Aix sponsa Boie. 

103. Sterna hirundo Linn. 

104. " paradisea Brunn.% 

105. " aranea f-FiiZs. 

106. " fuliginosa Gm.% 



VI. Accidental and Irregular Visitors. 

The following species are known in this State merely as rare chance visitors, 
a few only excepted, from the common habitat of their respective species. 
The others are very irregular in their visits. There are many other species 
to extremely rare that there are but few known instances of their capture in 
the State ; but from what is known of their distribution we are not to regard 
them in the light of chance visitors. 



1. Cathartes atratus Lesson. 

2. " aura III. 

3. Falco candicans Gmelin. 

4. Syrnium cinereum And. 

5. Nyctale Richardsonii Bon. 

6. Picoides arcticus Gray. 

7. Centurus carolinus Bon. 

8. Icteria viridis Bon. 

9. Pyranga asstiva Vieill. 

10. Ampelis garrulus Linn. 

11. Mimus polyglottus Boie. 

12. Parus hudsonicus Forsler. 

13. Curvirostra leucoptera Wils. 

14. iEgiothus linaria Cab. 

15. Centrophanes lapponicus Kaup. 

16. Chondestes grammaca Bon. 

17. Helospiza Lincolnii Baird. 

18. Euspiza americana Bon. 



19. Cardinalis virginianus Bon. 

20. Quiscalus major Vieill. 

21. Corvus carnivorus Bartram. 

22. " ossifragus Wils. 

23. Tetrao canadensis Linn. 

24. Garzetta candidissima Bon. 

25. Herodias egretta Gray. 
' 26. Florida caerulea Baird. 
j 27. Ibis Ordii Bon. 

' 28. Ochthodromus Wilsonius Reich. 

29. Rallus crepitans Gm. 

30. Gall inula galeata Bon. 

31. " martinica Lath. 

32. Bernicla leucopsis Linn. 

33. Nettion crecca Kaup. 

34. Mareca penelope Bon. 

35. Sterna paradisea Brunn. 

36. ,; fuliginosa Gm. 



BIRDS OP MASSACHUSETTS, ETC. . 97 

Summary. 

Number of species found at Springfield 195 

" " " " in the State 29G 

" " " that breed in the State .... 131 

" " resident species 28 

Winter visitants 67 

Spring and Autumn visitants . • 75 

Summer visitants ......... 106 

Chance visitors 35 

Springfield, April, 1864. 



Supplemental Notes. While the preceding paper has 
been passing through the press the following facts have 
been ascertained : 

A specimen of the Snow r y Owl (Nyctea nivea Gray) was 
taken in Springfield, the present year, about May 20th. 
Another instance of its capture here late in May has 
occurred within a few years. It has been found here 
repeatedly in November, and consequently spends at least 
half the year here. 

A specimen of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccygus 
americanus BonapJ was killed here in May this year, by 
Mr. B. Hosford, who informs me that he obtained another 
specimen here several years since. The capture of only 
three specimens of this species at Springfield has as yet 
come to my knowledge. 

That the Hermit Thrush (Turdus Pallasi Cab.,) does 
occasionally breed at Springfield I am now convinced, 
having seen a specimen shot here in July, but the instances 
appear to be extremely rare 

In the preceding list of the Birds of Springfield, the 
Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor Baird) is mentioned 
as rare, and as not breeding at Springfield. I find it not 
uncommon in sandy fields, growing up thinly to pitch 
pines, the present summer, where it is breeding quite 
plentifully. It was not uncommon in June to hear several 
males singing at a time. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. M. 



98 PUTNAM, NOTES ON THE 

A pair of Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria viridis BonapJ 
are breeding here the present season. Noticed another 
pair in Ludlow, Mass., about June 3d, which were probably 
also breeding. . Have seen a specimen taken in Berkshire 
county, in the breeding season. Only straggling pairs 
of this species, however, reach Massachusetts. 

The following species of Hawks, though extremely 
rare in winter, should probably be properly included in 
the above list of " Resident Species :" Hypotriorchis col- 
umbarius Gr., Accipiter Cooperii Bon., A.fuscus Bon., Bit- 
teo lineatus Jard., and B. pennsylvanicus Bon. 

July, 1864. 



V. Notes on the Habits of some species of Humble Bees. 
By F. W. Putnam. 

(Communicated October 22, 1863.) 

During the summer of 1862, while in Warwick, Mass., 
my attention was called to the Humble Bees by finding 
three nests of Bombus fervidus Fabr. and B. vagans Smith. 
These nests were formed of the deserted nests of mice, 
one under a barn in an old stump of a tree, the other two 
under piles of stones in a field. One of the nests of B. 
fervidus I kept in a box for some time, and watched the 
actions of the bees, but as I then neglected to make full 
notes, and as my first observations were confirmed by 
later ones, I allude to them here only to introduce an inci- 
dent which has relation to the duration of life of the 
various kinds which always compose the communities of 
the Humble Bees. Upon leaving Warwick I left my valise, 
in which was a nest of bees, at the depot. Two months 
afterwards, in November, it was brought to me, when upon 
examining the nest several large queen bees were found 
in a lively condition, while the males, small females and 
workers were all dead. When the valise was left at the 
depot there was but one queen in the nest. This incident 
proves that the queens are not only late in leaving the 
cells, but that they are capable of enduring cold which is 



HABITS OF THE HUMBLE BEE. 99 

fatal to the other bees. In the summer of 1863 while at 
Bridport, Vt., on the borders of Lake Champlain, I was 
so successful, in my entomological excursions, as to find 
as many as twenty-five or thirty colonies of bees, and to 
collect fifteen complete nests. These were of the follow- 
ing species : Bombus fervidus Fabr., B. ternarius Say, B. 
separalus Cresson and B. virginicus Fabr. As the general 
economy of these four species is the same, my observations 
may be considered as made upon one community, pre- 
ceded however by the following special statements in re- 
gard to the several species. 

Bombus ternarius. Two nests collected: one under an 
old stump in a deserted mouse nest ; the other, in Septem- 
ber, under the clapboards of a house, about eight feet from 
the ground. Upon removing the boards, a large bunch of 
sheep's wool was found, evidently collected by rats, as 
there was a quantity of nut shells, with the under jaw 
and other bones of a rat among the wool. In the 
centre of the wool the bees had their cells. By etherizing 
the bees twenty-eight specimens were collected, which, as 
it was after dark, when the bees are generally at home, I 
have reason to believe were nearly all that belonged to 
the nest. There were thirty -five cells containing young, 
and thirty that were filled with honey, having their tops 
covered with wax. This is the only instance of my find- 
ing the honey cells closed over. There were also a number 
of bunches of pollen in which there were no eggs. 

This species is not so common as B. fervidus and is far 
more savage in its disposition. I was informed by Mr. 
Brigham Rockwood, that he had noticed that this species 
never takes possession of the nests of mice (Arvicola) 
which are found so plentifully among the grass, but 
always chooses a place under cover of boards or stumps. 

Bombus fervidus. This is the most common species at 
Bridport, and is of quite a gentle disposition, allowing its 
nest to be disturbed for some time before it makes any 
show of resistance, merely exhibiting its uneasiness by 
buzzing. The communities of this species are found in 
old mice nests, both under stumps and boards ; and also 
among the grass in the nests of the common field mice 
(Arvicola riparia). They also occupy the forsaken nests 



100 PUTNAM, NOTES ON THE 

of the house mice, as in one instance a colony was found 
under the flooring of a shed, in a nest made of bits of 
paper, rags, &c. This was the largest community collected, 
consisting of about seventy adult bees, one hundred and 
fifty cells containing young, and two hundred young larva?, 
in various stages of growth, in the pollen masses, besides 
fifty cells filled with honey. This nest was found on the 
23d of July. July 28th a nest was discovered in which 
there was a single queen bee and five or six large queen 
cells still soft and recently finished. 

July 8th. Two queens were seen fighting upon the 
outside of a nest. So firmly were they united that they 
did not part until placed in alcohol, although pushed about 
for some time. They were both of the same species, but 
one might have been an invader, as I have found upon 
placing a strange queen, in a nest, that the rightful sover- 
eign immediately commenced battle and in a short time 
expelled the intruder. 

One community kept under glass on a window, with 
free ingress and egress, continued working, until, on a 
very hot day, the young became baked in their cells, by 
the heat of the sun. Then the old ones left and did not 
return. 

Aug. 6th. A nest was brought home and the cells, con- 
taining young, placed apart from all old bees for the 
purpose of ascertaining if the young bee cuts its own way 
out of its cell. The cells were all of large size. In about 
half an hour a queen bee had come out and was seen 
walking over the other cells. She was immediately re- 
moved and the other cells were examined, but no signs of 
their having been cut could be seen. In the evening a 
slit was noticed in one of the cells and the young bee was 
seen at work cutting with its jaws. In a short time 
it made an opening in the cell large enough for it to push 
its head through. It then commenced cutting on each 
side, from the slit, above and below ; now and then with- 
drawing its head and resting. Then it tried to force its way 
through the opening, but finding this was not large enough 
it cut a little more. The bee evidently did not wish to 
work more than was necessary, for it often tried to force 
its way out. At each attempt it made but a small enlarge- 



HABITS OF THE HUMBLE BEE. 10 J 

ment of the orifice ; but, after spending half an hour in 
alternate work and rest, it succeeded in freeing itself from 
its prison. Then it stood, for a short time, on the sides 
of the cell, moving its wings, after which it commenced 
walking over the other cells. This was a queen bee. 
Aug. 8 th, another bee came out in the same Avay. Aug. 
10th, two. Aug. 14th, one. Aug. 15th, another, which 
was the last in the cells. They were queens and all quite 
light colored when just from the cells. 

These facts prove that the young cut their own way 
out of the cells. In another nest a young bee was seen 
to come from the cell while the old bees were present, 
which did not concern themselves about the matter fur- 
ther than to give a few passing glances and to cut off 
some jagged pieces of the cell. As soon however as the 
young bee was out of the cell, one or two old bees trim- 
med the edges of the cell and removed a few fragments 
from the inside. 

Bombus sepabatus. Several colonies of this were found 
under old stumps and in other situations similar to those 
in which the nests of B. fervidus were found. This spe- 
cies is nearly as ferocious, on being disturbed, as B. terna- 
rius. 

Bombus virginicus. A single nest of this species was 
found under an old stump in an orchard. On the 27th of 
August three males were captured while flying under a 
large tree on which they frequently alighted. So much 
did these bees resemble large flies in their actions, that at 
first I mistook them for those insects. Male Humble Bees 
are often seen flying in this manner under trees. Are 
they not the drones which have left or been driven from 
the nest? 

Let us now notice the life of a colony in its different 
stages. In the spring, the queen bee, having left her old 
home, may be seen roaming about in search of a new one, 
which she soon finds in some such place as previously 
described. She immediately collects a small amount of 
pollen mixed with honey, and in this deposits from seven 
to fourteen eggs, gradually adding to the pollen mass until 
the first brood is hatched. She does not wait, however, 
for one brood to be hatched before laying the eggs of 



102 PUTNAM, NOTES ON THE 

another, but, as soon as food enough has been collected, 
she lays the eggs for a second. The eggs are laid, in 
contact with each other, in one cavity of the mass of pol- 
len, with a part of which they are slightly covered. They 
are very soon developed ; in fact the lines are nowhere 
distinctly drawn, between the egg and the larva, the larva 
and pupa, and again between the latter and the imago ; a 
perfect series, showing this gradual transformation of the 
young to the imago, can be found in almost every nest. 

As soon as the larvae are capable of motion and com- 
mence feeding they eat the pollen by which they are 
surrounded, and gradually separating, push their way in 
various directions. Eating as they move and increasing in 
size quite rapidly, they soon make large cavities in the 
pollen mass. When they have attained their full size they 
spin a silken wall about them, which is strengthened by 
the old bees covering it with a thin layer of wax, which 
soon becomes hard and tough, thus forming a cell. The 
larvae now gradually attain the pupa stage and remain inac- 
tive until their full developement. They then cut their way 
out and are ready to assume their duties as workers, small 
females, males or queens according to their individual 
formation. 

It is apparent that the irregular disposition of the cells 
is due to their being constructed so peculiarly by the 
larvae. After the first brood, composed of workers, has 
come forth, the queen bee devotes her time principally to 
her duties at home, the workers supplying the colony 
with honey and pollen. As the queen continues prolific, 
more workers are added and the nest is rapidly enlarged. 

About the middle of summer, eggs are deposited which 
produce both small females and males, and it is supposed 
by some observers that it is from the union of these, at 
the last of the season, that the eggs are laid from which 
the queens are developed : but there seems some reason 
to doubt this, as a new nest, previously mentioned, was 
found on the last of July occupied only by a queen and 
queen larvae. It is true, however, that all eggs, laid after 
the last of July, produce the large females, or queens, and, 
the males being still in the nest, it is presumed that the 
queens are impregnated at this time, as, on the approach 



HABITS OF HUMBLE BEES. 103 

of cold weather all, except the queens/ of which there are 
several in each nest, die. 

The efforts of my friend Mr. Rockwoocl to procure 
nests for me during the winter have as yet been unsuc- 
cessful, those which he had marked for removal having 
been destroyed by mice. 

It is desirable to ascertain whether the queens remain 
torpid during cold weather and what use is made of the 
pollen and honey stored during the last of summer and 
in the fall, which perhaps is food for the queens during 
the mild weather in spring before plants are in blossom. 

But little wax is made by the Humble Bees, as it is only 
used for covering the cocoons of the larva?, for thinly 
lining the nest on the inside, strengthening the old cells 
which are used for honey pots, and occasionally covering 
these pots, and propping up the old cells. 

During some }^ears Humble Bees are very numerous. 
This is generally the case when a dry and early spring is 
followed by a summer producing a good crop of clover. 
After such a season, if the following spring be favorable, 
nests are very abundant. 

Though very similar to those made by Reaumer, over a 
hundred years ago, it will be noticed that my observations 
differ, in several particulars, from those made by some 
European naturalists who have written on the Bombi. 

Some observers have stated that the eggs of the 
Humble Bee are deposited in cells, partly filled with 
pollen, which are enlarged by the workers as the young 
increase in size, and that the old bees, cutting holes in the 
cells, feed the young until they are fully developed when 
they relieve them from their prisons. This is quite con- 
trary to the results of my observations in New England. 

At present I cannot believe that the peculiarity of food, 
or the structure of the cells, produces a difference of de- 
velopement in Humble Bees, for the larvae, as has been 
previously stated, were seen to make their own cells from 
the pollen paste, while the old bees were quite indiscrim- 
inate in selecting the plants from which they procured 
both pollen and honey. 

Is it not more natural to believe, as has been suggested 
to me by Professor Wyman, that the difference in the de- 



104 PUTNAM, NOTES ON THE 

velopernent of the eggs is owing to their being laid at 
various times after impregnation? Thus, if I am right in 
supposing that the queens are impregnated by the males 
late in the summer, the eggs laid soon after produce the 
large queen larvae : the next set of eggs, laid in the 
spring, produce the workers, or undeveloped females, 
while from those deposited still later, male bees are prin- 
cipally developed. 

This opinion seems to be corroborated by the state ot 
the nest, previously noticed, found on the 28th of July, 
which had been recently commenced and contained only 
queen cells, the parent queen being obliged, by her recent 
impregnation, to lay only such eggs as were adapted to 
the season. As no first brood of workers, or second 
one of males and small females, had existed in this nest, 
the eggs producing the queen larvae must have been laid 
by the large female or queen, found in the nest, and not 
by a small female. 

The fact, that our species of Humble Bees take posses- 
sion of the nest of mice and rats, accounts for the large 
number of mites found in most nests. 

Three parasites are common in the nests of our New 
England Humble Bees. They are, a small beetle of the 
genus Byturus only known thus far in the imago state ; a 
moth of the genus Nephopjteryx: the larvae of which is quite 
abundant in most nests, and a dipterous insect which is 
often found in the larval state. 

It is singular that in all the nests, which I collected, 
not a single specimen of Apathies was found by Mr. Pack- 
ard, though this parasitic bee is generally supposed to be 
quite common in the nests of Bombi. 

Additional Notes, August 3, 1864. A nest of Bombus 
pennsylvanicus was found at Upton, Me., on the sixth of 
last June, in which there was but a single queen bee with 
seven cells of the smallest size, containing larvae, and sev- 
eral eggs in a mass of pollen. 

A queen of B. pennsylvanicus was taken, on July 20th, 
under leaves in a wood. 

Professor A. E. Verrill found a queen Humble Bee in 
a torpid state under leaves, before the snow was off the 
ground in the spring of 1863. 



LEAF-CUTTING BEE. 105 

YL Notes on the Leaf-cutting Bee. By F. W. Putnam. 

(Communicated Oct. 22, 1863.) 

While at Bridport, Vt., I was enabled to make a few 
observations on the habits of the Leaf-cutting Bee 
(Meyachile). My attention was first called, on the 26th of 
June, to a female busily engaged in bringing pieces of 
leaf to her cells, which she was building under a board, on 
the roof of the piazza, directly under my window. Nearly 
the whole morning was occupied by the bee in bringing 
pieces of leaf from a rose bush growing about ten yards 
from her cells, returning, at intervals of a half minute to a 
minute, with the pieces which she carried in such a man- 
ner as not to impede her walking when she alighted near 
her hole. About noon she had probably completed the 
cell upon which she had been engaged, as during the 
afternoon, she was occupied in bringing pollen, preparatory 
to laying her single egg in the cell. For about twenty 
days the bee continued at work, building new cells and 
supplying them with pollen. At the end of this time she 
had probably completed her allotted task, as she was not 
seen again. 

On the 28th of July, upon removing the board, it was 
found that the bee had made thirty cells, arranged in nine 
rows of unequal length, some being slightly curved to 
adapt them to the space under the board. The longest row 
contained six cells, and. was two and three quarters inches 
in length. The cells averaged about one half an inch in 
length ; the whole leaf structure being equal to a length of 
fifteen inches. Upon making an estimate of the pieces of 
leaf in this structure, it was ascertained that there must 
have been at least a thousand pieces used. In addition 
to the labor of making the cells, this bee, unassisted in all 
her duties, had to collect the requisite amount of pollen 
(and honey ?) for each cell and lay her egg therein, when 
completed. Upon carefully cutting out a portion of 'one 
of the cells, a full grown larva was seen engaged in spin- 
ning a slight silken cocoon about the walls of its prison, 
which were quite hard and smooth on the inside, probably 
owing to the movements of the larva and the consequent 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. N. 



106 PUTNAM, NOTES ON THE 

pressing of the sticky particles to the walls. In a short 
time the opening made was closed over by a very thin 
silken web. The cells, measured on the inside of the hard 
walls, were .35 of an inch in' length and .15 in diameter. 
The natural attitude of the larva is somewhat curved 
in its cell, but if straightened, it just equals the inside 
length of the cell. 

On the 31st of July two female bees came out, having 
cut their way through the sides of their cells. Five other 
cells were opened, in the hope of finding a pupa, but with- 
out success ; two of them containing larva?, and three, 
dead bees fully formed. In these last mentioned cells, 
several hundred minute Ichneumons were seen, which 
came forth as soon as the cells were opened. 

August 4. Three more bees came out. One was a 
male, and differed Irom the female by not having a sting- 
by its blunt abdomen ; by the hairs on the under side 
being fewer and shorter and not of so deep a red color, 
and by being very hairy about the underside of the head. 

August 5, and 6. A female came out each day, after 
which no more appeared, the rest of the cells having prob- 
ably been ichneumoned, as upon being opened in October, 
by Mr. Packard, Ichneumons were found in nearly all. 
Most of these parasites being then in the larval or pupal 
stages, Avere probably not developed until the spring. 
Are there two broods of Ichneumons in one year, or are 
those that came out on the last of July of a different 
species?* 

July 3. A female Megachile was discovered making a 
cell of pieces of leaf in a small hole in the ground. The 
hole was about two inches in depth and the cell was just 
commenced, as there were but four quite fresh pieces in 
it, which appeared to have been cut from locust leaves. 
This was of the same species as the one that built her 
cells on the piazza, and which has been identified by Mr. 
Packard as 31. centuncularis. 

Another species was also seen cutting pieces from the 
rose leaves, but its cells could not be discovered. This 



* For further observations on these parasites, see Mr. Packard's remarks 
in the following article. 



LEAF-CUTTING BEE. 107 

was yellow, with the four terminal segments of the abdo- 
men black. 

July 22. Two cells of Megachile were brought to me, 
having been found in the crown of a bonnet in a closet. 
One of these cells, about half filled with pollen (mixed 
with honey?) contained a small larva, and was closed by 
several pieces of leaf wfiich were quite fresh. The other 
cell was empty and not completed. 

August 4. A third species was discovered, in consid- 
erable numbers, on the same bushes. These were of 
about the same color as the preceding, but so much 
larger as to be easily recognized. 

These three species, assisted by a single specimen 
of a blue species of Osmia, which was captured while 
cutting out a piece of leaf,, on the 28th of June, were 
so numerous, and worked so diligently, that they ruined 
five or six rose bushes, not leaving a single unblighted 
leaf uncut, and were forced to take the leaves of a locust 
tree as a substitute, though they almost invariably hov- 
ered over the rose bushes before going to the locust tree. 

During the last of August many specimens of the three 
species of Megachile were collected from the thistle flowers, 
where they were quite abundant. 



VII. The Humble Bees of New England and their Para- 
sites ; with notices of a new species of Anthophorabia, and 
a new genus of Proctotrupidai. By A. S. Packard Jr. 

[Communicated April 23, 1864.] 

The following descriptions of all the species of Humble 
Bees known to inhabit New England, together with descrip- 
tions of some of their parasites will, it is hoped, draw the 
attention of entomologists to the great interest attending 
the study of the growth and economy of our native bees. 

Mr. E. T. Cresson in a " List of the North American 
species of Bombus and Apathus" published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Societ} 7 of Philadelphia for 
July, 1863, has given descriptions of over forty species of 
Bombus, and eight species of Apathus. This has been of 



108 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES 

service to me in distinguishing our species. I have also 
followed his synonymy of the species therein given.. 

We have in this country nothing published concerning 
the economy of our Bombi previous to the present year. 
For two years past Mr. F. \V. Putnam has paid consid- 
erable attention to observing the habits of several species 
of wild bees, the results of which* he has embodied in the 
interesting articles preceding. I am indebted to him for 
nearly all the material upon which these notices are based. 
I have also been much aided in identifying the species 
by a labelled series of most of our species received from 
Mr. E. Norton several years since, and more recently by 
a small collection of species from different parts of the 
country sent by him to the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy at Cambridge, Mass ; the Museum also contains over 
twelve hundred specimens, of four species, in all stages of 
growth, being the collection made by Mr Putnam. I 
have also had access to the small collection of this genus 
in the Harris Cabinet now belonging to the Boston 
Society of Natural History. 

Among the numerous parasites upon the Humble Bee 
we have insects belonging to the Hymenoptera, the 
Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera. Each have a dis- 
tinct mode of attack. The Stylops and Conops live within 
the abdomen of the bee upon the fatty tissues of its body. 
The Meloe clings to the outside of its body and sucks in the 
juices of its victim through the joints of its corneous 
harness ; and after it assumes the pupa stage, passes a period 
of inactivity safely lodged among the cells of the bee's 
nest. The Byturus is less intimate in its friendship 
and probably troubles the bee only as it consumes the 
stores of food laid up for the bee grub, while it may also 
prove to be serviceable in acting as a scavenger in 
clearing the nests of the cadavers of those bees which 
have perished within their enclosure The unknown 
dipterous larva noticed below, is undoubtedly, from the 
structure of its mouth, a carnivorous animal, and lives by 
sucking in, like a leach, the juices of the young bees. 
The species of Xephopteryx, which differs so much from 
its allied species in its habits, feeds largely upon the 
waxen walls of the bee cells. As to the habits of Apathus, 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 109 

in it.s early stages especially, we know nothing definite. 
We are not yet acquainted with the forms of the larva 
and pupa as distinguished from those of the bee upon 
which it is a pirasite, and indeed know the two sexes of 
but a single species. As yet we know of no ichneumon 
parasite of Bombus. It will be of interest to determine 
whether this genus by reason of its secluded habits 
while in the preparatory stages of its existence, is exempt 
from the attacks of these vigilant enemies to most other 
insects. 

For a proper study of our Humble bees, we should 
collect the nests and colonies from the last of May until 
late in the autumn. We should watch the queen bees 
as they are searching for deserted mice nests, or 
other convenient places, in which to rear their colo- 
nies, and follow them to their holes. We should then 
watch for the different broods, and collect, the young 
and mature bees of both sexes, and also of the work- 
ers, or undeveloped females; and as it is a well known 
fact that each sex including the workers are composed of 
individuals of two sizes, we should endeavor to trace the 
history of each of the six forms into which the species 
is specialized and ascertain the functions of each. Early 
in the spring we can only capture those queens which 
have survived the winter; while late in the fall we can 
often secure the males in large numbers, as they frequent 
autumnal flowers. 

It will therefore be necessary in order to collect the 
young of all these different broods, to take the nests at 
short intervals during the summer. The cells containing 
the young, with whatever parasites that may be found 
among them, mny be placed in alcohol, while the mature 
bees may be pinned. The simplest method of collecting the 
nests is to visit them before sunrise or after sunset, when 
all the bees are in the nest and we can secure the whole 
colony. The bees can be picked up with forceps as they 
emerge from the nest, or caught with the net and then 
pinned. Refractory colonies may easily be quelled by 
pouring in ether or chloroform, or burning sulphur at the 
aperture, as is the best method of procedure with wasps' 
nests. The alcoholic specimens of the mature bees may 



110 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES 

be dissected open for the purpose of finding the Stylops 
and Conops lodged within. The author would be greatly 
obliged for material to aid him in the study of our wild 
bees, and would take pleasure in corresponding with those 
interested in the study of their habits and forms. 

Bombus fervidus Fabricius. 

Male. Head yellow in front both above and below the 
antennae. Thorax yellow. Abdomen yellow with the tip 
black. The black band between the wings is broader 
than in the female, while also the front is much narrower 
and the legs and wings are paler. Length, .65 — .70 ; 
breadth, .30— .32 inch. 

Female. Head long in front; black, with a few yellow 
hairs above the insertion of the antennae. Whole body 
lemon yellow except a narrow black band between the 
wings, and the two black terminal rings of the abdomen. 
Wings not as dark as in B. pennsylvanicus, but dark 
smoky. Legs with the second to the fifth tarsal joints 
very little longer and slenderer than in the females of the 
other species, though hardly differing from B. pennsylva- 
nicus to which this species seems nearest allied ; they are 
black ; tibice with fuscous hairs on the tip and along the 
edges, while the first tarsal joint is dark fuscous above, 
beneath much lighter. Compared with the male, this sex 
often differs in having no yellow hairs below the antennae, 
while throughout the body the hairs are finer, shorter 
and more dense. The tip of the abdomen is pure black, 
while in the male it is partly yellow. Length, 1 — 1.25 ; 
breadth, .40 — .45 inch. 

Worker. Only differs in size from the female. Length, 
.40— .60 ; breadth, .17— .35 inch. 

In a nest of this species, collected by Mr. Putnam 
at Warwick, Mass., which numbered five females and 
forty workers, all had black fronts below the insertion 
of the antennas. But another colony of twenty fe- 
males and workers from Bridport, Vt., had the fronts 
almost wholly yellow, with a few exceptions. This was 
especially marked in the larger sized females, while 
most of the smaller sized females had black fronts. I am 
hardly prepared to say that such differences as these 



OF NEW EXGLAKD. Ill 

distinguish the two broods of larger and smaller sized 
females, but would at present consider that the variation 
noticed above is not confined to either size. 

This species is common in all parts of Maine, and is 
one of the most common species in New England. 

BOMBUS PENNSYLVANICUS Cresson. 

Male. " Head black, intermixed with obscure yel- 
lowish on the face and vertex ; eyes very large and 
prominent, almost contiguous on the vertex. Thorax 
above and on the sides tawiry-yellow, with a blackish 
band between the wings ; in some specimens the thorax 
is entirely yellowish. Wings fusco-hyaline, darkest 
along the costa and towards the base. Legs black; 
hairs of the basal joint of the posterior tarsi pale ; tarsi 
brown. Abdomen with the first three segments tawny- 
yellow, slightly mixed with blackish on the base of the 
first segment ; remaining segments black. Beneath black, 
sparsely clothed with pale hairs. Length 10 lines," 
Cresson. 

Female. Head and eyes as described in B. fervidus but 
the antennae are longer and more slender; black in 
front. The yellow band on the thorax is broader than in 
the male ; in some specimens there are a few 3'ellow hairs 
on the scutellum. The three basal rings* of the abdo- 
men are yellow above, and the basal one is often partially 
black, the remaining rings black. First tarsal joint 
fuscous, much larger than in B. fervidus. In the form of 
the body this and fervidus are closely allied, both being 
flatter and a little longer than in the other species. 
Length 1.05 ; breadth, .45 ; expanse of wings 1.85 inch. 

The measurement given would indicate that this species 
Avas the same size as fervidus, but it is a little larger by 
about .05 inch. 

From want of specimens I am obliged to quote Mr. 
Cresson's description of the male. This is our least abun- 

* For convenience of description in this paper I have practically ignored 
the fact that the basal ring of the abdomen is in most hyruenoptera thrown 
forward upon the thorax, as I have observed the passage to take place in 
the semi-pupa state ; hence what is in reality the second segment of the 
abdomen is called in this paper the first or basal segment. 



112 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES 

dant species, being very rare in Maine, but growing more 
abundant as we go southward. My specimens were col- 
lected by Mr. Sanborn in the vicinity of Boston. 

Bombus terricola Kirby. 

Male. Head broad and short, eyes . narrow, as in 
B. fervidus ; the front is a little broader than in that 
species but the eyes do not. approximate so much 
above : there are a few yellow hairs on the vertex, 
and on the clypeus are a few yellow hairs mixed with 
black. Front of the thorax yellow, as, are the sides; 
beneath black; no yellow hairs on the scutellum. 
Basal ring of the abdomen black, the second and third 
rings yellow, the remainder black, with scattered tawny 
hairs around the tip. Legs much as in the male of B. 
fervidus, but the basal joint of the tarsus is more arcuate, 
being broader in the middle, and narrowing more rapidly 
towards the base ; they are black except the fuscous tarsi, 
with long black hairs on the under side of the femora, and 
the tips of the claws are black. Length, .65 ; breadth, 
.32 inch. 

Compared with B. fervidus the antennae are nearly one- 
fourth shorter, so that by this character it would be 
easily mistaken for a worker, though the hairs are much 
looser and more uneven than in the other sex. 

Female. Head very broad and short, eyes of moderate 
width, much as in B. pennsylvanicus ; front black, dis- 
colored with a few yellow hairs above and below the 
antennas. There is a narrow line of black on the front 
edge of the thorax ; behind, and extending as far as the 
insertion of the wings, is a yellow band ; beyond, the 
thorax and basal ring of the abdomen are black. Second 
and third rings of the abdomen lemon-yellow, the hairs at 
the base of each ring honey-yellow ; remaining rings 
black with long loose fuscous hairs about the tips and on 
the hind edge of the penultimate ring, the presence- of 
which easily distinguishes this species from B. pennsyl- 
vanicus ; beneath smoky black. Wings dark smoky, but 
not so much so as in the other species. The legs are also 
paler, but stouter with broader joints, while the femora 
and the tibiae are black with smoky black hairs beneath. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 113 

The first tarsal joint is still more arcuate than in B. penn- 
sylvanicus, and broader, while the remaining joints are 
shorter and thicker and more fuscous. Length, .80 — .85 ; 
breadth, .45 inch. 

Worker, length, .55 — .60; breadth, .25 — .30 inch. 

This species replaces B. pennsylvanicus, in Maine 
where it is one of the most abundant species. The females 
are common early in the spring, while the workers 
first appear in the middle of June. I have one worker 
from Mr. Sanborn collected about Boston. It may be 
easily mistaken for De Geer's B. pennsylvanicus but it is 
shorter, broader and somewhat smaller. In form more 
regularly elliptical when seen from above than any of 
the other species. The broad head, honey tint of the 
basal abdominal rings, shorter antennae and especially the 
fuscous hairs about the tip of the abdomen will further 
distinguish it from De Geer's species. Sometimes a few 
yellow hairs are present upon the scutellum. 

Bombds virginicus Fabricius. 

Male. Head short and broad ; the front being broader 
and the eyes narrower than in B. fervidus ; the joints 
of the antennae are also a little shorter than in that 
species ; vertex of the head yellow ; between this and 
the insertion of the antennae the front is often black 
but more often yellow, while the clypeus is covered 
with black and yellow hairs. Whole thorax above and 
beneath, the under side of the femora and basal joint of 
the abdomen yellow, while the rest of the abdomen is 
black. Beneath on the side of the abdomen are thin 
yellow hairs ; the basal yellow portion on the upper 
side of the abdomen is indented on the mesial line of 
the body. The legs are a little slenderer than in B. 
fervidus, while the tarsal joints are more cylindrical, 
longer, more dilated and provided with longer and 
slenderer spines; black; tarsal joints tinged slightly 
with fuscous brown, with fuscous hairs. The whole body 
is shorter and broader, more elliptical, the abdomen 
shorter, the sides converge more towards the acute 
tips ; the wings are paler and the hairs longer and hardly 
so thick as in B. fervidus. The size of the male is equal 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. 0. 



114 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES 

to that of the worker of B. fervidus. Length, .50 — .55 ; 
breadth, .25 — .30 inch. 

I have carefully compared male specimens from Maine 
and Massachusetts in Dr. Harris' cabinet labelled by him 
" Bombus impatiens Say Ms." They do not differ from 
undoubted males of B. virginicus, and I agree with Mr. 
Cresson in considering it as a synonym of our common 
species. 

I have taken the males very abundantly flying about 
asters and solidagos during the middle of October, when 
out of twenty males but a single worker of some other 
species occurred. 

Female. Head broader than in B. vagans, front black 
with a few yellow hairs between the antennae, and less 
than the usual number on the vertex. Thorax and basal 
joint of the abdomen yellow above and on the sides, 
black beneath ; remainder of the body black. Wings 
paler than usual. Legs with the tarsal joints longer than 
in B. vagans; the first joint longer and slenderer, with 
fuscous hairs on the edges, and the remaining joints 
dilated more than in B. vagans ; dark fuscous, with lighter 
fuscous hairs. Length, .30 ; breadth, .42 ; expanse of 
wings, 1.60 inches. 

Worker. Length, .50 ; breadth, .20 inch. 

Bombus separatus Cresson. 

Male. Head a little broader than in B. virginicus, 
to which this species is very closely allied ; the eyes 
are large and full, and the front is narrower by one 
third than in any other species ; vertex yellow, the 
tuft larger than in B. virginicus ; a yellow tuft below not 
reaching to the base of the labrum; both the maxillaa 
and lingua are shorter than in B. virginicus ; lingua 
with a single circle of spinules near the tip, which last 
is longer than in that of B. fervidus ; the joints of the 
antennas are shorter and more contracted in the middle 
than usual. Thorax and abdomen colored as described in 
worker. Legs black; tarsal joints slightly tinged with 
testaceous ; femora beneath thickly clothed with long 
yellow hairs ; first posterior tarsal joint longer and narrow- 
er, remaining joints much stouter, though no longer than 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 115 

in B. virginicus. Abdomen wholly black beneath. Length, 
.65 ; breadth, .35 inch. 

Compared with JB. virginicus this species is considerably 
larger ; the head when seen from above is much broader, 
eyes twice as large, outer edge of the fore wings straight- 
er, making the wings more triangular, and they are a 
little darker. In form the two species are very similar. 

Worker. Head short and broad ; the front is black, with 
a transverse yellow tuft just above the antennae ; the 
hairs are remarkably short, dense and more glossy and 
velvety than usual. Thorax of a rich lemon-yellow above ; 
in certain lights, especially on the sides, tinged with 
pruinose. Two basal segments of the abdomen obscurely 
fuscous, intermixed at the base with yellowish hairs ; 
second ring most distinctly fuscous ; remainder of the 
abdomen black, with very short hairs. Length, .55 : 
breadth, .22 inch. 

This species connects B. virginicus with B. vagans and 
B. ternarius, which last it resembles in its broad head and 
compact body. The obscurely brick-red base of the 
abdomen Avill serve to separate this species from B. vir- 
ginicus, besides the smooth, glossy, velvety bloom which 
is due to the short, evenly cut, dense hairs. 

Mr. Cresson observes in a letter, " that the second ring 
of the abdomen varies from yellow to dark fuscous, 
sometimes quite red. The hairs on the head are some- 
times mixed with yellow on the vertex and sometimes 
entirely black.-'' 

Mr. Putnam collected a nest of over twenty workers at 
Briclport, all of which had the second ring reddish above. 
At another time a solitary male was captured which did 
not differ from the workers. Another male was taken 
near Boston by Mr. Sanborn. 

Bombus vagans Smith. 

Male. In form and size closely resembling B. vir- 
ginicus ; the front is wholly yellow. Black ; thorax above 
and beneath, two basal joints of the abdomen and the 
under side of the femora yellow ; beneath, on the side 
of the abdomen to just before the tip are sparse yellow 
hairs. Tarsi dark fuscous, with fuscous hairs. Wings 
pale. Length, .55 ; breadth, .28 inch. 



116 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES 

Compared with B. virginicus, the head is smaller, 
antennae slenderer, front more yellow, and there are not 
so many yellow hairs beneath the abdomen as in that 
species, while the first tarsal joint is narrower and all the 
joints are a little more fuscons. 

Female. Head a little narrower than usual ; front dark, 
with a yellow tuft above and below the antennas. Black ; 
thorax and the two basal abdominal rings pale lemon- 
yellow. Abdomen wholly black beneath. Legs black ; 
femora beneath black ; first tarsal and remaining joints 
black. Length, .65 — .80 ; breadth, .28 — .42 ; expanse of 
wings, 1.04 inches. 

Worker. Length, .35— .50 ; breadth, .17— .22 inch. 

This species is full and plump. The larger sized 
females have finer, denser hairs than the workers, where 
they are more than usually loose and uneven. These last 
are often found with very pale yellow hairs. 

In a colony of thirty workers collected at Warwick, 
Mass., by Mr. Putnam, there occurred no special variation 
except in the different shades of yellow on the fronts. It 
is one of our common species, and occurred abundantly 
the last of August in company with B. ternarius about 
Chamberlain Lake at the head waters of the Penobscot 
river. 

Bombus ternarius Say. 

Female. Head broad and short ; front broad with yel- 
low tufts above and below the antennas. Black; thorax and 
basal ring of the abdomen yellow ; an irregularly defined 
black band between the wings, sometimes produced behind 
into a triangular point on the scutellum, extending to the 
base of the abdomen ; second and third abdominal rings 
red ; fourth yellow, and the tip black ; beneath black, the 
posterior edges of the third and fourth abdominal rings 
provided with yellow hairs. Legs black ; tarsi fuscous, 
especially the inner side of the first joint ; femora clothed 
beneath with yellow hairs. Wings pale smoky, of the 
same size and form as in B. vagans. Length, .70 ; breadth, 
.32 ; expanse of wings, 1.30 inches. 

Worker. Length, .40 — .45 ; breadth, .17 — .25 inch. 

Male. " Colored same as the female," Cresson. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 117 

Compared with B. vagans, the legs are very similar; the 
first tarsal joint is however not so broad and convex 
without, while the remaining joints are much the same. 

In a nest of twenty-three specimens collected by Mr. 
Putnam at Bridport, Vt., the scutellum was invariably 
yellow. Most of these specimens have the fifth abdomi- 
nal ring red, so that there are three instead of two reel 
rings. In nearly every case the front of the head was 
darker than above described, since by their pollen gather- 
ing habits the longer yellow hairs easily rub off. It is a 
common and widely distributed species ranging according 
to Cresson from Maine to Utah, Puget Sound and Arctic 
America, and southward to Pennsylvania. 

I append the description of three additional species 
described from Connecticut and New York by Mr. 
Cresson. 

Bombus perplexus Cresson. 

" Male. Head black, with a tuft of pale hairs in front 
below the, antennas ; vertex yellowish. Thorax blight 
honey-yellow. Wings hyaline, apical margins faintly 
clouded. Legs black ; base of femora beneath yellowish. 
Abdomen with the three basal segments bright honey -yel- 
low, the third segment having a slight admixture of black ; 
remaining segments black. Beneath black, slightly mixed 
with yellowish. Length 8 lines. 

Female and worker not seen. 

One specimen, Connecticut. (Coll. Norton.) 

This species closely resembles B. hudsonicus, but the 
form of the body is more elongate and not so compact as 
that of the latter species, and the color is much brighter." 

Bombus bimaculatus Cresson. 

" Male. Head black, mixed with yellowish on the face 
and vertex. Thorax honey-yellow. Wings sub-hyaline, 
slightly stained with yellowish. Legs black, clothed with 
yellowish hairs, especially on the femora beneath. Abdo- 
men with the whole of the first segment above, and the 
second, except a few black hairs on the middle, and a 
round black spot on each side, pale honey-yellow ; the 
fourth segment mixed with black and yellow ; the third 



11> PACKABD, HUMBLE BEES. ETC. 

and apical segments black. Beneath yellowish, hairy. 
Length. 7 1-2 lines. 

Female and worker unknown to me. 

One specimen. Connecticut. (Coll. Norton.)" 

Bohbus appenis Cresson. 

" Female. Head black. Thorax in front and on the sides 
yellow; between the wings black; scutellurn, yellow. 
Wings fu sco-hyaline. Legs black. Abdomen with the 
whole of the first and the sides and posterior margin of the 
second segments above yellow; remainder of the second 
segment rufo-fulvous ; remaining segments black ; be- 
neath black. Length, 8 lines. 

Male. Colored the same as the female, except a slight 
admixture of yellowish hairs on the vertex. Length, 8 
lines. 

Canada, (Saunders) : and New York, (Coll. Norton.)" 

APATHUS. 

The genus Apathus may be distinguished from JBombus 
by the males having broader fronts, and the tibiae being 
convex instead of concave on the outer side, the whole 
joint being rounder and thicker, while the first tarsal joint 
is longer and not so convex on the posterior edge as in 
Bombus, being very straight and oblong. 

The females are more easily known by having very acute, 
triangular, bidentate mandibles instead of having them spat- 
ulate and three toothed as in Bombus. The head is also 
shorter and broader ; the front is much broader, since the 
eyes are a little smaller, as are the ocelli : both the 
clypeus and labrum are shorter and broader, and the 
antennae are a little stouter. The tip of the abdomen is 
larger, acute, the surface convex and not concave as in 
Bombus, and the sides are flat, giving the tip a quadran- 
gular form. 

Apathus Ashtohi Cresson. 

This is the largest New England species yet discovered 
and differs very considerably in its coloration from the 
others. 

Female. The head is short and broad, the front broad 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 119 

and covered with short wholly black hairs. Thorax 
lemon-yellow above, descending partially down the sides 
in front of the fore wings ; there is a short lozenge- 
shaped black space, lying partly on the hinder edge of the 
meso-scutum and the anterior half of the scutellurn, 
while the hinder convex edge of this last piece is rather 
broadly margined with yellow. The two basal rings of the 
abdomen and half of the third are black, while the side of 
the third is yellow ; fifth ring black above, yellow on the 
sides ; tip naked, large, triangular, incurved, with an oval 
depression on the upper side ; beneath, the body is wholly 
black. Legs stout, short, black : tips of the tibise fuscous ; 
the inside of the first tarsal joint partially, or in certain 
lights, wholly deep fuscous ; remaining joints dark fus- 
cous ; the fifth one including the claws darker than the 
others. The wings are a little paler than in A. elatus, 
with black veins. Length, .75 ; breadth, .35 ; expanse of 
wings, 1.45 inches. 

O 7 

I have taken several female specimens of this handsome 
species during the middle and last of summer, at 
Brunswick, Me. There is one specimen, " No. 215," not 
labelled, in the Harris collection belonging to the Boston 
Society of Natural History, which, as nothing to the 
contrary is stated, must have been captured near Boston. 

In size and form and partially in its colors it is similar 
to B.fervidus, and is perhaps a parasite upon it. 

Apathus contiguus Cresson. 

Male. Front black; vertex yellow; thorax and two 
basal joints of the abdomen yellow ; body beneath, and the 
five terminal joints of the abdomen black. Legs black ; 
tarsi fuscous, the basal joint blackish except on the edges. 

It very closely resembles B. vagans Smith, differing from 
it by the nearly twice as broad front, which is black 
instead of yellow, as in B. vegans, and the body is entirely 
black beneath, where B. vagans has long yellow hairs. 
Length, .67 ; breadth, .28 inch. (Mus. Comp. Zool., Mr. 
Norton.) 

Apathus citrinus Smith. 

Male. Front black, a few greyish-yellow hairs on the 
vertex. Thorax and four baso-abdominal rings covered 



120 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

with sparse greyish-yellow hairs, being very thin between 
the wings, and on the middle of the fourth joint of. the 
abdomen ; beneath black. The abdomen is at the ex- 
tremity a little broader and more incurved than in the 
preceding species. My specimen is very pale greyish- 
yellow, Mr. Cresson however describes it as " pale lemon 
or greyish-yellow above and on the sides," and it is most 
probable that the specimen before me is hardly mature. 
Legs, outer half of tibiee, and tarsi fuscous. Length, .55 ; 
breadth, .28 inch. (Mus. Comp. Zool., Mr. Norton.) 

Apathus elatus Cresson. 

Male. Yery closely resembling B.fervidus Fabr. The 
head is black, rest of the body, except a black band 
between the wings, and the black tip of the abdomen 
deep lemon-yellow. Wings much darker than in the pre- 
ceding species. Legs black, sometimes dark fuscous ; 
femora clothed with yellowish hairs beneath. The extreme 
tip of the abdomen has a few fulvous, or yellow hairs. 
Distinguished from B. ferviclus chiefly by the black front. 
Length, .55 — .85 ; breadth, .25 — .35 inch. 



Nephopteeyx Hiibner. 
Nephopteryx Edmandsii nov. sp. 

Cinereous, with a decided purplish hue. Head, an- 
tennae, thorax and abdomen rather pale cinereous, con- 
colorous, without any dark scales ; palpi much darker at 
the tips and on the outer side; within paler. Fore wings 
with two transverse parallel lines ; the inner one a little 
outside of the basal third of the wing ; blackish, diffuse, 
angulated just before the costa, straight below ; a slight 
blackish discal dot ; the outer sub-marginal line is situated 
on the outer fourth of the wing ; it is dark within, the outer 
half pale, straight, angulated acutely opposite the discal 
dot ; not angulated in the costa ; just within this line and 
in front of the discal clot there is a pale patch, free from 
the dusky scales. An obscure marginal row of dots, the 
apical one much larger than the others. Fringe pale cine- 
reous. Secondaries, abdomen and legs uniform pale shiny 



OP NEW ENGLAND. 121 

cinereous ; the former paler towards the internal edge ; 
beneath both wings are nearly concolorous, the primaries 
a little darker however, but without any markings. 
Length of the body, .37; expanse of wings, .75 inch. 

Larva. Body cylindrical, tapering slightly towards 
each end. The head is of moderate size and somewhat 
flattened as usual, presenting the usual semi-elliptical 
form; the three simple eyes are placed in nearly a straight 
line parallel with the anterior edge of the pro-thoracic 
ring. The pro-thoracic (cervical) shield is sub-lunate ; 
each of the two succeeding rings is impressed by three 
transverse lines, forming four transverse ridges. On the 
abdominal rings there is but one of these impressed lines 
like the suture between the different rings, except that it 
extends only as far as the sides of each ring ; like the 
sutures they are roseate flesh-colored ; there are two 
sub-dorsal rows of minute setiferous tubercles, one on each 
elevation of the ring ; and a similar lateral row ; the 
pleural region is raised considerably ; of the nine stig- 
mata, the pro-thoracic one and the last abdominal one 
are the largest, and the pro-thoracic stigma is placed a 
little below the line of the others ; the supra-anal plate 
is semi-oval ; ten pairs of rather short abdominal (prop-) 
legs. Of a pale flesh-color with the lines and sutures 
deeper roseate. Length, .45 ; breadth, .08 inch. 

These larvae were observed Jan. 16th, twenty or more in 
number, in a box containing the remains of a nest of 
Bombus fervidus taken during the previous fall at Warwick, 
Mass. The larvae had eaten up all the cells, and while 
some were spinning their thin cocoons, which were very 
slight compared with those of Galleria, the honey-bee 
moth, others had died for want of food. 

Pupa. The body is obtusely spindle-shaped, since the 
upper and under sides are continuously convex from the 
head to the tip of the abdomen. Head prominent, the 
front convex ; epicranial piece large and broad, convex 
behind, on the sides deeply excavated for the insertion 
of the antennae ; the clypeus nearly round, being convex 
behind and on the sides, which narrow towards the square 
slightly concave front; in front of the clypeus is the 
transversely narrow labrum which is a little produced in 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. P. 



122 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

front and obtusely pointed ; in front are two triangular 
pieces, united for a slight distance along the mesial line, 
but they soon separate to allow the base of the niaxillas 
to pass up between them ; these last are very long and 
slender, and with the legs and wings extend down to the 
anterior edge of the fifth abdominal ring ; the forewings 
are long, narrow and acute, the outer edge very oblique, 
and continuous with the hind edge ; the pro-thorax is 
short, excavated in front, with a slight mesial tooth; the 
hind margin convex, with a mesial excavation corres- 
ponding to the tooth in front; there is a mesial ridge 
on the pro- and meso-thorax ; the meso-scutellum is sol- 
dered in front without suture, behind acutely pointed ; 
behind is (probably) the post-scut ellum, transversely 
linear, but distinct; meta-thorax as usual, square behind; 
the second pair of wings are visible at their insertion and 
along the hinder edge. Ten abdominal rings very equal 
in length, minutely punctured, smooth on the emarginated 
hind edge ; from the fifth, the tip slowly becomes conical ; 
the extreme tip is rather obtuse, not spinous, but with a 
few hairs. In color it is of the usual reddish testaceous 
tint, but paler than usual. Length, .34 ; breadth, .08 inch. 
The year after this larva was discovered at Warwick, Mr. 
Putnam raised it from the larva) found in bees' nests at 
Bridport. This species is respectfully dedicated to Miss 
A. M. Edmands of Cambridge, who was the first to draw 
attention to its interesting habits. In this respect it differs 
much from other species of the same genus. Ratzeburg 
in his " Forstinsecten" figures two species which feed on 
the pine leaves, and Dr. Clemens* describes the habits of 
two species which feed upon the American Elm. 

Microgasteb Latreille. 

MlCROGASTER NEPHOPTERICIS nov. Sp. 

Male. The body of this species is black with pale and 
black-brown legs. The eyes are provided with short scat- 
tered pale hairs thickest around the margin like those on 

*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philal. p. 205. 18G0. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 123 

the head, which is wholly black. The surface is finery 
punctured, and the front is covered with fine hairs, espec- 
ially thick on the middle of the clypeus where they form 
two lines of silvery hairs pointing inwards, while the lines 
themselves diverge outwards, thus forming a triangular 
space, and below is another triangle of silvery, but much 
shorter hairs on the labrum ; the four sub-ecrual jointed 
labial palpi are pale testaceous ; the basal joint darker ; 
the three-jointed maxillary palpi have the middle joint 
pale, the other two darker. The surface of the black 
thorax is hardly punctured, but finely and irregularly 
striated. The pale white wings contrast with the black 
body ; patagia pale testaceous ; base of the wings black, 
nervures pale ; the marginal one darkening towards the 
blackish pterostigma which is a little paler in the middle. 
Legs black at their base : outer two-thirds of first pair, 
outer half of second, and tip of third pair of femora pale ; 
fore and middle tibiae and tarsi pale, hind pair pale on the 
basal two-thirds ; the hind tarsi dark : all three pairs of 
claws blackish. Abdomen black, with a few pale sparse 
hairs. Length of body, .13 ; breadth, .03 ; length of one 
primary wing .09 inch. 

This species agrees well with the typical European 
species in most respects. The antennas are 18-jointed, 
and the joints are long cylindrical, impressed in the middle 
by a slight constriction. The neuration is like Eatzeburg's 
figure of M. flavllabris, but the pterostigma is a little 
broader, and the outer cubital cell is still more incomplete, 
no traces of the third and outer side of the minute trian- 
gular cell being present. 

Two males found by Mr. Putnam to be parasitic on the 
species of Nephopteryx described above, were raised by 
him while at Bridport, Yt. 



Coxops Linnreus. 

The history of this genus is very fragmentary. I quote 
from Westwood's " Modern Classification of Insects" a 
summary of what was known in regard to its habits up to 
the date of the publication of that work. "These insects are 



124 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

generally prettily colored, and are met with upon plants and 
flowers. The species are parasites in the larva state upon 
bees, as first discovered by Baumhauer. Latreille also 
states that the Gonops rufipes undergoes its transforma- 
tions in the interior of the abdomen of living humble bees, 
escaping at the margin of the segment, having reared four 
specimens of the Conops in a box in which he had placed 
some of the Bombi; and Messrs. Lachat and Audouin 
have published an interesting memoir upon an apod larva 
found in the intestines of Bombus lapidarius which La- 
treille attributed to this species of Conops. M. Robineau 
Desvoidy has also observed a species of Conops pursuing a 
Bombus with great patience, and flying on it several 
times (Gompjtes Bendus de V Acad. No. 23, 1836), as has 
also M. Dufour, who, moreover, possesses a Bombus terres- 
tris from the anal part of which a Gonops rufipes is depen- 
dent, the swollen extremity of the abdomen of -the latter 
being retained within the former. (Ann. 8c. Nat. Jan. 
1837.) I have also frequently observed Myopa atra flying 
about sand-banks in which were the burrows of various 
bees.' 7 Vol. n p. 560. 

I translate two passages from the memoir of Messrs. 
Lachat and Audouin*, referred to above, which describe 
the larva? and their habits. " A white, very soft and foot- 
less larva (figs. 1, 2, 3, 4,) was found the 7th July 1818, 
between the ovaries above the stomach, between it and 
the sting and under the dorsal vessel of a Bombus lapida- 
rius Fabr. which was deprived of its fat ; it had eleven 
rings, a long neck, a mouth, two lips, two hooks and 
several papillee dependant from the skin ; the rest of 
its body was distended, a little furrowed above and be- 
neath, by a longitudinal series of points grouped usually 
three by three on the side of each ring, which likewise 
appeared plainly constricted. The extremity opposed 
to the mouth, corresponds to the rectum of the Bombus, 
has an anus slit vertically, and two more elevated lateral 
plates, placed near each other and very curious in their 
organization and their importance. It bears much resem- 



*Memoire sur uue larve apode trouvee dans le bourdon des pierres. 
de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. 1823. Tom. i. p. 326-339. avec fig. 



Mem. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 125 

blance to Dlpoclium apiarium of Bosc, and is like several 
dipterous larvte described by Reaumur (Memoires, tomes 
iv and v.) M. Latreille refers it to Conojis rujepes of 
which he has found four individuals in a box in which he 
had placed some Bombus terrestris Fabr." 

" This larva, then, passes its first three stages, lodged 
directly within another insect, there living upon the fats, 
and receiving like most dipterous larvae, through its pos- 
terior openings, an abundant supply of air, that another 
being inspires for it. Already has M. Dumeril surmised, 
that from the curvature of its abdomen, the Conops must 
lay its eggs within the body of some other insect." 

The larvas are represented by the authors as being flask- 
shaped, convex above, flattened beneath, with the anterior 
portion of the body elongated and very slender ; while 
upon the obtuse anal extremity are placed the crescentic 
respiratory organs. 

We have nothing new to communicate respecting the 
habits of this genus, but merely to note the occurrence of 
a species which is parasitic either upon Bombus vagans 
Smith, or B.fervidus Fabr. Unfortunately the specimen 
died while issuing from the body of the bee so that the 
wings were not expanded and the colors were not devel- 
oped ; and since a colony of each of the two species above 
mentioned were pinned in the box, it is uncertain upon 
which species the Conops was a parasite. 

In the dilapidated specimen, which Baron Osten Sacken 
has referred to the genus Conops after reading my descrip- 
tion, the large eyes do not meet on the vertex, but their 
opposite edges are straight and parallel, leaving the front 
of the head between them of even width above and below, 
and as wide as the breadth of either of the eyes ; the 
front is deeply excavated for the reception of the antennas, 
on each side of a triangular prominence ; the antennas 
are apparently three-jointed ; the first very long, square, 
and truncated at the tip ; the second is a third shorter 
than the basal joint, but broader and conical, and contin- 
uous with the slender, minute, acute third joint ; the pro- 
boscis is very long, reaching nearly to the tip of the abdo- 
men and clavate at the extremity. The abdomen, is 
apparently somewhat shrivelled, and i? cylindrical, the 



126 PACKAED, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

tip a little obtuse and incurved. The legs are large and 
long, with stout joints and strong claws : the femora are 
dilated, the tip of the tibiae much enlarged : and the 
tarsal joints are broadly triangular. 



Notes on an unknown larva allied, to that of Volucella. . 

Westwood (Intr. n. p. 558) states that the " larvae of Vol- 
ucella reside in the nests of Bombi and Yespas, upon the 
larvge of which they subsist ; they have the body long, nar- 
rowed in front, transversely wrinkled, with fine lateral 
points, and the tail armed with six radiating points ; the 
mouth is armed with two bifid mandibles, and with three 
pairs of tentacula." The pupse of this genus have not 
been described, DeGeer figuring only the larva and imago 
of V. bombylans (Mem. torn. vi. tab. 8. fig. 4 — 9 ; and see 
Reaumur, Mem. torn. iv. pi. 33.) 

Several nests of Bombus fervidus and B. vagans were 
found by Mr. Putnam to be infested by larvae which it 
will be seen agree in many respects with the above 
description of those of Yolucella. 

They were 13-jointed. The terminal triangular portion 
appears to consist of a single ring, though in reality made 
up of three segments soldered together. In form the 
laiwaa are oval lanceolate, narrowing in front, and the 
dorsal surface is convex continuously from the head to 
the anal tip, and beneath flattened : with two dorsal and 
two lateral rows of stout bristles spinulated at the base. 
The head is broad oblong, flattened from above ; it is 
nearly as long as the pro-thoracic' ring, and two-thirds as 
broad ; very scpiare in front, the sides are parallel and very 
slightly convex, arising from the front edge of the head, 
and above the mouth are two minute seta? which do not 
appear to be jointed, or to differ structurally from the 
other spinules upon the surface of the body, except 
that they are simple ; these are all the appendages to the 
head that can be seen when the mouth is retracted: in 
one specimen however where the mouth is partially 
thrust out there is seen attached a v-shaped organ (max- 
illae '!) such as are described as occurring in Yolucella : on 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 127 

each side and near the base of the head is a convex raised 
vertical ridge, with its edge armed with obtuse short 
spines which probably protect a simple eye situated at the 
bottom of the depression. The middle of the body is 
nearly twice as wide as the pro-thoracic ring. All the 
rings are separated by well defined sutures ; they are 
convex, and angularly so on the sides ; the spines are 
very equal in length, the two dorsal rows approximate 
and are rather remote from the two lateral rows ; the 
tip of the abdomen, which, judging from the three pairs 
of spines, is originally composed of three rings, is semi- 
ovate, triangular in form, suddenly flattened above ; at 
the base is a pair of obsolete spines ; the remaining spines 
are longer than those on the front of the body, radiating 
outwards, but like them are armed at the base with three 
or four pairs of obtusely bifurcate spinules which stand 
out stiffly at right angles to the spine itself; the lon- 
gitudinal anal opening is protected on the sides with 
minute obtuse spines ; on the under side of each ring 
of the body, with the exception of the terminal one, are 
two transverse angulated ridges ; the front one smooth, 
while the posterior ridge is provided with a single row 
of minute teethlike spines. The larvse are of a dirty pale 
flesh color. The head is concolorous with the rest of the 
body and of but little harder consistence. Length, .36 ; 
breadth, .10 ; height, .07 inch. 

While bearing a general resemblance to the larva of 
Volucella as figured by Westwood, the} 7 differ in being 
much narrower, very hairy, or rather spinulated, and the 
terminal portion of the body is not provided with stout 
spines as in Volucella, but is continuously hairy with the 
rest of the body. 

I quote in this connection notices by Westwood of 
other dipterous genera which are parasitic on wild bees, 
with the hopes of stimulating observers in this country to 
search for these interesting parasites in the nests of 
American wild bees. 

"Some species of Anthrax were supposed by Latreille 
to be parasitic on bees, while Reaumur (Mim. torn. vi. pi. 
27. fig. 13) figures Anthrax, morio, of which he observes. 
" Plusieurs mouches de cette esp&ce ont ete tirees d'un 



128 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

nid creuse dans le bois". p. 290. " All these authors 
have, however, overlooked the direct observations of 
Schaffer, who has figured the larva, pupa and imago of 
Anthrax ornata (or a closely allied species) as one of the 
parasites in the nest of the Mason bee ( 'Megachile muraria) 
(Abhand. v. Ins. vol. n. pi. 5. figs. 11, 12, 13.)" 

"M. Y. Audouin has confirmed in his unpublished obser- 
vations the parasitic habits of Anthrax morio by rearing it 
from the nest of an Anthophora. He ha^ given me one of 
the exuviae of the pupa, which retains its previous pupa- 
form, and exactly resembles the pupa of Bombylius. He 
remarked that the Anthrax makes its way out of the cell 
of the bee, immediately before assuming the perfect state, 
by the assistance of its dorsal spines, in the same manner 
as Cossus. I have also found exactly similar exuviae in 
the nest of Megachile muraria." p. 534. 

The muscid genus Tachina besides attacking parasitically 
grasshoppers, caterpillars, the larvae of saw-flies and other 
insects, is known also to frequent the burrows of the 
smaller species of wild bees, such as the Andrenidae. 



Antheeophagus Latreille. 
Antherophagus ochraceus Melsheimer. 

Female. Pale testaceous honey yellow, with darker 
antennae, legs, and elytra ; the head and pro-thorax above 
and beneath are honey yellow ; the anterior two-thirds 
of the head, pro-thorax and elytra is covered with very 
fine yellowish hairs arising from the fine punctures which 
cover the upper part of the body ; the antennae are also 
very finely haired ; on the head the minute hairs are 
arranged longitudinally ; while upon the pro-thorax they 
all converge to a mesial point near the hind edge of the 
pro-notum. The elytra are a little darker especially along 
the suture. The ends of the antennal joints, the base of 
the coxae and tibiae, and tip of the terminal joint of the 
tarsi are black. Length of the body, .16 — .18; breadth, 
.06— .08 inch. 

This species was identified for me by Mr. F. G-. Sanborn 
of Boston. He informs me that the species is common 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 129 

on the flowers of the sweet briar and other Rosacese, 
but that my female specimen is much larger than usual. 
Hence the above description will not be out of place. 

Both at Warwick, Mass., and at Bridport, Yt., Mr. Put- 
nam found several nests of bees infested by this beetle. 
Though it is probable from the fondness which these in- 
sects manifest for the sweets of flowers, that they visit the 
nests of the bees for the purpose of consuming the honey 
stored up within them, we do not as yet know the extent 
of the injury they cause, or whether in their early stages 
of growth they are not true parasites. 



Larva of Meloe angusticollis Say. 

This insect, as is well known, is parasitic in its early 
larval stage on the bodies of wild bees, and dwells as a 
pupa in their nests. I have found them several 'times upon 
the bodies of Bombus, Halictus, and Andre?ia, with their 
heads plunged in between the head and thorax of their 
victims. During the flowering of the willows in April, I 
have found them in abundance upon the flowers, while 
those bees which had evidently brought them there were 
more or less infested by them. I have tried in vain as 
yet to rear the larvse by feeding the bees with sugar. 
They are comparatively hardy and with proper care in 
changing the bees as fast as they die can most probably 
be raised to maturity. They are very active in their 
habits, very quickly deserting the half-dead bee for a 
newly introduced and more lively one. 

I would here venture to suggest that there is nothing 
very abnormal in the development of this genus of Coleop- 
tera, so far as concerns the different forms of the young ; 
judging simply from the form of the semi-pupa figured by 
Newport, which is called by him and previous observers 
a distinct form equivalent to the larva and pupa form, I 
would suggest that that stage is simply the beginning of 
the pupa form. 

In studying the development of JBombus, I have ascer- 
tained that the semi-pupa takes on a most remarkable form, 
intermediate between that of the worm-like larva and the 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. Q. 



130 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

matured pupa : but the transitional forms between show 
that they gradually merge together. Owing to the great 
rapidity with which the pupa is developed beneath the 
larval skin which in most insects is hard and thick, the 
intermediate stages pass on so rapidly that we know really 
little about them. 

The " semi-pupa" as it may be called of Meloe has not 
been compared with the similar stage in other Coleoptera, 
of which we know almost nothing, hence it is not to be 
wondered at that so philosophic and acute an observer as 
Newport should call the immature pupa of Meloe, a fourth 
stage of existance, intermediate between the larval and 
pupal. 

The specific characters of our larva can be best brought 
out by comparing it with the figure of Newport.* It is 
shorter and broader throughout. The head and thoracic 
rings are together longer than the abdomen, which is 
shorter and more ovate than in the European species ; 
the head is longer and the pro-thoracic ring is longer 
than the two succeeding rings, where, according to New- 
port's figure, it is a little shorter than the mesial thoracic 
ring ; the two hinder rings also dilate more on the poste- 
rior edge, as do the abdominal rings ; the setae attached 
to the hinder edge of each abdominal segment, which are 
large and conspicuous in Newport's figure, are in our 
species minute, and the terminal setee are shorter ; the 
legs of our larvae are a little stouter than in the species 
referred to. Its color in the young is very pale, becom- 
ing in the full sized individuals nearly black. Length, .06; 
breadth, .02 inch. 



Notice of Stylops Childreni Gray. 

I was fortunate enough during the past spring and after 
this article was presented to the Institute, to discover the 
male of this species. 

According to Westwood (Modern Class. Insects) this 
species was discovered in the abdomen of a species of 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. 20. tab. 14. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 131 

Andrena, carried to England from Nova Scotia, Avhich was 
in the collection of Mr. G. B. Sowerby; it was figured by 
Prof. Westwood and with many details formed plate 59 of 
Griffith's Cuvier, Part Insects. Though named by Mr. 
Gray, no description has ever been made. The insect has 
not subsequently been noticed by observers in this coun- 
try. 

On the 29th of April I captured an Andrena placida 
Smith flying about the floAvers of the Mezercon. This 
specimen was stylopized, and flying briskly within the 
nest and in company with the bee was a male Stylops, 
which agrees in all respects with Westwood's figures, ex- 
cept that he does not represent the abdomen as being long- 
enough. In a few hours my specimen died, and its abdo- 
men long and flexible, which the insect had kept in con- 
stant motion, opening and shutting its large and broad 
anal forceps, soon partially dried up, then resembling more 
Westwood's figure which must evidently have been taken 
from a dried specimen. The whole body, the antennas 
and appendages of the mouth were velvety black ; abdo- 
men slightly brownish ; legs and anal forceps pale resinous 
brown ; the tarsal joints, and tips of tibias pale testaceous. 

I have little doubt but that this male was at the time of 
capture adhering to the body of the bee in order to unite 
with the wingless female within the abdomen of the bee, 
and thus the use of the long flexible abdomen and large 
terminal forceps are obvious. 

Is the wingless specimen a pupa, or female ? That it is 
a female, and was destined in about six weeks to produce 
immense numbers of young there can be little doubt.* 

I proceed to notice a female and young discovered dur- 
ing the preceding year. 

On the 18th of June while collecting Hymenoptera 
which were feeding upon the flowers of the garden Rasp- 
berry I captured an Andrena vicina Smith, which was 
stylopized. Near the middle of the abdomen, on the upper 
side, projected from between the rings, the flat triangular 
head of the female. Upon drawing out the whole body, 



* During the middle of May I captured two more of the same species of 
Andrena, each with a female Stylops within its body. 



132 PACKAKD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

which was very extensible, baggy and full of a thin fluid, 
I examined it under a high power and found multitudes, 
at least three hundred, of very minute, dust-like Stylops 
larvae issuing in every direction from the body of the 
parent. Most of them issued from near the head, over 
which they ran, as they must do when the parent is in its 
natural position, in order to get out upon the surface of 
the bee. The soft body of the female rapidly dried up, 
causing the death of many of the larva?, and as I was un- 
able to rear them, my only object in mentioning them now, 
is to describe briefly the appearance of the female and the 
young at the time of birth. It appears therefore that the 
female does not lay eggs, but is viviparous. Siebold was 
the first to show that the females were such, though ap- 
terous, wormlike, of so abnormal form and so different 
from the winged male ; and it seems a little strange that 
YVestwood and others should call- this form a " larva" 
when they plainly perceived that its body was filled with 
the newly hatched young. The head of the single female 
that fell under my observation resembles very closely the 
figures of Newport in the Linna?an Transactions ; it is 
flattened, triangular, nearly equilaterally so, with the apex 
or mouth-region obtuse, and the. two hinder angles each 
containing a minute simple eye ; the larger part of the head 
above consists of the epicranium, which is narrowed in 
front and its edge convex ; no clypeus, or labrum can be 
distinguished ; the mandibles are also obsolete, being two 
flattened portions lying in front of the " gena" and sepa- 
rated from that region by a very distinct suture : the mouth 
is transverse and opens on the upper side of the head, 
while in front lies the rather large labium, and the rounded 
papilliform maxillae. 

The larvae are in form linear elliptical : head semi-ovate, 
while the tip of the abdomen is truncate. The sides of 
the body are continuous, there being no suture between 
the segments ; seen laterally the larva is thickest at the 
meta-thoracic ring. Two simple eyes are lodged near the 
base of the head. The body is so transparent that the 
intestine can be traced easily to just before the tip, where 
it ends in a cul de sac. The two anterior pair of legs are 
much alike ; coxae short ; femora and tibiae small, cylindri- 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 133 

cal ; a single slender tibial spur ; tarsi consisting of a single 
clavate joint equalling the tibia in length, much swollen at 
the tip, where no claws can be discovered ; the hind tarsi 
are longer, very slender, two jointed, the terminal one being- 
bulbous. The pair of terminal stylets inserted in the four- 
teenth and terminal joint of the body are a little more than 
one half the length of the body. The whole body, espe- 
cially the abdomen is partially covered with long setose 
scales, which project from the side of each ring. In color 
the body is pale grayish. 

In their movements these infinitesimal laryae were very 
active, as they scrambled over the surface of the body of 
the parent or of the glass slide, holding their caudal setas 
nearly erect. 



Notes on a new species of Anthopliorabia 'parasitic on the 

Leaf-cutting Bee, and a new genus of Myrmarides 

probably parasitic on the former. 

In Westwood's " Introduction to the Modern Classifica- 
tion of Insects," we find the following notices of chalcid 
parasites on wild bees and wasps. " Pteromalus apum 
is parasitic gregariously in the nest of the mason bee. A 
brood of Encyrtus varicornis was obtained by Esenbeck 
from a cell of Eumenes coarctata. Reaumur has described 
and figured (Mem. vi. pi. 20, fig. 2, and pi. 21, fig. 3,) a 
species of Chalcis, which is parasitic in the nests of the 
American wasp (Epipone nidulans) and which he regard- 
ed as the female of that wasp." Westwood also mentions 
that Monodontomerus lives in the nests of Osmia, the ma- 
son bee ; and on the authority of Audouin states that the 
same genus is also " parasitic in the provisioned nests of 
Odynerus, Anthophora and Osmia. The male has most 
singular antennas, and minute rudiments of wings, so that 
it does not quit the cell." 

Newport* has given us many new details of the history 
of the wild bee parasites. He states that the larvee of 
Monodontomerus are flat, very hairy, and spin silken co- 

* On the Anatomy and Development of certain Chalcidge and Ichneu- 
monidas. Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. 21, 1855. 



134 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

coons when about to pupate. The imago appears about 
the last of June, perforating the cell of the bee. The lar- 
va is an " external feeding parasite" consuming the pupa 
as well as the larva of Anthophora. Very full information 
is given concerning the habits and structure of two spe- 
cies of a new genus of these minute parasites, which he 
calls Anthophorabia. The males differ remarkably from 
the females, especially in having simple eyes instead of 
compound organs of sight, besides the usual three ocelli. 

We were fortunate enough in cutting open the cells 
of Megachile centuncularis, brought by Mr. Putnam from 
Bridport, Vt., to find that nearly a dozen were ichneu- 
moned by these parasites. There were counted in one cell 
upwards of one hundred and fifty of the larvae ; whereas 
Mr. Newport only found thirty to fifty in a cell of Antho- 
phora. A few perfect females had hatched out, it being 
the middle of October, and there were besides a few pupa?, 
but the large majority were larvae which have survived 
the winter as such, so that a new and much larger spring 
brood of the Chalcids must appear, when it is to be hoped 
we shall have an opportunity of describing the male. 
The larvae were all clustered upon the outside of the 
dead and dry Megachile larva. 

Upon one of the female Anthophorabia I accidentally 
discovered an exceedingly minute Proctotrupid, one-nin- 
tieth of an inch in length, which I am unable to refer to 
any known genus, and which will be found partially 
described on a following page ; it is highly probable that 
it is an egg-parasite, as are most of the Mymaridas, to 
which section it properly belongs ; and it is not too large 
to live in the eggs of the Anthophorabia, small as the last 
named insect is. 

Anthophorabia. megachilis nov. sp. 

Female. The head is very stout, broad and flattened 
posteriorly ; the front is rounded ovate, narrowing a little 
anteriorly ; the occiput is very distinct, and its vertex is 
very considerably elevated and slightly angulated ; above 
the ocelli-bearing piece it is linear, but towards the eyes 
widens out into a linear triangular portion ; in front, is a 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 135 

tranversely oblong piece bearing the three ocelli ; in front 
of this is a smooth triangular area which rapidly contracts 
to a narrow line which connects this area with the ante- 
rior portion of the epicranium, thus dividing the front 
region of the head into two lateral halves composed of the 
large broad pieces, unusually developed in this genus, 
which bear the ovate eyes ; the anterior portion of the 
epicranium is narrow triangular, and its surface is very 
convex ; clypeus very short, tranversely linear oblong ; 
the mandibles are long and narrow, their tips very acute 
and slightly incurved ; antenna? nine-jointed ; second joint 
nearly as long as all the remaining ones collectively, a little 
dilated beyond the middle, but not bent so much as in A. 
fasciata Newp.; the succeeding four joints are shorter and 
more closely united together than in A. fasciata and the 
three terminal ones are united apparently into a single 
joint more acute than in the European species. Thorax 
and abdomen much flattened, hardly convex above ; pro- 
thorax longer than broad, triangular ; meso-scutum very 
small, trapezoidal, the sides converging a little towards 
the scutellum, which is larger than the scutum, oblong, 
twice as long as broad, the sides very exactly parallel and 
a little convex behind next the curved transversely oblong 
post-scutellum ; on each side is a linear oblong parapsidal 
piece, and the parapsidal pieces on each side of the 
scutum are here especially marked, occupying a space 
larger than the scutum itself; m eta- thorax narrow, small, 
shorter than broad. The fore wings have the costa divided 
into three convex portions of which the basal third is 
most convex ; the sub-costal nervure follows these convex- 
ities, terminating nearly at the outer third of the wing, 
directed inwards at its extremity towards the middle of 
the wing, being more incurved than in A. fasciata. Hind 
wings nerveless, lanceolate, obtusely angulated in the 
middle of the costa, apex sub-acute. The legs are rather 
long and slender ; coxse long ; femora, especially the hind 
ones, considerably swollen ; tibia? long, slender, not dilated 
at the extremity, with very slight and unequal spurs ; 
tarsi five-jointed, slender, of very equal length, not dilated 
at the extremity, hairy and having the tip of each joint 
provided with a slender spine. The six-jointed abdo- 



136 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

men is flattened, oblong, ovate, the sides quite paral- 
lel ; tip a little obtuse ending in the slightly exserted 
ovipositor which is only visible from beneath. The body 
is of a uniform pitchy blackish brown including the entire 
head and antennas. The legs are of a uniform pale testa- 
ceous honey yellow. Length, .04 inch. 

Pupa. Side view. Head and thorax very exactly 
equal in length to that of the abdomen. The head is very 
narrow, and the rather long ovate eyes are situated nearly 
midway between the vertex and the anterior edge of the 
" gena" near where the antennae are inserted. The thorax 
is bent at nearly right angles to itself a little in front of 
the middle ; the terminal half of the antennas lie hear and 
parallel to the wings and the middle pair of long slender 
legs, which last reach to the middle of the abdomen. The 
first pair of legs are seen bent upon themselves midway 
between the insertion of the wings and the head ; only the 
femora and tibiae are visible, the tarsi being laid under the 
antennae and the front of the head. Only the first pair of 
wings are visible, being inserted just halfway from the 
vertex of the head to the base of the abdomen ; they are 
long and narrow oblong, and in length equal the distance 
from the vertex of the head to a point parallel with the 
base of the abdomen. From under the tip of the wings 
proceed the tarsi of the last pair of legs, which terminate a 
little beyond the basal third of the abdomen ; they are a 
little incurved towards the middle of the sternal surface. 
The meso-scutellum is distinctly seen, and is quite sepa- 
rate from the meta-thorax, when the body of the pupa is 
slightly contracted. In outline, the abdomen is elongate 
oval ; the pleural line between the tergum and under side 
runs diagonally from the tergum of the base to near the 
tip. The minute, slender ovipositor surrounded by the 
pupal membrane projects considerably beyond the tip. 

It differs very considerably from Newport's figure of 
the pupa (side view) of A. fasciata. The head is larger 
and the vertex much lengthened, rising up beyond the 
thorax which is stouter and bent at right angles to itself, 
while in A. fasciata it is simply convex. The wings are 
laid straight upon the side of the body, while in A. fasci- 
ata they are directed a little forwards. 



OP NEW ENGLAND. 137 

Seen from below, in its general outline, the insect is 
long, narrow, elliptical ovate. The head is ovate, being 
longer than broad, and narrowing in front of the eyes ; the 
vertex is very high and convex ; eyes remote, the interme- 
diate space broad and curvilinearly ridged just within the 
eyes ; between the insertion of the antennae and the eyes 
is a broad space ; the antennae are inserted near the ante- 
rior fourth of the front of the head ; they are elbowed at 
the end of the second joint, which, projects at a right angle 
beyond the head, thence they are folded upon the ster- 
num, converging slightly, and their very acute tips reach 
to just before the coxae of the second pair of legs. All 
the three pairs of coxae are visible. The forelegs termi- 
nate at the second pair of coxae. The ovipositor seems as 
if a continuation of the mesial ridge, and is nearly one- 
third the length of the entire abdomen. 

Larva. Body short and thick, fourteen jointed, cylin- 
drical, both extremities much alike ; the larva assumes a 
lunate form, the head being inclined towards the tip of the 
abdomen, which is likewise incurved ; the head is conco- 
lorous with the rest of the body, which is pale, pearly 
white ; the rings are slightly convex, with no lateral raised 
line; terminal anal segment orbicular and rather large. 
Length, .04 inch, being one-third as broad as long. 



Pteratomus* nov. gen. 

This genus will be easily distinguished from Anagrus, 
to which it is nearest related, by the obtusely conical 
abdomen and the narrower linear wings. The generic 
characters laid down by authors are so scanty that the 
comparison with other genera of this group cannot be car- 
ried farther. In the figure, a side view of the insect is giv- 
en, and the following description is made from the insect in 
that position. Owing to its minute size the single speci- 
men was unfortunately lost from the glass slide before a 
complete description could be prepared. Hence I am 
unable to state the number of tarsal joints, or the exact 

* Prom the Greek pteron, a wing, and atomos, an atom. 
ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. R. 



138 PACKARD, HUMBLE BEES, ETC. 

number of the antermal joints, since the) 7 could not be 
distinctly made out with the light used ; the figure repre- 
sents the insect when magnified 250 diameters. It will be ' 
noticed that one of the fore wings is fissured, while the 
other is undivided, but has the base of the inner edge of 
the wing dilated into a tooth-like expansion, at a point 
corresponding to the origin of the lower branch in the , 
other, wing. I am inclined to think that the simple wing 
is the normal form. The fact that one of the wings is 
fissured is interesting as showing the tendency of the wings 
of a low Hymenopterous insect to be fissured like those 
of Pterophorus and Alucita, the lowest Lepidopterous 
genera. In the figure I have not attempted to place the 
wings in their natural position. It will also be noticed 
that the right hind tibia and tarsus were wanting in the 
specimen The species, which so far as I am aware is 
unclescribed, is dedicated to my friend Mr. Putnam, who 
has enabled me to bring it to the notice of entomologists. 

Pteratomus Putnamii nov. sp. 

Male. Side view. Head very large, equalling the tho- 
rax in size, but surpassing that of -the abdomen; in out- 
line sub-rhomboidal, five sided, the vertex being equal in 
length to the under side of the head ; the greatest length 
of the head is from the base to the obtuse point in front 
of the eyes ; the eyes are large, globose, occupying a 
third of the side of the head; antennae equalling in length 
the thorax; divided into three portions, the basal thick and 
cylindrical, the fourth joint large atfd much swollen, while 
the terminal joints form a slender cylindrical tip. The 
thorax is short and high ; the outline of the tergum is 
very convex, especially above the inserfion of the wings ; 
the hind edge of the meso-scutum extends a little behind 
the middle of the entire thorax, whence it descends at 
an angle of 50° to the insertion of the abdomen ; the 
wings are nearly twice the length of the body; the fore- 
wings in the single specimen are dissimilar, since one is 
deeply fissured into two linear spatulate feather-like por- 
tions, while the edges of the wing are fringed with long 
nearly straight hairs ; the other primary is as large as the 
former, but a little longer, it is entire, spatulate, dilated 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 139 

slightly on the base of the inner edge, with a central row 
of fine scales representing a median nervure, and the 
edges of the wings are fringed with hairs much longer 
than those on the other wing, and a little curved, thus 
giving a graceful, feather-like appearance to the wing. 
The hind wings are half as large, very slender linear and 
fringed like the forewings. Legs very long and slender, 
hardly longer than the whole body, hairy on the tibiae and 
especially so on the tarsi ; coxa3 long and narrow ; all 
-the remaining joints are very equal in length and size in 
each pair of legs ; femora linear, not swollen ; tibiae linear ; 
tarsal joints very indistinct, slender and hairy beneath ; 
no claws distinguishable. Abdomen compressed, triangu- 
lar, truncated broadly at the tip which is obtusely rounded. 
In color the species is of a uniform dark piceous, with 
pale, almost whitish legs. Length, one-ninetieth of an 
inch. 

A species of mite is also abundant in the nests of bees. 
According to Mr. Putnam several of our species of Bombus 
almost invariably occupy the forsaken nests of field mice, 
and he supposes that these mites which are of comparatively 
large size, come from the mice. This opinion is most 
probably the correct one. Mr. Newport has given a most 
interesting account of a new genus of mites peculiar to 
Anthophora which lives on that wild bee in all stages of its 
existence, but mostly while a larva. Heteropus ventricosus 
Newp. was found in immense numbers in the bee cells. 
When the female mite is full grown, its previously small ab- 
domen swells to an enormous size, so that the animals look 
like " clusters of microscopic grapes." This immensely 
distended abdomen serves as a nidus for the young, which 
it is probable, are born alive, as Lyonnet has observed to 
be the case with the cheese-mite when exposed to high 
temperatures. (It is worthy of notice that the viviparous 
Stylops lives in a high temperature ; i. e. in the abdomen of 
living bees.) We also learn that there are two other gen- 
era of Acari peculiar to the Apidge; the Trichodactylus 
Dufour which is parasitic on Osmia, and Ansetus Dujardin. 



140 BALCH, ON NATIVE GRAPES. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 3. 

Fig. 1. Apathus Ashtoni Cresson. 

Fig. 2. Nephoptekyx Edmandsii Packard : 2a, Larva ; 2b, Pupa. 

Fig. 3. Microgaster nephoptericis Packard : 3a, side view. 

Fig. 4. Axtherophagus ochraceus Melsheimer. 

Fig. 5. Dipterous larva, allied to Volucella : 5a, side view. 

Fig. 6. Larva of Sttlops children! Gray : 6a, side view. 

Fig. 7. Larva of Anthophorabia megachilis Packard : 7a, Pupa. 

Fig. 8. Pteratomus Putnamii Packard, side view : 8a, Fore wing. 

Fig. 9. Mite from nest of Bornbus : 9a, ventral view (enlarged). 



VIII. On Native Grapes. By D. M. Balch. 

( Read December 26, 1864. ) 

It has been proved from numberless trials and disap- 
pointments extending over a long course of years, that 
the wine grape of Europe ( Vitis vinifera) cannot be cul- 
tivated in the States east of the Rocky Mountains, with 
success, except under glass, both fruit and vine in open 
air culture, being sooner or later destroyed by disease, 
even in latitudes where the fruit would otherwise be per- 
fected. 

This much to be regretted failure is due neither to the 
cold of winter nor the heat and aridity of summer, but 
probably to the great and rapid fluctuations of tempera- 
ture peculiar to these States ; for on the Pacific coast 
where the climate is far more equable most European 
grapes flourish luxuriantly, and the bearing vines of Cali- 
fornia now number millions. 

Such being the case we in the East must turn for our 
table fruit and wine to the various indigenous wild grapes, 
(Vitis labrusca, cestivalis, &c.) healthy and hardy plants, 
which grow spontaneously, varying in kind with the cli- 
mate from Maine to Texas. The fruit of these wild vines 
is in most cases of the very worst quality, being acid, 
astringent and of a peculiar musky odour and taste, 
the so-called foxiness ; but that horticultural skill and pa- 
tience, by which have been elaborated from the common 
choke-pear all our well known varieties, approaching per- 



BALCH, ON NATIVE GRAPES. 141 

fection in quality and ripening throughout the entire year, 
is being applied to the wild grape, and the results of 
the few past years are astonishing. The goal of per- 
fection in this case is still far distant, but we have many 
good and some excellent varieties ; and the number of 
these is being yearly augmented, so that it is by no 
means improbable that many grapes, hitherto pojmlar, will 
be gradually discarded as others of better quality or habit 
arise to fill their places : I refer to the Isabella, Catawba, 
Hartford, &c, in all of which there is large room for im-'" 
provement. 

To be of value as a table fruit or for wine a grape must 
contain a sufficient quantity of free acid, and sugar enough 
to temper, modify or partially disguise this acid, so that 
the juice shall not be flat and insipid but vinous and spark- 
ling. In the case of table grapes the minor considera- 
tions of size, beauty, flavour, thin skin, deficiency of cen- 
tral pulp, etc , are of great importance, but the first point 
to be ascertained in a wine grape is the quantity of free 
acid and saccharine matter it is likely to produce in fav- 
ourable circumstances. 

To ascertain which (if any) of the native grapes ordi- 
narily ripening in this vicinity, was best adapted to wine- 
making, I have this autumn analyzed the fresh must of 
many varieties. I had also another object in view, viz : 
to ascertain if the table adapted to Oechsle's must-scale 
by Gall, from numerous analyses of European musts in 
1851, '52 and '53, were applicable to the must of our native 
grapes. 

The method of analysis in all cases was as follows. The 
grapes were gathered when perfectly dry, pressed and the 
juice strained through linen. The specific gravity of this 
clear must was taken by weight in bottle with perforated 
stopper ; a portion of must was diluted with 50 times its 
bulk of water and sugar contents ascertained by Fehling's 
method, (Annalen der Chemie und Pharm., Bd. 72. S. 
106.) ; this method is very accurate if carefully performed: 
finally the free acid in a weighed portion was neutralized 
by a solution of caustic soda of such strength that 1 c. c, 
equalled .00825 grm. of Tartaric acid (0 8 H 6 13 ). All 
the free acid in must is not Tartaric, but in calculatino; 



142 BALCH, OS NATIVE GRAPES. 

results we can consider it so with small inaccuracy. The 
percentage results obtained are as follows : 



Variety. Time of Gathering. 


Sjj. dr. 


Sugar. 


Add. 


Rogers' Xo. 15. 


Sept. 


5, 




9.20 




K (i I'. 




26. 


1.0783 


10.47 


.66 


It Ci 


Oct. 


5. 


1.0839 


-17.90 


■ .70 


Delaware. 






1.0896 


19.70 


.70 








1.1021 


20.63 


.65 


Hartford Prolific, 


Sept. 


26. 


1.0721 


15.01 


.43 


Concord. 






1.0615 


11.83 


.86 


Adirondac. 


Oct. 


5. 


1.0714 


14.00 


.28 


Allen's Hybrid, 






1.0780 


-16.20 


.59 


Union Tillage. 






1.0556 


-10.00 


1.21 


Rogers' Xo. 4. 


Sept. 


26, 


1.0749 


15.46 


.61 


a .. a 


Oct, 


5 > 


1.0819 


-17.30 


.65 


" Xo. 22. 


Sept. 


26, 


1.0723 


14.56 


.76 


a u a 


Oct. 


5. 


1.0796 


-16.70 


.59 


Clinton. 


Sept. 


26. 


1.0688 


13.77 


2.40 


Alvey (Hagar). 




21, 


1.0640 


10.37 


2.60 




Oct. 


5. 


1.0734 


-14.70 


2.02 


Franklin. 


Sept. 


•5, 




^.77 








a 


a 


21, 


1.0610 


11.20 


2.16 


Rogers' Xo. 3. 


•; 


26, 


1.0734 


14.70 


.66 


U 


Oct. 


5. 


1.0749 


-15.30 


.47 


« 19, 


Sept. 


26, 


1.0680 


13.65 


.81 


u u L 


Oct. 


5. 


1.0665 


12.60 


.62 


« 9, 


Sept. 


21. 


1.0680 


13.41 


.87 


it .. u 


.. 


26, 


1.0742 


15.00 


.57 


« 33. 




a 


1.0572 


11.70 


1.01 


- 41. 




•■ 


1.0749 


15.63 


.76 


" 30. 


Oct. 


5, 


1.0630 


-11.80 


.84 



The sugar percentage marked - in the table were not 
obtained by analysis, but are Dr. Gall's for the corres- 
ponding densities. 

From these analyses native grapes would seem to be 
divided into three classes : — 

1st. Those in which the proportions of acid and sugar 
are well balanced: as Delaware. Rogers' 4 and 15, Allen's 
Hybrid. &c. : these grapes should yield good wine. 



BALCH, OX NATIVE GRAPES. 143 

2d. Those in which the acid is deficient ; for instance, 
Adirondac, Hartford, &c. 

3d. Those in which the great excess of acid overpow- 
ers all else and renders the fruit nearly uneatable : such 
are Clinton, Franklin, &c. 

The analyses also prove that Dr. Gall's table for Oech- 
sle's must scale can be safely used in finding the saccha- 
rine contents of native musts, the numbers obtained by 
analysis agreeing closely in most instances with the tabu- 
lar amounts for corresponding densities. 

To produce a wine that shall keep it is necessary that 
the must should contain at least 15 per cent, of sugar. 

In Germany the must of the best grapes (Riesling) of 
the most favourable seasons contains 24 — 28 per cent, of 
sugar, .65 per cent, of free acids ; this yields the most ex- 
cellent wine, and is regarded as the normal standard with 
which inferior musts are compared and often made to re- 
semble as far as possible by dilution and addition of sugar. 

This method of bettering the must of partially ripened 
grapes, by which in bad seasons (total failures excepted) 
a wine can be made equal to the product of favourable 
seasons, is due to Dr. Ludwig Gall, who has published a 
treatise on the subject, an abridged translation of which 
may be found in the Patent Office Report, Agriculture, 
1860. 

To be of value for the production of wine, available for 
vineyard culture, a vine should be hardy enough to endure 
severe winters with slight protection ; healthy and vigor- 
ous, so as to be little subject to the attacks of mildew, for 
it is very well known that a vine which has lost most of 
its foliage from this or any other cause cannot ripen its 
fruit. Injury from frost is little to be feared if the fruit be 
well ripened before its advent ; the clusters should hang 
on the vine as long as the weather permits, and the ripest 
(better if slightly shrivelled) removed in three or four 
successive gatherings ; they should be picked on a dry 
day and all defective berries removed. Many things influ- 
ence early ripening, among which are soil, position, cul- 
ture, variety and age of vine and crop adapted to its 
strength. The flavour of wine depends on the ripeness 
of the grapes and the proper proportion of free acids ; this 



144 BALCH, ON NATIVE GRAPES. 

flavour is not present in the must but is developed during 
fermentation and the after-preservation of the wine. 

It might appear that undue preference had been given 
in these analyses to the " Rogers' Hybrids" ; this is sim- 
ply owing to the fact that these grapes, arising from the 
union of the wild grape ( Vitis labrusca) with the Black 
Hamburgh, and retaining some features of both, are more 
largely planted in this vicinity than other varieties, and 
are consequently more plenty in their season. 

It has been asserted that these grapes are not true hy- 
brids, but only seedlings of the " Mammoth Globe," and 
contain no foreign blood whatever. Such a conclusion is 
diametrically opposed to the horticultural experience of a 
century. For it is a well known fact that out of a large 
number, say five hundred chance seedlings of any fruit, 
but one or two at most will excel their parent ; but these 
remarkable " seedlings," some forty in number, have not 
a bad grape among them, and are so far superior to the 
" Mammoth Globe" as to preclude all comparison. Their 
admixture of foreign blood is patent in the heavy clusters 
of fruit, so far pulpless as to yield 75 — 80 per cent, of 
juice, and the indigenous element recognizable in the 
health, hardiness and habit of the vine. 

The chief value of analyses of grape-must lies in their 
repetition and comparison. The product of various sea- 
sons, climates and soils should be examined. If this is 
done we shall soon arrive at the grapes suitable for wine in 
different latitudes, and no doubt other important results. 
Those parts of the country lying on an Isotherm of 70°-72° 
for the growing months, June, July, August, and Septem- 
ber, wherever the summer rains are not excessive, are best 
adapted to wine growing ; for a mean temperature of at 
least 65° for the above months is required for the ripening 
of even the earliest and hardiest varieties of grapes. The 
average temperature of Salem and vicinity, as deduced from 
observations extending over 45 years, is about 66.5°, and 
several degrees above this can be gained in well cultivated 
and protected gardens. 

The above analyses are imperfect, several prominent 
grapes having been omitted, but I hope to extend and im- 
prove the collection at some future time. 



CLASSIFICATION OF POLYPS. 145 

IX. Classification of Polyps: (Extract condensed from 
a Synopsis of the Polypi of the North Pacific Exploring 
Expedition, under Captains Ringgold and Podgers, U. 8. 
K). By A. E. Verrill. 

(Communicated February 29, 1865.) 

The report upon the collection made by Dr. William 
Stimpson, naturalist to the expedition, having been much 
delayed, the following tabular view of the classification 
adopted is here presented, with the hope that, if imper- 
fect like every other, it may, nevertheless, afford some 
aid in illustrating the natural affinities of these humble 
forms. 

Although in a communication read before a Zoological 
Club at Cambridge, Jan. 1862, I attempted to demon- 
strate the existence of the three natural orders among 
polyps, I refrained from presenting this view in a paper 
published last year, in order that I might make further 
investigations upon the subject before finally publishing it. 



CLASS CNIDARIA OR POLYPI. 



ORDER I. MADREPORARIA. 

Polyps simple or compound with embryonic or rudimen- 
tary basal orabactinal region, which has no special function 
unless for vegetative attachment while young. Actinal 
area well developed, form broadly expanded, having a 
tendency in the higher groups to become narrowed 
towards the mouth. Tentacles simple, conical. Dermal 
tissues, and usually the radiating lamella?, depositing solid 
coral ; the radiating plates being between the lamellae, are, 
therefore, ambulacral and appear to originate from the 
surfaces of the lamella? and the connective tissues extend- 
ing across the ambulacral chambers and filling them from 
below. Interambulacral spaces distinct. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. S. 



146 VERRILL, CLASSIFICATION 

Suborder I. Stauracea ( Madreporaria rugosa*). 

Coral simple, or compound by budding ; chiefly epider- 
mal and endothecal ; septa apparently in multiples of four, 
sometimes wanting. Type embryonic, like a young Astrea 
or Fungia. 

Families, — Stauridm, CyatJiophyllidce, Cyathaxonidw, 
Cystiphyllidai. 

Suborder II. Fungacea. 

Polyps either simple or compound by marginal or disk 
budding, rarely by fissiparity. Tentacles numerous, in 
multiples of six, imperfectly developed, scattered on the 
actinal surface, usually short and lobe-like. Upper part 
of polyps scarcely exsert. Coral broad and low, growth 
mostly centrifugal, tissue chiefly septal ; walls imperfectly 
developed, often perforate, subordinate, usually forming 
the basal attachment. 

Families, — Cyclolitidce, LopJioseridw, Fungidoz, Merulini- 
dai. 

Suborder III. Astreacea. 

Polyps mostly compound, either by fissiparity or vari- 
ous modes of budding. Tentacles usually well developed, 
long, subcylindrical, limited in number, in multiples of six 



* This group is placed here with considerable hesitation and princi- 
pally on account of the close resemblance in structure to the young 
of the succeeding and higher groups, when they first begin to form 
a coral, which then consists of a ring of epitheca or epidermal deposit 
with a few, imperfect, rugose septa radiating from the centre. If the 
number four be a constant feature of the arrangement of their septa, it is 
possible that they may be entitled to rank as a separate order of Pobyps. 
To this opinion Prof. J. D. Dana inclines. Prof. Agassiz unites the 
group with Hydroid Acalephs on account of their resemblance, in some 
features, to the Tabulata. It seems to me, however, that the absence of 
transverse plates in Cyathaxonidce and CysliphyUidcc and the perfection of 
the vertical septa in Stauridce, Cyathaxonidce and some of the Cyathophyl- 
iidcB, together with their general structure, shows them to be more closely 
allied to the Fungacea and Astreacea, of which they may be considered 
embryonic types, while at the same time the group is a synthetic one, 
having analogies with nearly all the higher groups of Polyps and also in 
some respects, with Hydroids. 



OF POLYPS. 147 

encircling the disk. Coral mural, septal and endothecal ; 
growth vertical and centrifugal, producing turbinated 
forms which are often elongated. 

Families, — Lithophyllidce, Mmandrinidoe, JEJusmillidce, 
Caryophyllidaz, Stylinidce, Astreince, Ocidinidw, Stylo- 
phoridoz. 



Suborder IV. Madreporacea (Madrepor aria perforata). 

Tentacles in definite numbers, twelve or mo.re, well de- 
veloped, encircling the narrowed disk, therefore nearer the 
mouth : polyps with the upper portion much exsert, flexile; 
growth chiefly vertical ; coral mural and septal, porous. 
Polyps compound by budding, sometimes simple. 

Families, — JEupsammidce, Gemmiporidce, Poritidce, Mad- 
reporidai. 



ORDER II. ACTINARIA. 

Polyps with well developed, often highly specialized, 
basal or abactinal region. Walls well developed, tenta- 
cles longer, more concentrated around the mouth, which 
is also, usually, if not always, furnished with special tenta- 
cular lobes or folds. Ambulacral spaces always open, 
destitute of connecting tissues and solid deposits. 



Suborder I. Zoanthacea. 

Polyps encrusting, adherent, budding from mural expan- 
sions ; tentacles simple, short, at edge of disk. 
Families, — Zoanthidce,, JBergidce. 



Suborder II. Antipathacea. 

Polyps connected by a ccenenclryma, secreting a solid 
sclerobase or coral axis. Tentacles few, six to twenty- 



148 VERRILL, CLASSIFICATION 

four, simple, conical. 

Families, — Antipathidce, Gerardidce. 

Suborder III. Actinacea. 

Polyps free, capable of locomotion, with a highly spec- 
ialized, muscular base or abactinal area. Tentacles well 
organized, either simple or branched', varying from ten to 
many hundreds, often with accessory organs arising from 
the same spheromeres, such as inner tentacles, verrucas, 
complicated or simple branchial lobes, cinclidge, eye- 
spherules, suckers, etc. Mouth with special lobes or folds. 
Most of the species are simple, a few are compound by 
fissiparity, many abnormally bud from the wall near the 
base, a few secrete from the base a horn-like deposit 
similar to the axis of Antipathes. 

Families, — Acti)iidce, Thalassianthidce, Minyidce, Ilyan- 
thidce, Cerianthidce. 

ORDER III. ALCYONARXA. 

Polyps with well developed actinal, mural and abactinal 
regions, compound by budding. Tentacles eight, pin- 
nately lobed, long, encircling a narrow disk. No inter- 
ambulacral spaces. Ambulacral ones open and wide. 



Suborder I. Alcyostacea. 

Polyps turbinate at base, budding in various ways, 

encrusting, adherent to foreign bodies by the ccenenchyma. 

Families, — Alcyonidce, Xenidce, Cormdaridce, Tubiporidce. 



Suborder II. Gorgoxacea. 

Polyps cylindrical, short, connected by a ccenenchyma, 
secreting a central supporting axis. 

Families, — Goirjonidce, Plexauridce, Primnoidm, Gorgon- 
ettidce, Isidce, Corallidce, Briaridce. 



OF POLYPS. 149 

SUBOEDEE III. PENNATUALACEA. 

Polyps forming free, moving colonies, the composite 
basal portion with locomotive functions and special 
cavities, with or without a solid free axis. 

Families, — Pennatulidce, Pavonaridce, Veretillidce, Renil- 
lidoe. 



Among the most interesting species in this collection 
the following may be mentioned : 

Stephanoseeis lamellosa Verrill. 

Cora] low, subcylindrical, with a broad base, which 
completely covers small univalve shells with the exception 
of the opening; wall rudimentary; septa in four cycles, 
the primaries much the largest with subentire rounded 
tops ; columella well developed, papillose, costas prom- 
inent, unequal. 

Loo Choo Islands. Dr. Wm, Stimpson. 



Heteeocyathus alteenata Verrill. 

A low species with very unequal septa and costae, the 
primary septa very prominent. Encrusts and covers small 
univalve shells. 

Gaspar straits. Capt. John Rodgers. 



Balanophyllia capensis Verrill. 

A species about half an inch high, broadly attached, 
slightly turbinated, with an epitheca rising within a line of 
the margin. Calicle deep, broadly, oval. Septa in four 
cycles, the principal ones much exsert, vertical, narrowed 
at top, those of the fourth cycle joining the columella 
in pairs. Color of the living polyp bright orange. 

Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



150 VEREILL, CLASSIFICATION 

Eltpsammta Stimpsonii Yerrill. 

Coral free, elongated, turbinated, blunt at base. Calicle 
oval, deep ; columella well developed, septa broad, the 
principal ones with entire inner- edges, rounded. Length 
an inch or more ; breadth of cell .30 

Interesting as a living representative of a genus 
hitherto known only in the fossil state. 

North China Sea. Dr. Win. Stimpson. 

Meteidium fimbriatum Verrill. 

A species closely allied to 31.' marginatum of this coast, 
but apparently more elongated, with longer and more 
slender tentacles which are almost hair-like. Disk within 
the tentacles narrow. " Color pale orange, translucent, 
body punctate with dark brown, mouth deep orange." 

San Francisco, Cal. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Phellia collaeis Verrill. 

Edwardsia collaris Stimpson, Proc. Philad. Acad. Nat. Science, May 
and June, 1855. 

A species remarkable for its great size compared with 

previously known species from Europe. 

Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Phellia clavata Verrill. 

Edwardsia clavata Stimpson, 1. c. 1855. 
A species even larger than the last. 
Near Ousima, Japan. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



Ammonactis nov. gen. 

Column elongated, s^ubcylindrical, with well developed 
basal disk, covered, as in Phellia, with a persistent epidermis 
extending to near the summit, naked above ; but differs in 
having a lobe-like tubercle below each tentacle, distinct 
from the margin. Tentacles long and numerous. 



OF POLYPS. 151 

Ammonactis rubpjcollum Verrill. 

Edwardsia rubricollum Stimpson, 1. c. 1855. 
Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stirnpson." 

Halocampa brevicorxis Verrill. 

Edwardsia brevicomis Stimpson, 1. c. 1855. 
Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Halocampa capensis Verrill. 

Body elongated, tentacles twenty, blunt ; ambulacra 
subpapillose. Six tentacles have their inner bases dark 
brown ; body pale reddish with dots and patches of flake 
white; inner side of tentacles flake white. 

Cape of Good Hope, 12 fathoms, sand. Dr. William 
Stimpson. 

Cerianthus orientalis Verrill. 

A large species similar to C. americana nobis. Body 
elongated, in a tube of mud. Tentacles long and slender. 
Color of body deep reddish brown, outer tentacles 
translucent, yellowish and white, pale brown on their 
inner sides, greenish at base ; inner ones purplish brown 
or sometimes grass green. 

At low water mark, Hong Kong, China. Dr. William 
Stimpson. 

Nephthya thyrsoidea Verrill. 

Polyps forming thyrsiform bunches of closely clustered 
branchlets, three inches high and two broad. Color wine- 
yellow or light brown, with a dark purplish tinge below the 
tentacles ; tentacles nearly white ; spicula forming eleva- 
ted, transverse lines of silvery white on the stalks. 

Cape of Good Hope, 20 fathoms, rocks. Dr. Wm. Stimp- 
son. 

Telesto ramiculosa Verrill. 

Cornularia aurantiaca Stimpson, 1. c. 1855, non. T. aurantiaca Lamx. 

Hong Kong, 10 fathoms, shelly bottom. Dr. Wm. 
Stimpson. 



1 52 VERRILL, CLASSIFICATION OF POLYPS. 

Parisis laxa Verrill. 

Coral forming; openly reticulate fronds ; papillae numer- 
ous rounded, on all sides of the branches ; coenenchyma 
minutely villous in alcohol. Calcareous joints shorter and 
internodes longer than in P. fruiicosa nobis. 

Hong Kong. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Acanthogorgia coccixea Verrill. 

Nepthya coccinea Stimpson, 1. e. 1855. 
Hong Kong, 10 fathoms, on shells. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Veretillum Stdipsoxii Verrill. 

A large species six or eight inches long, the upper 
portion enlarged, more than half the entire length. Pol- 
yps much exsert, upwards of an inch long ; tentacles very 
long. Axis thick, short, fusiform, a third of an inch long. 
Base white, somewhat striated ; body light cream-color; 
polyps transparent, bluish white at the bases of the tenta- 
cles. 

Hong Kong, 6—10 fathoms, mud. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Veretillum baculatum Verrill. 

Club-shaped, the base about a third of the length. 
Polyps scattered, not numerous. Axis small, fusiform, 
about half an inch long in a specimen three inches long. 

Sea of Ochotsk, off Siberia. L. M. Squires. 

Kophobelemxox clavatuji Verrill. 

Veretillum clavatum Stimpson, 1. c. 1855. 

Polyps more numerous and crowded than in K. Burgeri 
Herkl. which it resembles ; body more claviform, naked 
dorsal space very narrow. 

Hong -Kong, 6 fathoms, mud. Dr. Wm Stimpson. 



ALLEN, NOTES ON THE DUCK HAWK, ETC. 153 

X. Notes on the Habits and Distribution of the Duck 
Haivk, or American Peregrine Falcon, in the Breeding 
Season, and Description of the Eggs. By J. A. Allen. 

{Communicated November 14, 1864). 

The Duck Hawk, Great-footed Hawk or American 
Peregrine Falcon, (Falco anatum Bonap. Falco peregrinus 
Wilson, Audubon and Nuttall), has not long been known . 
to breed within the limits of the United States. Dr. T. 
M. Brewer, in the " North American Oology," (part I, page 
8,) published in 1857, says that but one authenticated 
instance has come to his knowledge of its having been 
met with, in the breeding season, south of Newfoundland. 
This was near Columbia, in Pennsylvania, where the 
3 r oung that had fallen from the nest had been procured by 
Prof. S. S. Haldeman ; but the eggs had not been discov- 
ered, nor many particulars learned beyond the fact of its 
breeding there. In a note on this subject from Prof. 
Haldeman to Dr. Brewer, published in Dr. Brewer's ac- 
count of this species, Prof. Haldeman sa} r s : " A pair [of 
these hawks] had a nest for many years about a hundred 
yards from my house, on a high and almost vertical cliff ; 
but as a railroad now traverses its base, it is not probable 
that the species will return to the locality. * * * * The 
nest was difficult of access, and I never saw it ; but it was 
once reached, and the }'oung taken by getting down from 
above." Prof. Haldeman also states that he felt confident 
they bred among the cliffs at Harper's Ferry, as he had 
seen them flying about there. 

It has recently been ascertained that the Duck Hawk 
regularly breeds on several of the mountains in and near 
the Connecticut River Valley, the young having been 
procured from Mount Tom and Sugar Loaf Mountain in 
Massachusetts, and from Talcott Mountain, ten miles west 
of Hartford, in Connecticut. From accounts that I have 
received from different persons of a hawk agreeing in 
habits with the noted Duck Hawk, I am fully satisfied it 
has long nested on some of the precipitous mountains 
bordering on the Connecticut River in the States of Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire. Mr. J. G. Boardman says it 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. T. 



154 ALLEN, NOTES ON 

breeds on the cliffs of Grand Menan, where it is resident 
the whole year.* Although the young have been procur- 
ed, as above stated, from Mount Tom and Sugar Loaf 
Mountain several times in the last few years, and according 
to Dr. W. Wood, also from Talcott Mountainf, I am not 
aware that the eggs have been found in New England, or 
even in the United States, before the present season, when 
they were procured from a nest on Mount Tom, ( April 
1.9th, 1864) by Mr. C. W. Bennett J. The only egg figured 
by Dr. Brewer was from Greenland, and its authenticity not 
ascertained wholly beyond doubt. Dr. Brewer mentions 
a drawing in his posession, by Dr. Trudeau, of another 
egg from Labrador ; these being the only specimens to 
which he then had access. 

In fall, winter and spring, this Falcon is not unfrequent 
along our Eastern sea coast, wherever its favorite prey, the 
sea ducks and other marine birds, abounds, but it is not at 
that season very commonly distributed over the country. 
Although it has been found throughout Eastern North 
America, chiefly near rivers, from Greenland to Cuba, and 
as far westward as the mouth of the Vermillion River, on 
the Upper Missouri§, but little definite information has yet 
come to ornithologists of its distribution and habits in the 
breeding season. Hitherto it has generally been supposed 
to retire to regions north of the United States to spend 
the summer and rear its young|| ; and though many do so, 
quite a proportion, it is evident, are resident in the northern 
parts of the United States the whole year, retiring to inac- 
cessible cliffs for the purpose of breeding, and thus generally 
escaping the notice of naturalists during that important 
season. Poultry yards that chance to be in the vicinity of 
its nests are so frequently visited for plunder by this daring 

*Proc. Bost. Soc. N. IL, Vol. IX, p, 12-2, (Sept., 1862). 

f Hartford, (Conn.) Times, June 24, 1861. 

JThe writer is indebted to the kindness of Mr. Caleb W. Bennett, of 
Springfield. Mass. , for the specimens and many important facts which 
form the basis of the present article. Great credit, is due Mr. Bennett 
for the persevering efforts he has made to discover and procure the eggs 
of the Duck Hawk ; his complete success has not been unmerited. 

$>¥. R, R. Ex. and Surv. Vol. IX. p. 7. 

||Aubudon found it breeding quite plentifully along the high rocky 
shores of Labrador and Newfoundland. 



THE DUCK HAWK, ETC. 155 

species, that it is well known to many of our farmers and 
sportsmen, who readily distinguish it from other hawks by 
its bold dashing flight, and peculiar manner of capturing 
its prey ; and its nests, I learn, are sometimes found by 
them, and the young destroyed. 

All accounts agree that they nest -in almost inaccessible 
cliffs ; and often the nest can only be approached by a 
person being let down by a rope from above. The old 
birds are represented as bold in the defence of their nest, 
approaching so near as generally to be easily shot. They 
arrive early at their nesting place, and though they often 
bestow no labor in the construction of a nest, beyond the 
scraping of a slight hollow in the ground, they defend 
their chosen eyrie for weeks before the eggs are laid, and 
are known to return for several years to the same site. 
Incubation commences very early, the young having been 
found in the nest at Mount Tom May 30th, nearly fledged*, 
and on Talcott Mountain in the same condition June 1st, 
so that the laying of the eggs must occur by the last of 
March, or very early in April. The number of eggs has 
been known in several instances to be four. 

Mountains Tom and Holyoke, in Massachusetts, afford 
several localities favorable for the nidification of the Duck 
Hawk, and sometimes several pairs, and probably usually 
more than one, breed about these mountains-)- ; about the 
last of May, 1863, Mr. Bennett saw five adult birds of 
this species about Mount Tom. Dr. W. Wood of East 
Windsor Hill, Ct., informs me. that two pairs of Duck 
Hawks were evidently breeding on Talcott Mountain in 
the summer of 1863. 

Discovery of the eggs on Mount Tom. Although the 
Duck Hawk has been long known to breed at the localities 
in Massachusetts mentioned above, those conversant with 
the fact were not aware that any special interest was 

* According to R. B. Hildreth, Esq., of Springfield who visited this 
nest May 30th, 1861, and noted the fact. The nest on Talcott Mountain, 
Ct., was found the same season, and first visited only a few days later — 
about June 1st, 1861. (See Hartford Times, as quoted above). 

f Since the above was written I have been informed by Mr. Bennett, 
that a pair of these Hawks actually raised their young on Mount Tom, 
in the summer of 1884, notwithstanding one pair was broken up the 
same season. 



156 ALLEN, NOTES ON 

attached to it, or that its eggs and breeding habits were 
but very little known to ornithologists ; and so, until very 
recently, no particular efforts have been made to obtain 
the eggs. Mr. Bennett, becoming aware of this, resolved 
to procure the eggs. He accordingly visited Mount Tom 
for this purpose April 7th of the present year, when he 
searched the whole ridge of the mountain, discovered the 
old birds and the particular part they most frequented, 
and also the site of a nest, where young had been raised. 
The old birds were continually near this spot, and mani- 
fested much solicitude when it was approached, often 
flying within six or eight rods, and once the female came 
within three, screaming and thrusting out her talons with 
an expression of great rage and fierceness. The birds did 
not appear at all shy, being easily approached quite near 
to, though in walking the cracking of sticks and the clink- 
ing of the splinters of trap rock made no little noise. One 
of the birds appeared to keep close to the eyrie, and both 
would approach whenever it was visited, screaming at 
and menacing the intruder, notwithstanding that at that 
time there were no eggs, as was afterwards proved. Mr. 
Bennett suspecting that incubation had already commenc- 
ed visited the locality again on the 9th, but only saw the 
old nest, the birds behaving as before. On April 19th, 
ten days later, he made another visit, and creeping carefully 
to the summit of the cliff, at a point near the eyrie already 
spoken of, he saw the female, on looking over the cliff, sitting 
on the nest, and but five or six yards distant. She eyed 
him fiercely for an instant, and then scrambling from the 
nest to the edge of the narrow shelf supporting it launched 
into the air ; in a twinkling Mr. Bennett's unerring aim 
sent her tumbling dead at the foot of the precipice, 
several hundred feet below. The nest contained four 
eggs, which were soon safely secured, and the body of the 
female was obtained from the foot of the cliff. The male 
soon coming about, was shot at, but he was too shy to 
come within range, except once, while the gun was being 
reloaded. The eggs were all laid after Mr. Bennett's 
visit April 9th, and their contents showed, April 19th, 
that they had been incubated but a day or two. Incuba- 
tion seems in this case, to have commenced several weeks 



Proceedings Essex Institute, Vol. IV. 



PI. 3. 




J. H. Emekton, on wood. 



THE DUCK HAWK, ETC. 157 

later than usual, which may be owing to the late snows 
and unusual coldness of the weather this year during- the 
first half of April. 

Location and Description of the Eyrie. The situation 
of the eyrie was near the highest part of the mountain, 
about one-third of the length of the mountian from the 
south end, on a narrow shelf in the rock, eight or ten feet 
from the top of a nearly perpendicular cliff, one hundred 
and fifty or two hundred feet in height, and was inaccess- 
able except to a bold climber, and at one particular point. 
The nest was merely a slight excavation sufficient to 
contain the eggs ; no accessary material had been added. 
The site had been previously occupied, and probably for 
several years ; and for weeks before the eggs were laid 
was carefully guarded by the bold and watchful birds. 

Description of the eggs. The eggs, four in number, as 
already stated, differ greatly both in shape and coloring, 
the extremes in either being Avidely diverse. They are 
described in detail, and probably in the same order as laid. 

No. 1. Longer diameter, 2.18 inches ; shorter diameter 
1.71 inches ; the shorter diameter is .885 the longer. The 
form is somewhat ovoid, one end being slightly larger 
than the other ; but neither end is very pointed ; the 
point of greatest transverse diameter is .645 the length of 
egg from the smallest end. In form this egg is very 
nearly like the egg from Greenland, figured by Dr. Brewer 
in the "North American Oology" (pt. I, pi. II, fig. 11) The 
general color is chocolate-brown, darker and more dense 
and uniform about the ends, the part about the middle 
being lighter, varied with small irregular blotches and 
specks of a darker tint than the ground color. The color 
of the smaller end is nearly a uniform dull red-ocher. 
There is also an irregular belt of scattered and apparently 
very superficial blotches of very dark-brown, or nearly 
black. Something similar is often noticed on the eggs of 
many birds that lay brown or speckled eggs. 

No. 2. Longer diameter 2.21 inches ; shorter diameter 
1.67 inches ; shorter diameter .755 the longer. Form 
nearly an ellipsoid, the point of greatest transverse diame- 
ter being scarcely to one side of the middle (.54 the length 
of the egg from the smaller end ); ends very nearly equal 



158 ALLEN, NOTES ON 

and not very pointed. The distribution of the color in 
this is nearest of any of the four eggs before me to that 
figured by Dr. Brewer and only differs from it in tint. 
One end (the smaller ?) is very light-reddish, or reddish- 
white, becoming lighter from the middle towards this end, 
about which it is the lightest and thinly marked with irreg- 
ular mottlings of dark reddish-chocolate, which present a 
very superficial grayish tinge that is very characteristic ; 
the other end fthe larger?) is of a uniform dark ferrugin- 
ous-brown or dull red-ochre, varied towards the middle 
by the appearance of the light ground color between the 
there scarcely confluent blotches of dark-brown that give 
the uniform deep tint towards and about this end. 

No. 3. Longer diameter 2.32 inches ; shorter diameter 
1.70 inches ; shorter diameter .733 the longer. Form 
ovoid, the smaller end elongated and much pointed. This 
egg is the longest, and much larger in proportion to its 
diameter than either of the others. The point of greatest 
diameter is .656 the length of the egg from the smaller 
end. In this specimen the contrast between the ground 
color and the markings becomes very strong, the ground 
color which is seen chiefly in a broad band about the 
middle of the egg, being white or reddish-white, and the 
markings very dark reddish-brown nearly approaching 
purple, and are quite uniformly distributed in blotches of 
various sizes, the largest being near the larger end of the 
egg ; the sub-markings are of a lighter reddish-brown 
and are more blended. 

No. 4. Longer diameter 2.16 inches; shorter diameter 
1.65 inches ; shorter diameter .765 the longer. Form 
regular ovoid, the smaller end rather more pointed than 
the same in No. 1; point of greatest transverse diameter .60 
the length of the egg from the smaller end. In this speci- 
men the contrast of the ground color with the markings is 
very striking, especially when compared with specimens 
No. 1 and No. 2 ; and the most peculiar part is that the 
greater end of the egg, which in the eggs of most birds is 
the end usually most subject to markings and to the 
greatest depth of color, is white, sprinkled sparingly with 
reddish specks, while the smaller end is deep, bright, brick- 
red, here and there relieved by small specks and patches 



THE DUCK HAWK, ETC. 159 

of white ground color. About the middle of the egg the 
colors are in more equal proportions, the white patches 
becoming larger on the smaller end towards the middle, 
and the red patches on the larger end increase towards 
the same point, where the colors meet and become mixed 
in irregular patches of various sizes, from mere dots to 
blotches. The smaller end has a few streaks and blotches 
of dark-purple overlying apparently the other colors, as in 
specimen No. 1. 

These specimens are very interesting, as indicating the 
great amount of variation to which the American Pere- 
grine's eggs are subject, and especially so since they are 
all the product of one pair of birds, laid in one set, and 
identified as such beyond question. In coloration a 
transition can be traced between the extreme in the order 
they are numbered, which is undoubtedly the order in 
which they were laid, as indicated by the thickness of the 
shell as well as by the depth of color. 

Table of Comparative Measurements. 







L ; gth. 


Trop of breadth 
Breadth. to length. 


Point of greatest transverse 
diameter from small end. 


No. 1 




2.18 in. 


1.71 in.. 0.785 


0.640 r 


gth of the egg 


" 2 




2.21 " 


1.67 " 0.756 


0.540 


<t 


" 3 




2.32 " 


1.70 " 0.732 


0.656 


a 


" 4 




2.16 " 


1.65 " 0.765 


0.600 


a 


Average 




2.22 " 


1.68 " 0.759 


0.609 


a 


Greater extr. 




2.32 " 


1.71 " 0.785 


0.656 


a 


Lesser extr. 




2.16 " 


1.6.5 li 0.732 


0.540 


l< 


Am't of variation 


0,16 " 


0.06 " 0.053 


0.116 


a 


Dr. Brewer's 


spec. 


2.00 " 


1.56 " 0.780 







From the above table it will be seen that the range of 
variation in the four specimens in length is .16 of an inch; 
or nearly seven and half per cent, of the average length ; 
in breadth .06 of an inch, or about three and a half per 
cent, of the average breadth; in the proportion of breadth 
to length, about fifteen per cent, of the length, or nearly 
twenty per cent, of the average proportion ; the varia- 
tion in the position of the point of greatest tranverse 
diameter is about eleven and a half per cent, of the whole 
length of the Qgg, the form of the eggs varying from an 
ellipsoid in No. 2 to an ovoid, which in No. 3 has the 



160 ALLEN, NOTES ON 

smaller end considerabl}'' elongated. It will be observed 
that the egg measured by Dr. Brewer . is considerably 
smaller than my smallest specimen, and that the propor- 
tion of breadth to length scarcely differs from the same 
proportion in No. 1. 

In comparing the eggs of the American and the Euro- 
pean Peregrine Falcons, Dr. Brewer, observes : " It [the 
American] closely resembles a variety of the eggs of the 
European species, but seems to present differences suffi- 
ciently well marked to be regarded as specific. * * *.* The 
ground colors of both American and European are a 
reddish-yellow, and both are thickly covered with fine 
dottings of chocolate and ferruginous-brown, diffused over 
the whole egg, in nearly equal degree, and to such an 
extent as nearly to conceal the ground. The length of the 
American egg is slightly less, but it is of equal or greater 
capacity, and varies in its markings from all the European 
specimens that I have ever met with. These variations, 
though readily traceable by the eye, are not so easily de- 
scribed. The shades of coloring in both are closely alike ; 
the variation consists more in the distribution of these 
markings. In the European specimens, the fine markings 
of chocolate are distributed with nearly exact uniformity. 
In the American, the secondary colorings are now more 
thickly and now more thinly diffused, here leaving the 
ground color nearly unchanged, there becoming confluent 
and blending into waving lines, blotches and bold dashes. 
The egg in consequence, presents a more varied appear- 
ance. These markings are also in greater proportion 
around the larger end of the egg, and the blotches are of 
a deeper shade, so there is a variation in the shading 
between the smaller and larger extremities not noticeable 
in any European egg that I have met with." 

The amount of variation presented by the eggs of the 
Duck Hawk described above, shows that but little depen- 
dence can be placed on the eggs in deciding specific dif- 
ferences. The eggs mentioned by Dr. Brewer, are not 
much different from those of the true European Peregrine. 
One or two of the specimens before me considerably 
resemble Dr. Brewer's, and likewise eggs of the European 
species . as figured and described by authors, while the 
others are very different, one being remarkably so. 



THE DUCK HAWK, ETC. 161 

The eggs of the different species of this group of Fal- 
cons seem to resemble each other greatly, and to be sub- 
ject to considerable variation in the same species. In the 
manner of laying the eggs there is also a similarity, as 
might be expected among closely allied species ; the same 
species sometimes laying them on the bare rocks, and 
again in a bulky nest of sticks and other coarse materials. 
The nest of this species visited on Talcott Mountain, Ct., 
was of the latter kind, while on Mount Holyoke the eggs 
were laid on the bare earth. 

Audubon thus describes the nest and eggs of the Duck 
Hawk as observed by him at Labrador : 

"I have nowhere seen it so abundant as along the high, rocky shores 
of Labrador and Newfoundland, where I procured several adult indi- 
viduals of both sexes as well as some eggs and young. The nests were 
placed on the shelves of rocks, a few feet from the top, and were flat 
and rudely constructed of sticks and moss. In some were found four 
eggs, in others only two, and in one five. In one nest only a single 
young bird was found. The eggs vary considerably in color and size, 
which I think is owing to a difference of age in the females, the eggs 
of young birds being smaller. The average length of four was two 
inches, their breadth one and five-eighths. They are somewhat round- 
ed, though larger at one end than the other; their general and most 
common color is a reddish or rusty yellowish brown, spotted and con- 
fusedly marked with darker tints of the same, here and there intermix- 
ed with lighter. The young are at first thickly covered with soft white 
down. * * * * In several instances, we found these Falcons breeding on 
the same ledge with Cormorants, Phalacrocorax car&o."* 

Audubon adds that he is perfectly convinced that the 
Great-footed Falcon, or Duck Hawk of the later 
ornithologists is not different from the Peregrine Falcon of 
Europe. "Since my first acquaintance with this species," 
he says, "I have observed nothing in its habits, form, or 
marking on one continent that is different from what is 
found on the other." Since the difference in breeding hab- 
its supposed to exist when Bonaparte separated them in 
1838, and which influenced his judgment in the matter, 
has been found to be not real, there seems to be nothing 
whatever in the breeding habits or in the appearance of 
the eggs to indicate specific difference between the Amer- 
ican and European birds. 
Springfield, July, 1864. 

*Orn. Biog., vol. V.,p. 366. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. U. 



162 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

XL A Classification of Mollusca, based on the "Principle 
of Cephalization." By Edward S. Morse. 

With a Plate. 

[Communicated June 19, 1865.] 

After becoming acquainted with the perfect unity of plan 
in the Hadiata and the connected series of homologies, run- 
ning through the whole branch, (as demonstrated oy Prof. 
Agassiz in his private lectures) my interest was excited, to 
discover, if possible, a like symmetry of development in 
the Mollusca. Finding the universality of vertebration 
among the Vertebrata, of articulation among the 
Articulata, and similarly of radiation among the Ra- 
diata, I could not but believe that in the Mollusca some 
plan lay hidden, which, when unfolded, would as definite- 
ly convey their type, and unite them alJ, as in the other 
branches. It is not enough to call them soft bodied ani- 
mals ; for in considering their shell as a part of their organ- 
ization, we have among them many of the hardest ani- 
mals known, and we also have an equal number of soft 
bodied animals in the other branches. Their bilaterality, 
as expressing anything definite, is an equally unsatisfacto- 
ry character. Prof. Huxley has given an archetype, or com- 
mon plan of the Mollusca, as he conceives it, with many 
truthful homologies, in the article "Mollusca," English Cy- 
clopedia, Vol. III., p. 855. In his figure of the archetype how- 
ever, which is bilaterally symmetrical, we have details of 
structure only. 

Prof. Agassiz in his "Methods of Study in Natural History" 
also suggests his idea of the plan, or structure, when he 
says, p. 34, "Right and left, have the preponderance over 
the other diameters of the body," and says furthermore, 
that collectors unconsciously recognize this in the arrange- 
ment of their collections. "They instinctively give them 
the position best calculated to display their distinctive 
characteristics, and to accomplish this they necessarily 
place them in such a manner as to show their sides." 
This can refer only to the Lamellibranchs, and their shells 
are displayed on the sides, because they naturally fall in 
that position. This lateral preponderance of structure on- 
ly obtains among the Lamellibranchs. All Brachiopods 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 163 

are displayed from the dorsal or ventral valve. Also the 
Gasteropods, particularly the flat forms like Patella, Chi- 
ton, etc. and the Nudibranchs as well, while in the figures 
of the naked Cephalopods we most usually have a dorsal 
view. 

Though Prof. Agassiz speaks of radiation as characteriz- 
ing the Radiates, and similarly of articulation and verte- 
bration as characterizing the Articulates and Vertebrates, 
yet Mollusks are spoken of as first introducing the charac- 
ter of bilaterality, or division of parts along a longitudinal 
axis, that prevails throughout the Animal Kingdom, with the 
exception of the Radiates. This then can be no restricted 
definition for the Mollusca, since it pervades the two high- 
er branches ; and who will deny the evidence of bilaterality 
among the Radiates, the higher Echinoderms for instance, 
as Clypeastroids and Spatangoids, where we have as good 
a definition of a longitudinal axis, as we obtain in many 
Mollusks. Even among the Polyps, as in the Actinaria, 
the antero-posterior axis is clearly expressed in the undue 
prominence of the primary radii. 

Prof. Dana has been the first to publicly announce the 
plan of Mollusca, when he says, "The structure essential- 
ly a soft, fleshy bag, containing the stomach and viscera, 
without a radiate structure, and without articulations."* 

As far back as 1855 he has presented this thought in 
his lectures at Yale College. 

In the year 1882 Mr. Alpheus Hyatt 'had independently 
worked out a similar result, and has already in MSS. 
notes, the necessary data demonstrating the same.f 

Mr. Hyatt also proposes the name Saccata as more fully 
and truthfully expressing the type, than the unmeaning 
word Mollusca. This name not only expresses the Plan, 
but is equivalent to the titles Vertebrata, Articulata, and 
Radiata, and is in no way a qualitative appellation. 

*Dana's Manual ot Geology, p. 148. 

f Mr. Hyatt has relinquished all ideas of publishing on this subject, 
since becoming aware that I was to do the same. During the prep- 
aration of these pages, I enjoyed his companionship, and many of 
tUe points herein stated, were fully and freely discussed between us, 
and to him I am indebted not only for the privilege of announcing 
his proposed name, Saccata, but for the suggestion of certain points 
to be hereinafter mentioned. 



164 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

Objecting as all must to the introduction of a new 
name, still one so appropriate as that proposed by Mr. 
Hyatt, in lieu of one that has no relation to the Branch, 
except its traditional use, is certainly worthy of considera- 
tion, as it so clearly indicates what is believed to be the 
fundamental idea in the Branch, that of the Sac. 

It might be said, in one sense of the word, that all ani- 
mals are bags, or sacs, in various degrees of development. 
And if we mistake not, Prof. Pierce of Harvard Univer- 
sity has expressed this idea, modified by saying that one 
is a radiate sac, another a simple sac, another an articulate 
sac, and finally a vertebrate sac, or a sac having two com- 
partments. Viewing the Radiates as degradational, in re- 
lation to the higher animals, or partaking a plant-like charac- 
ter, we may justly be allowed to remark, that the Mollusks, 
as a type, present the sac feature most completely, for 
nowhere (with few exceptions, e. g. Cirripeds), do we find 
the various organs so essentially concealed, or possessing 
the power of retraction within a sac, as in the Mollusca. 
And that this is the leading feature in Mollusca might 
properly be inferred from the following ; that in the four 
prominent branches of the Animal Kingdom, we have 
sketched out, in the incipient stages of the embryo, or at 
least, in its first indications of permanent characters, its 
typical features. 

Thus, in the vertebrate ovum, after segmentation, we 
have the area pellucida, and primitive trace as indicating 
the future region, and direction of the vertebrate column. 
Among the Articulates, we have the transverse division of 
the embryo : and certainly the most prominent feature in 
the Molluscan embryo is the sac or mantle ; as in the Gas- 
teropods, where we not only have in the embryo a mantle 
developed, but a distinct nautoloid shell, from which the 
little animal thrusts himself. In Cephalopods also, as K61- 
liker has shown in the development of Sepia officinalis, the 
mantle, or sac, is the first figure traced on the germ 
mass. 

In my search after homologies between the different 
groups in this Branch, I always met with difficulty in the 
relations of the classes ; — and though many of the views to 
be presented, I had long ago worked out, and had consid- 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 165 

ered, and tested them, by personal examinations of the an- 
imals, it was not till I comprehended the importance of 
the sac character, and understood the "Principles of Ceph- 
alization" first enunciated by Prof. Dana, that I was enabled 
to clear up previous doubts, discover new relations, and, as 
I believe, rightly interpret the relations of the classes. 

"As the principle of Cephalization is involved in the very 
foundation of the diverse forms that make up the ani- 
mal kingdom, we may look to it for authoritative guid- 
ance, with reference to the system that prevails among 
these forms."* 

In the following considerations, all preconceived ideas 
regarding the relative positions of the dorso-ventral, and 
antero-posterior diameters of the animal must be laid aside, 
and the essential structure of the animal if rightly under- 
stood, must be our guide. The gradual morphological 
changes of the contents of the sac, and all other relations, 
are based on the principle of Cephalization. In the plate 
presented (Series I) I have given a typical figure of the 
six prominent groups of the Saccata ; namely, Polyzoa, 
Brachiopoda, Tunicata, Lamellibranchiata, Gasteropoda, 
and Cephalopoda. 

For obvious reasons, only the intestine, head, and pedal 
ganglia within the sac are represented. These six figures are 
placed in their normal position, anterior pole downward, 
the dorsal region is turned to the left. Commencing with 
the Polyzoa (Series I, P) we have the sac closed, while 
the mouth and anus terminate close together at the pos- 
terior pole of the sac; the mouth occupying the extreme 
posterior position, and by a dorsal bend of the intestine 
upon itself, terminating dorsally. The nerve mass is found 
between the oral and anal openings. In this class the 
mouth and anus have the power of protrusion from the 
sac. In the three lower orders, Cyclostomata, Ctenos- 
tomata, and Cheilostomata, the polyzoon, when complete- 
ly evaginated, presents no fold or inversion of the sac, 
while in the higher group Phylactolsemata, there is a partial 
and permanent inversion of the sac under like condi- 
tions. 

* "Classification of animals based on the principle of Cephalization." Dana, 
Amer. Jour. Sci., Second Series, Vol. XXXVI., p. 321. 



166 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

This latter group, combining the permanent inversion 
of the sac-walls with the lophophoric arms, is the first ap- 
proach to the Brachiopocla. No organ corresponding to a 
heart has yet been discovered. In the Brachiopoda (Se- 
ries I, B) we have a permanent invagination of the sac, and 
the mouth, as in Terebratula, already occupies a position 
some distance from the posterior edges of the overlapping 
shells, and the brachial coils permanently occupy the space 
thus made.* 

We have in this group a dorsal flexure of the intestine, 
and a tendency to terminate as in the Polyzoa. In Lin- 
gula it terminates posteriorly and at one side. . By the 
permanent inversion of the sac, the mouth makes a great 
advance toward the anterior pole. In Terebratula, Wald- 
heimia, and allied genera, where the sac is very short and 
swollen, and the brachial coils very large, the viscera are 
crushed to the front, and the intestine, which is short and 
simple, is nearly, bent upon itself, though still occupying a 
median line. In Lingula, where we have a very long and 
flat sac, the intestine is long, and has ample room for con- 
volutions, but the anus, instead of terminating in a line 
with the mouth, is thrown to one side, in consequence of 
this excessive flatness of the sac. The heart will be found 
on the outer bend of the intestine and actually on the ven- 
tral side; the nerve occupying its homological position. 

(The manner in which I view the Brachiopoda, if true, 
will entirely reverse the accepted poles of their structure. 
What has been considered as dorsal, is here regarded as 
ventral, and what has been considered as anterior, is here 
regarded as posterior. Further remarks on this will be 
made hereafter). 

Thus far the balance of structure has been thrown to 
the posterior pole of the sac, and though we see a cephali- 
zation, or concentration of the muscular system and vis- 
cera, toward the anterior pole in Brachiopoda, yet that pole 
being essentially closed, we have no function manifested 
at that end, except the degradational one of adhesion. In 

* "Terebratulina caput-serpentes, aiid Crania anomala, projected 
their cirri beyond the margin of the open valves, and moved them as 
the Polyzoa move their oral tentacles, but in no instance were the arms 
extended." Woodward's Treatise, p. 466. 



ON THE PRINCIPAL OF CEPHALIZATION. 167 

the Tunicata (Series I, T) we have, through continued 
cephalization, the mouth thrown to the bottom of the sac, 
or nearer the anterior end, and now the anus terminates 
behind the mouth, and posteriorly. 

The heart has also followed the intestine in its rotation 
and becomes anterior, and partially dorsal. The nerve 
mass is still posterior, and occupies a position between the 
two openings as in Polyzoa. 

We have commencing in this group, the Tunicata, that 
erratic bending of intestine, and varied position in its anal 
termination, that is witnessed higher up in the scale, and 
though apparently governed by no law, we can yet trace 
the progressive movements toward a normal condition, by 
comparing Appendicularia, one of the lowest forms of the 
Tunicates, and representing the larval condition of their 
class. In this form the intestine has a ventral flexure, and 
terminates on the ventral side. In Pyrosoma it makes an 
abrupt bend toward the anterior dorsal region, and termi- 
nates anteriorly. In Salpa it terminates dorsally, on a line 
with the mouth, though still anteriorly. In Botryllus it 
creeps up, and terminates nearer the posterior pole of sac, 
though still dorsally. We have in this genus, and other 
compound Ascidians, the excurrent orifices of several in- 
dividuals coalescing, forming a common cloaca for a com- 
munity. The dorsal flexure is distinctly seen in Clavel- 
lina borealis. In these three classes ; namely, Polyzoa, 
Brachiopoda, and Tunicata, the sac is essentially closed at 
the anterior end, and consequently the mouth opens to- 
ward the posterior end, and with few exceptions all are 
attached by the anterior end. 

This makes a natural division, corresponding to the 
Molluscoidea of Milne-Edwards, the Anthoid Mollusks of 
Dana, and a portion of the neural division of Huxley. In 
the Lamellibranchiata (Series I, L) we have the sac open- 
ing anteriorly, and the mouth permanently occupying the 
anterior region, though in the lower forms pointing pos- 
teriorly, and in all cases the tentacular lobes pointing in 
that direction, and the mouth bent downward (ventrally), 
and partially obstructed by the anterior adductor, or by 
the undivided mantle. The gradual enlargement of the 
anterior opening is clearly seen, wherein the Gastrochoe- 



168 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

nidae, we have first a minute orifice, for the passage of an 
immature foot, or metapodium; this opening gradually 
enlarging in different genera, until in the Unionidae we 
have the sac almost completely separated, except dorsally. 
It will be noticed that the anterior opening is also ventral, 
or nearly so in the lower forms. In Gasteropoda (Series 
I, G) the posterior end of the sac becomes essentially closed, 
and the ambient fluid now finds access to the gills through 
the anterior (though partially ventral) portion of sac, while 
with Cephalopoda (Series I, C) the opening is all anteri- 
or. Thus far we have traced the gradual cephalization 
of the contents of the sac, and of the sac itself. The 
dotted lines X X, running through the oral open- 
ing of each figure in Series I of Plate, show the 
gradual advance of this opening from the lower to the 
higher classes. In the lowest class all the display of struc- 
ture, with the oral and anal openings, lies at the posterior 
pole of sac. In this highest class, all this display of struc- 
ture lies at the anterior pole. Advancing from the Polyzoa, 
by the gradual advance of the mouth, the posterior pole 
becomes less prominent. Even when the sac opens ante- 
riorly as in the Lamellibranchiata, the posterior end of sac 
remains open, and the mouth, partially inclined that way, 
receives its food from that end; the food being conducted 
to the mouth by ciliary motion as in the three' lower class- 
es. The nature of their food is also identical, being of an 
infusorial character, and as such it is obvious that masti- 
cating organs, or biting plates, such as we find in the two 
higher classes, are not needed. 

So long also as the posterior end of the sac remains open, 
the anus terminates at that end ; when this opening be- 
comes closed, as in the higher classes, the anus seeks an 
outlet through the anterior opening, and the mouth, that 
before received its food from the posterior end of the sac, and 
by ciliary motion, now distinctly points the opposite way, 
and is furnished with the proper organs to procure food, 
the nature of which requires separation and trituration. 

In nearly all the foregoing homologies, and also the po- 
sition in which I place the Tunicate sac, I am sustained 
by the writings of eminent naturalists. With the Brach- 
iopoda, however, my views completely reverse the accepted 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 169 

poles of the body, though, even here, according to "Wood- 
ward's Treatise on Mollusca," page 204, Forskahl an 1 
Lamarck "compared Hyalea with 'lerebratula ; but they 
made the ventral plate of one answer to the dorsal valve 
of the other, and the anterior cephalic orifice of the pter- 
opodous shell correspond to the posterior, byssal fora- 
men of the bivalve !" And, if the views I advance prove 
correct, they were precisely right. In all my previous at- 
tempts to homologize the different classes, I had always 
met with an obstacle in the apparently aberrant characters 
of the Brachiopods : never for a moment doubting the truth 
of the accepted views, that indicated the regions to be 
called dorsal and ventral, as such, I labored in vain. 
When I undertook to interpret the relation of these classes 
on the principle of cephalization, I found that these ac- 
cepted views must be doubted, and it was with amaze- 
ment that I beheld such unlooked for results : that the so- 
called anterior pole is really the posterior pole, and that the 
so-called dorsal region is really the ventral region. 

It has not been without patient consideration that I now 
advance these views, knowing that by many they will be 
received with oppo©ition ; nevertheless, the more I try to 
make them comformable with already received relations, 
the more I am convinced that such relations are wrong; 
and it is only in believing that continued research will 
but confirm these propositions, that I now dare to offer 
them. 

According to the views here advanced, the Brachiopods 
are attached by a prolongation from the dorsal area, as in 
the lower Polyzoa, where they lie on the back. That in their 
natural position in life, this valve is really uppermost. 
That the process of attachment also proceeds from the an- 
terior pole of the body, as in all the members of the Branch 
even to Gasteropods, with the exception of those attached 
by one valve, (e. g. Ostreans, Clavagella,) whether it be by 
a byssus, confined in cells of their own making, or buried 
in the mud, it is the anterior end which is fixed. In sev- 
eral lower forms, like Tridacna and Anomia, the point of 
attachment springs from the dorsal area, as in the two low- 
est classes. In regard to the posterior position of the 
mouth in Polyzoa and Bracbiopoda, we have similar anal- 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. V. 



170 



MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 



ogies amongthe Articulata ; Cirripedia, for example, where 
we have animals becoming attached bead downward, and 
all the oral parts, as in the pedunculated forms, tending 
towards the posterior pole of the body ; or in Limulus, 
where we have such a decephalization as it were, the mouth 
occupies nearly a central position in the ventral region. 
Again, considering the intestine as a simple tube, open- 
ing at each end, with the weight of structure evenly divi- 
ded between the two openings, is it any more incredulous, 
that the oral opening should be posterior, than that the 
anal opening should be anterior, as in the Gasteropods ? 

In Polyzoa, the oral and anal openings occupy a simi- 
lar position in all the forms. In Brachiopods, while the 
mouth remains in nearly a constant position, the anus 
terminates either in a median line, or by a lateral deflection 
of intestine to one side. In Tunicata, while the mouth oc- 
cupies a permanent position at the front of the sac, the 
anus terminates at various portions of the sac, generally in 
a median line, though there is usually a lateral deflection of 
the intestine. 

In Lamellibranchiata, the mouth and anus terminate 
in a median line, with few exceptions, (e. g. Pecten) though 
the intestine convolutes in various ways. In Gasteropods 
we have again lateral deflection of intestine, and though in 
many genera the anus terminates in a median line, yet in 
the bulk of the Gasteropods it terminates at one side or 
the other. In the Dibranchiate Cephalopods we have 
again the termination of the intestine in a median line. 

o The diagram here given (Fig. 1) re- 
presents an ideal longitudinal section of 
the sac, similar to those of Series I. The 
arrow within the sac, shows the direction 
of rotation of the bent intestine,- carrying 
with it the heart, (see Plate, Series I.) 
which in Brachiopoda we find on the ven- 
tral region ; in Tunicata on the anterior 
dorsal region ; in Lamellibranchiata on 
the dorsal region ; in Gasteropoda on the 
dorsal region and also further back ; and 
in the Cephalopods at the posterior portion of sac. The 
different positions of the sac openings (represented in fig. 




Fisr. 1. 



ON THE PRINCIPAL OF CEPHALIZATION. 171 

1 by arrow O) follow the same direction, that is, from 
posterior to anterior, ventrally. Thus in Tunicata the 
two openings are posterior and posterior dorsal ; the pos- 
terior dorsal, being the anal or excurrent orifice ; this is 
always the shortest in Tunicata. In Lamellibranchiata 
the anal tube moves nearer the branchial tube ; in the lower 
forms their outer covering coalescing and of equal length, 
while, higher up, the tubes becoming entirely separate, and 
in some of extreme length, the anal tube being the long- 
est. In Pisidium and other forms the branchial tube dis- 
appears, and water is received through a ventral opening; 
while the anal tube yet remains, occupying a posterior 
position on a line with the antero-posterior axis, in the 
same position the branchial tube occupied in the Tuni- 
cata : and, finally, both tubes become nearly obsolete, and 
the mantle is cleft all round, except dorsally. Thus the 
progress of sac opening follows in the same line of rotation 
with the intestine. The progressive regions of attachment 
move in an opposite direction (Fig. 1, arrow A). Com- 
mencing with the Polyzoa as the lowest class, we have, as 
in the Cheilostomata, the dorsal portion large and spread- 
ing, this being the fixed portion ; the anal opening being 
turned toward this region, as in the Bracbiopoda and 
Tunicata. (The movable part of the ventral surface, 
which is uppermost, being represented by the little lid). 
This mode of attachment is the lowest feature; namely, 
attached along the entire dorsal region. 

As we ascend to the higher forms of the class, we have 
a freeing of the posterior portion of sac, and the viscera 
permanently occupies this freed portion. In the Brach- 
iopoda we have the sac free, held only by the peduncle ; 
the means of attachment springing anterior, and from the 
dorsal valve, as in the partially freed Polyzoon. (Crania 
and Descina are attached as in Lepralia). 

In Lingula, where we have the lengthened and flattened 
sac, the animal stands vertical in the sand. In Terebratu- 
la and allied genera, the dorsal valve already assumes 
preponderance over the ventral valve, and now obtains its 
normal position uppermost. 

All the Tunicates with few exceptions are attached, and 
by their anterior end. 



172 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 



In the compound Ascidians like Botrylius, where we 
have a community of individuals clustering round a com- 
mon centre, their dorsal as well as anterior regions are at- 
tached, or, in other words, the ventral and posterior regions 
are free only. 

Among the Lamellibranchiata nearly all the lower 
forms, and many of the higher forms are fixed or stationa- 
ry ; and whether moored by a byssus, buried immovable in 
the mud, or imprisoned in cells of their own making, it is 
the anterior end which is fixed. This obtains, with im- 
portant exceptions. 

The Monomyarians combine in their structure both high 
and low characters. In their open mantle, and certain 
other features, they rank high. In their fixed position, the 
attachment generally springing from the dorsal region, 
they rank low. For these reasons, I have placed them in 
the centre (see Plate, Series II, M) not indicating by 
this their equal value with the other groups, for I doubt 
if their separation from the Dimyarians is valid, since the 
large adductor, composed of two elements, would indicate 
the presence of both anterior and posterior adductors, com- 
bined in consequence of the excessive shortness of their 
antero-posterior diameter. The Monomyarians present sin- 
gular features of analogy with the Brachiopoda. Thus 
they are generally inequivalve. The viscera are compact- 
ed toward the dorsal region, and, when attached, they are 
generally by a process from the dorsal portion, (e. g. Ano- 
mia) the lowest feature of attachment. In all these in- 
stances, particularly with Anomia, the analogy is very 
striking; it is analogy only, and nothing more, for in their 
whole structure, and in the relative proportion of their 
diameters, they present just the opposite extreme. While 
we have in Brachiopoda the growth laterally, that is, 
spreading on the sides and depressed dorsally, and the 
valves, dorsal and ventral, in the Monomyarians we have 
the other extreme; the valves are right and left, and the 
display is on the side, the growth extending ventrally as it 
were. So narrow are they that in certain forms, Placuna 
for example, it is almost impossible to conceive the pres- 
ence of soft parts between the valves. We compare the 
relative diameters between the Brachiopods and Monomy- 
arians, to show how unlike they are in this respect. 



EEEATA. 

Page 175, line 12 from bottom, for anterior pole read 
posterior pole. 

Page 180, lines 12 — 13 from top, for anterior end read 
posterior end. 



Proceedings Essex Inst. Vol. IV. 



PI. 4. 




ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 173 

Diameter. Brachiopods. Monomyarians. 

Anteroposterior. Medium. Small. 

Dorso-ventral. Small. Very large. 

Transverse. Large. Very small. 

For reason of their excessive narrowness, the greater 
number of Monomyarians lie on the right or left valve, and 
as their peculiar form precludes the possibility of locomo- 
tion by the usual organ, the foot, they either remain fixed, 
or swim freely about in the water, by violently closing 
the ; r valves, as in Lma and Fecten. 

Among the Unionidse, the highest family in the Lam- 
ellibranchiata, the animal assumes nearly a horizontal posi- 
tion in crawling, though the anterior end is always the 
lowest, and generally buried in the mud. Its embryos, 
like Monomyarians in shape, are attached to the ovisac 
by the dorsal margin, which is straight, as in Pecten. (Lea's 
paper on Embryonic forms of Unionidse, Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 2d Series, Vol. IV., plate 5). 

By their violent shutting of the valves, while in embryo, 
they may, after birth, swim, even as Pecten swims ; at all 
events they are said to become attached by a byssal 
thread while young. Among the Gasteropods we have a 
few genera attached, or fixed, as in Magilus, Siliquaria, 
Vermetus, Spiroglyphus, Nerinsea, and Petaloconchus. 
These are now t attached posterior end downward. In 
Calyptraea they are in a fixed position, secreting a ventral 
valve, upon which they rest. (It would be interesting to 
know for a certainty which part first becomes attached in 
Vermetus and allied forms ; their first point of attachment 
must take place at the mouth of the tube or aperture, 
which is really anterior and ventral). The Cephalopods 
are free. 

Thus we have the various regions of attachment, chang- 
ing and following in the direction indicated by the arrow 
A, in Fig. 1. 

1st, Polyzoa : dorsal attachment. 

2d, Brachiopoda : dorsal and anterior attachment. 

3d, Tunicata: anterior. 

4th, Lamellibranchiata : anterior and ventral attach- 
ment. 

5th, Gasteropods : ventral and posterior attachment. 



174 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

While we have thus seen that the area of attachment 
first springs from the dorsal region, and gradually changes 
as we ascend in structure toward the anterior end, so we 
find the principal organ of locomotion, i. e. the foot, is 
first developed from the ventral region, and in like manner 
tending toward the anterior end, as we ascend in the scale, 
until, in Cephalopoda, the specialized divisions of the foot 
surround the head, and point directly forward. 

Having personally communicated the substance of this 
paper to Professor James D. Dana, he has, in a letter to me, 
indicated certain gradient relations among the Lamelli- 
branchs, Gasteropods, and Cephalopods, as manifested in 
the special characteristics of the head, or anterior part of 
the body, so clearly illustrating the principle of Cephaliza- 
tion that I now take the liberty of presenting them. In 
the Lamellibranchs the foot is a simple muscular organ 
developed from the ventral surface and protruding anteri- 
orly. It is simply an organ of locomotion, in the lower 
forms not even performing this function. The oral open- 
ing is a simple slit, without the power of seizing or tritura- 
ting its food. 

In the Gasteropods the foot is more specialized, and as 
an organ of locomotion far superior to that of the Lamelli- 
branchiates, having oftentimes three well characterized re- 
gions, called by Huxley, the pro- meso- and metapodium, 
these regions oftentimes supporting certain processes, 
e. g. cirri, opercula. The foot not only performs locomo- 
tion but in many cases has the power of seizing and re- 
taining its prey (e. g. Natica). The mouth has an appar- 
atus for biting and triturating its food, being furnished 
with an upper jaw, or buccal plate, and a tongue, armed 
with silicious particles. In the Cephalopoda the foot is so 
far differentiated as to be separated into prehensile arms 
furnished with rows of suckers, or hooks. These arms sur- 
round the head, and are thrown directly forward. They 
are capable not only of locomotion, but of seizing their 
prey, and performing also movements of aggressive action. 
In the higher forms of Cephalopods, the function of loco- 
motion is delegated to other organs, while the arms sub- 
serve the uses of the head alone, and the mouth, furnished 
with two powerful mandibles opposed vertically, forcibly 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 175 

reminds us of a parrot's beak, or that of certain oiher verte- 
brates. Thus we have cephalic power manifested in the 
mechanical action of the foot. 

1st, Lameliibranchs — Locomotion. 

2d, Gasteropods — Locomotion, Prehension. 

3d. Cephalopods — Locomotion, Prehension, and Ag- 
gression. 

According to the principle of Cephalization, cephalic 
power is manifested either as a mechanical, sensorial, or 
psychical force. Thus the Cephalopods possess in the 
greatest measure, all three ; while Gasteropods, not indica- 
ting, to any great extent, aggressive action, maybe said to 
manifest but little psychical power ; and the Lamellibran- 
chiates manifest essentially only mechanical action. 

We have based the preceding considerations on the com- 
mon structure of each class, and for comparison have 
given an archetype, as it were, of each class (Series I). 
In continuing these archetypal figures, as illustrating the 
relative diameters and mean forms for each class (Series 

II and III), and also the mean, or average position in na- 
ture of the antero-posterior axis (Series IV), we obtain 
singular features of polarity,* which I will now proceed to 
indicate; premising, however, that what follows is offered 
with reluctance, as I have not at present the opportunity 
to verify the statements as I would wish. In Series II 
the average lateral form of each class is given. In Series 

III a transverse section is given of the same figures in 
Series II. In Series II the arrow A indicates the direction 
of anterior pole, and D indicates the dorsal region in Series 
II and III. In Series IV a line for each class is given, re- 
presenting the average position of their antero-posterior 
axis in nature (A, anterior pole, P, posterior pole). The 
central figures in Series II, III, and IV represent cor- 
responding views of the Monomyarians. In the Polyzoa, 
(Series II, P) the sac is long and cylindrical, the mouth 
and anus terminate at the posterior pole, and the tentacles 
surround the mouth only; the anus terminating outside 
the lophophore. Witness in the highest order of Ceph- 
alopods, the Dibranchiates, the sac as in Loligo (Series 
II, C), long and cylindrical, and in all cases mouth and 

*We use this word in its most general sense. 



176 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

anus opening anteriorly ; the arms surrounding the mouth 
only. Two rough diagrams, alike in form, but reversed 
in one case, would represent each class as we have it here. 

In Brachiopoda (Series II, B) we have the sac widen- 
ing laterally, and correspondingly depressed dorsally ; 
mouth and anus opening posteriorly. In Gasteropoda 
(Series II, G) we have the same features, except that the 
parts are reversed again. In Tunicata (Series II, T) the 
sac is lengthened and swollen. Lamellibranchiata (Series 
II, L) the same. The relative diameters of the Monomy- 
arians are unlike those of any other class, as before point- 
ed out. 

It is confidently believed that when these relations, or 
polarities, between the ascending, and descending, or, as 
Professor Dana terms them, the Holozoic and Phytozoic 
classes, have been farther studied, new and interesting 
features will be revealed. Thus , the resemblances be- 
tween the Tunicates and Lamellibranchiates are too obvi- 
ous to indicate. 

Among the Brachiopods and Gasteropods, beside what 
has been pointed out, we have unlooked for similarities, 
as for instance Descina and Calyptrsea, or Terebratula and 
Hyalaea. Among the Polyzoa and Cephalopoda, though 
no polarities are brought to mind, except those given 
above, yet we cannot help remarking how strong the re- 
semblance is between the Polyzoa and Protozoa, through 
Vorticella : and if Vorticella belongs to Polyzoa, as Pro- 
fessor Agassiz appears inclined to believe, a few steps more 
bring us to the Am monitic forms of the Rhizopods. This 
is speculative (though suggestive), as it is now considered 
by many that the Protozoa forms a fifth Sub-Kingdom. 

In considering a transverse section of the sacs, as shown 
in Series III, we obtain a like order of polarity. Thus the 
highest orders in Polyzoa and Cephalopoda present a cir- 
cular section. Brachiopoda and Gasteropoda are trans- 
versely oval ; Tunicates and Lamellibranchiates are longi- 
tudinally oval, or in lower forms circular ; while the Mono- 
myarians have the dorso-ventral diameter in excess, and 
the transverse diameter reduced to the minimum. 

In considering the position, or angle of the anteropos- 
terior axis of each class in nature, we obtain similar re- 
sults (Series IV). 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 177 

Polyzoa and Cephalopoda, we place in a horizontal 
position, taking a swimming Dibranchiate for comparison : 
this may be premature however. 

Brachiopods and Gasteropods with posterior pole slight- 
ly elevated, as in Cyrtia and allied forms of Brachiopods, 
and any coiled Gasteropod for example. Tunicates and 
Lamellibranchiates with the axis vertical, the anterior pole 
being below, and the Monomyarian horizontal again. It 
must be remembered that the above considerations are 
taken in their most general sense, representing only the 
mean for each group, many of them perhaps erroneous. 
They are given rather for the purpose of indicating a 
future path of inquiry, which the writer considers fruitful 
and intends to follow, than as points in any way settled. 

In ascertaining the mean position of the antero-posterior 
axis for the whole branch of Saccata, (that is, the average) 
we find that a line at an angle of 45° would represent its 
position in nature ; the lower end being anterior. In the 
Radiates a line through the mouth to the opposite region 
of the body would stand vertical. In Articulates the an- 
tero-posterior axis would be horizontal. Among the Ver- 
tebrates, Fishes would be horizontal, as in Articulates ; 
Reptiles have the head slightly elevated ; Birds and Mam- 
mals still more elevated ; so that a mean line, for these 
classes might be drawn at an angle of 45,° the cephalic 
region being uppermost. Man stands vertical. Thus in a 
diagram we would have the following : 



Man. 

Vertebrata. 
Articulata. 
Saccata. 
Radiata. 






Fig. 2. 
In the preceding considerations I have endeavored to 
show the importance of the sac, as the principal and promi- 
nent feature in their plan of structure. All animals, re- 



ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. W. 



178 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

duced to their primary elements, are sacs in one sense of 
the word, though in one case a radiate sac, in another an 
articulate sac, etc. Yet nowhere does this character pre- 
dominate so universally, nor is it expressed so simply as in 
the Mollusca; the leading idea as it were. It was shown 
also that, essentially, the heart is on the outer bend of the 
intestine, or between that and the sac wall, while the 
principal nerve mass was on the inner bend of the intestine. 
We would thus state their characters. 

SACCATA. 

(1) Animals of a varied form, without a radiate struc- 
ture and without articulations. 

(2) Stomach and viscera enclosed by a fleshy sac, which 
may be closed or open, at either one or both ends. 

(3) Principal nerve masses, consisting of ganglia, which 
are adjacent to, or surround the (esophagus. 

(4) Intestine bending inward, or having an outward 
flexure. 

(5) Heart on the outer bend of intestine. 

f Sac open at C Cephalopoda. 
f Holozoic, or | anterior end. \ Gasteropoda, 
typic. ■{ 



Saccata. ■{ 



Mouth opens ■ I Sac opens at C Lamellibraxchiata . 
anteriorly. l^botn ends. £ 



Phytozoic, or f Sac open at C T rxICATA 
hkmitypic. posterior end. ( 

Mouth opens ■{ 

I Sac closed. * Brachiopoda. 



b 



POLYZOA. 



We must now consider the relations of the Saccata to 
the other branches of the Animal Kingdom. In the paper 
of Professor Dana's, above referred to, he has used the terms 
alphatypic, betatypic, and gammatypic, as a numbering 
of the grades of types, whether of branches, classes, or or- 
ders ; also, below gammatypic, we have degradational. 

The Radiates are regarded as degradational, and below 
this, hemiphytoid, also, the terms used above, namely, 
Holozoic, or true animal forms, and Phytozoic, or plant- 
like forms. 



ON THE PRINCIPLE OF CEPHALIZATION. 179 

Applying these terms to the classes or groups of Sac- 
cata, we have the following: 

C Alphatypic, Cephalopoda. 

Holozoic. < Betatypic, Gasteropoda. 

( Garnniatypic, Lamelllbranchiata. 

C -r, 14-- i ( TUNICATA. 

Phytozoic. ) Degradation^, £ Brachiopoda . 
( Hemiphytoid, Polyzoa. 

Prof. Danahas pointed out many interesting parallel- 
isms between the groups of the different branches. Let 
us now look at the parallelisms between the groups above 
indicated, and the other branches. Cephalopods approach 
nearest the Vertebrates through their lowest class, the fishes, 
and already many interesting analogies have been point- 
ed out between them. 

Gasteropods may be likened to Articulates, through 
their lowest class, the Worms, through certain resemb- 
lances many forms bear to the Leeches, Planarians, and 
Trematodes. Lamellibranchiates may be considered the 
essential embodiment of the branch to which they belong. 
Tunicates and Polyzoa may be compared to Radiates. 

Or, in considering their freedom or fixedness in life, we 
have Cephalopods free, as in all Vertebrates ; Gasteropods, 
a few fixed, as in Articulates ; Lamellibranchiates, many 
fixed as in Saccata, with relation to the other Branches. 
Tunicates, the greater portion fixed, though they do not 
compare so well with the Radiates in this respect, but 
Brachiopods and Polyzoa fixed as in the lowest class of 
Radiates, the Polyps. 

We would thus have 

axphatypic, 
ga5en1atypic, 
Betatypic, 

Degradational, 

Hejiiphytoid, 



Cephalopds, 


Vertebrates, 


Fishes. 


Gasteropods, 


Articulates, 


Worms. 


Lamellibranchiates. 


, Saccates. 




Tunicates, > 
Brachiopods, ) 


Badiates. 




Polyzoa, 


Badiates, 


Polyps. 



180 MORSE, CLASSIFICATION OF MOLLUSCA 

Explanation of Plate IV. 

Series I. Represents a typical figure of each principal 
group in Mollusca — viz., P, Polyzoa ; B, Brachiopoda ; T, 
Tunicata ; L, Lamellibranchiata ; G, Gasteropoda ; and C, 
Cephalopoda — (M, indicating Monomyaria, of the second 
series). These figures are represented anterior end down- 
ward, the dorsal region being turned to the left. The tube 
within each cut, represents the intestine, the larger end of 
which is the mouth, and the smaller end the anus. The 
harp-shaped figure represents the heart, and the star repre- 
sents the pedal ganglion. 

Series II. Represents similar views, with less detail. 
The dorsal region in this series is uppermost, and the an- 
terior end, is turned to the left, as indicated by arrow A. 
The curved line indicates the intestine, the large end be- 
ing the mouth. 

Series III. Represents transverse sections of corres- 
ponding figures in Series II. 

Series IV. Represents the mean position in nature, of 
the antero-posterior axes of the figures represented above, 
A, Anterior pole, P, Posterior pole. The vertical rows 
of figures are identical. 



Note. Since lines 7 — 12, page 164, were printed I have had an op- 
portunity of quoting the remarks made by Professor Peirce as reported 
in the Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., Vol. Ill, p. 8. 

"Professor Peirce also presented a communication upon the form as- 
sumed by an elastic sac containing a fluid. 

The positions of unstable equilibrium he found to divide themselves 
into four special forms, the annular, cylindrical, that of a cylinder with 
a bilateral character, and the double or multiple cylinder. The ultimate 
form of the first case is a sphere. 

He also alluded to the interest of this fact to those who were not 
themselves mathematicians. For the primitive forms which Professor 
Agassiz had found to be the four types of the animal kingdom were the 
same, the Radiata being represented by the sphere, the Mollusca by the 
cylinder, the Articulata by the bilateral, and the Vertebrata by the 
double cylinder. Now, as all animal forms begin as elastic sacs, con- 
taining fluids, these forms seem the necessary ones for the condition of 
equilibrium." 

It was Mr. Hyatt who defined the animal forms in the terms used on 
page 164. E. S. M. 



VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF POLYPS AND CORALS. 181 

XII. Synopsis of the Polyps and Corals of the North Pa- 
cific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ring- 
gold and Captain John Rodger s, U. S. N.,from 1853 to 
1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, naturalist to the 
Expedition. With Descriptions of some additional Spe- 
cies from the West Coast of North America. By A. E. 
Verrill. 

Part II, Alcyoxaria. "With two Plates. 
[Communicated February 29, 1865.] 

The specimens upon which the following descriptions 
are based were mainly collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson 
while acting as naturalist to the expedition. 

They were for the most part preserved in alcohol, and 
many are accompanied by notes and drawings of the soft 
parts, which have been reproduced in the plates. In most 
instances I have given the descriptions of the colors of 
perishable parts, as well as notes on the mode of occur- 
rence, in Dr. Stimpson's own words. 

Descriptions of a few species in the collection of the 
Smithsonian Institution and the Yale College museum, 
from the Pacific Coast of America, have been added, for 
the sake of making' thepaper more complete. 



SUBOEDEK, PEOTATULACEA, 
Family, Pennatulid^e. 

Pteromorpha expansa "Verrill. 

Plate 5, figure 1. 

The pinnate portion is broad ovate, abruptly rounded be- 
low; peduncle, or basal portion, thick, swollen, a little less 
than half the entire length. Pinnae crowded, about thirty- 
two on each side, long and wide, somewhat thickened, an- 
gular, the naked posterior margin somewhat concave, the 
anterior rounded and supporting numerous small polyps, 
and strengthened with sharp spines, which are often in clus- 
ters of two or three. The outer half of the sides of the 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. X. 



132 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF * 

pinnae as well as their anterior edges, are covered by small 
polyp-cells; basal half of the lower surface densely covered 
by small papillae. Axis strong, pointed at the ends ; interior 
cavity of the base small. Length of a large specimen in 
alcohol 6 inches, breadth across pinnae 3.5, length of pe- 
duncle 2.75. 

"Color (in life) white, bases of the polyps dirty white, 
on the stalk there are a few scattered blackish spots. 

It lives with the stalk immersed in the mud like Renilla; 
undulating, moving contractions are often seen in the stalk, 
resembling those of a Holothuria." 

Bays opposite Hong Kong, China. Common in 6 fath- 
oms, mud, April, 1854. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Leioptilum Gray. 

This genus is most nearly allied to Pennatvla, but differs 
in having soft, fleshy pinnae, with even borders and no ap- 
parent spicula. The polyps are in two or more rows 
along the edges of the pinnae. The peduncle is enlarged 
into a conspicuous, contractile bulb. The axis is very 
slender, quadrangular, and extends only through the mid- 
dle portion of the body. The rudimentary individuals on 
the back are developed in the form of conspicuous papilla?. 

Leioptilum undulatum Verrill, nov. sp. 

Basal portion smooth, pointed at the end, swelling into 
a large bulb just below the pinna?. Posterior part of the 
body, except along a narrow median band, covered with 
large verruciform rudimentary polyps, forming rounded 
papilla?, some of which are a tenth of an inch in diameter. 
Pinna? large, very broad and rounded, with narrow bases, the 
edges thrown into undulations or frills. Polyps rather 
large, arranged in three alternating rows along the edges 
of the pinna?. Axis very slender, about two inches long, 
extending from about an inch above the basal end to 
about the middle of the pinnate portion. The naked base, 
of a specimen 4.25 inches long, is 1.75; the largest pinna? 
.75 long and 1.12 wide. This specimen has twenty-five 
pinna? on each side. Pinnacati Bay, Cal. Mr. Stone. 
(Coll. Smithsonian Inst.) 



polyps and corals. 183 

Ptilosarcus. 

This section of the genus Sarcoptilus Gray seems to be 
sufficiently distinct from the original type of that group to 
rank as a separate genus. 

The form is thick, club-shaped ; the pinnae numerous, 
crowded, with thickened edges on which the polyps are 
arranged in several rows, each cell surrounded by promi- 
nent, spine-like spicula. The back of the body, except 
along a narrow median space, is covered by two broad 
bands of rudimentary polyps, appearing like crowded gran- 
ulations. The basal portion is thick and bulbous, with two 
large interior cavities, one of which extends along the an- 
terior surface, communicating with the pinnae, the other 
along the dorsal portion. ' 

The axis is long, fusiform, tapering to very slender points, 
which are curved (in preserved specimens) into a loop at 
each end. Connected with the lower part of the axis are 
very strong thickened muscles, which pass obliquely up- 
ward and outward to the wall-tissues, while higher up, a 
little above the lowest pinnae, other shorter ones are at- 
tached, which pass obliquely downward to the wall. 

Ptilosarcus Gurneyi. 

Sarcoptilus {Ptilosarcus) Gurneyi J. E. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., Vol.5, p. 23, pi. Ill, f. 2, 1860; ? Pennatula tenua Gabb. Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Nat. Sciences, II. page 166. 1862. 

Basal portion about one half the whole length, thick, 
bulbous, very muscular, the surface strongly sulcated in 
contraction. Pinnae smooth on the sides, broad, rounded, 
nearly semicircular with a broad base, the posterior edge 
extending beyond the base as a rounded lobe: the edge is 
thickened and covered by the polyps arranged in four rows, 
each cell armed with two sharp spinules. Along the back 
are two broad bands of very small papillae or granuliform, 
rudimentary polyps. 

Length of a large alcoholic specimen, having fifty-two 
pinnae on each side, 10 inches ; greatest breadth 2 ; length of 
pinnae .80, breadth 1.50; length of naked base 4.75, diame- 
ter 1.25. 

Puget Sound, Wash. Terr. Dr. C. B. Kennerly, Dr. G. 
Suckley. (Coll. Smithsonian Inst.) 



184 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF 

Family, Pavonariixe Dana, restricted. 

Virgularia pusilla Verrill, nov. sp. 
Plate 5, figure 2. 

Very small and slender, the pinnas extending nearly to 
the base, which is rounded and bulbous ; pinnse of the up- 
per portion surrounding the stalk on all sides except the 
back, which is naked; below they are separated also by a 
narrow anterior space, but the pinnse of the opposite sides 
appear to coalesce anteriorly higher up, producing a sub- 
verticillate arrangement. The middle whorls are separat- 
ed about .1 of an inch; polyps small, twelve to fourteen in 
the median whorls, somewhat crowded ; tentacles slender, 
elongated, with slender, rather distant, lateral lobes along 
nearly their whole extent. Length 1.75 inches ; diameter at 
the middle .12. 

"Bays opposite Hong Kong, China, in 6 fathoms, mud. 
April, 1854. Color pale orange or dirty red." Dr. Wm. 
Stimpson. 

The only specimen in the collection is probably young. 

Family, Veretillim: Gray, emended. 

Veretillum Stimpsoni Verrill, these Proceedings, d. 
152, April, 1865. 

Plate 5, figures 3, 3a. 

Polypiferous portion of surface thick, swollen, somewhat 
fusiform, broadest below the middle, the surface granulous ; 
basal portion less than a third of the whole length, bulb- 
ous, smooth, and very contractile ; polyps rather distantly 
scattered, arranged somewhat in quincunx ; between them 
are numerous minute papillse or rudimentary polyps; in 
expansion the polyps are much exsert with very slender 
elongated tentacles, bordered with rather distant, elongated, 
slender lobes in a single row on each side, commencing 
close to their bases ; axis short, thick, fusiform, situated 
just below the commencement of the polypiferous part. 

Whole length of the largest specimen in alcohol 3.5 
inches ; naked part 1 ; diameter where broadest 1 ; length 



POLYPS AND CORALS. 185 

of axis .35. When living, length 6.5 inches ; breadth 1.75 ; 
polyps about .75, exsert. 

"Hong Kong Harbor, China, in 6 to 1/) fathoms, mud, 
March 1855 ; also in 24 fathoms, shelly sand, China Sea, 
23° N. lat. April, 1855. Body whitish cream-colored ; pol- 
yps transparent with an opaque digestive tube, bluish white 
about the bases of the tentacles ; base white, somewhat 
longitudinally striated." Dr. Wm, Stimpson. 

Veretillum baculatum Verrill, these Proc. p. 152, 
April, 1865. 

Small, clavate, broadest near the upper end, which is 
obtusely rounded ; polypiferous portion about one half the 
whole length; naked basal portion elongated, pointed be- 
low, in one specimen, with a distinct terminal pore; axis 
small, fusiform, less than one half an inch long ; polyps 
much smaller and more numerous than in the preceding. 

Length of the only specimen obtained 2 inches ; diame- 
ter .3. 

Sea of Ochotsk, in 25 fathoms, taken Aug. 1855, by U. S. 
Steamer "John Hancock," Capt. Stevens ; preserved by L. 
M. Squires. 

Kophobelemnon clavatum Verrill, 1. c. page 152. 

Veretillum clavatum Stimpson, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 
7, p. 375, June, 1855. 

Plate 5, figures 4, 4a, \b. 

Polyps large, the tentacles long and slender with oblong 
lateral lobes ; surface of the body between the polyps, ir- 
regularly papillose, variegated, punctate with orange and 
spotted with brown ; basal portion white, with a pointed 
extremity. Length 2 inches. 

Bay opposite Hong Kong, in 6 fathoms, mud, April, 
1854. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

This species is more claviform and has more crowded 
polyps than K. Burgeri Herklotz. The naked dorsal space 
is scarcely apparent, owing to the crowding of the polyps 
towards it upon each side. 



186 VERRILL, SNYOPSIS OF 

SUBOKDEE, GOKGONACEA. 
Family, Gorgonim:. 

Gorgonia venosa Valenciennes. 

Off Madeira, in 25 fathoms, rocks. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Leptogorgia cuspidata Verrill, nov. sp. 

Corallum broad, subfiabelliform, irregularly branching 
nearly in a plane, the principal branches arising near the 
base divide above in an irregularly dichotomous manner, 
forming a rather thick fasciculate clump. Branchlets 
thick, rigid, nearly straight, tapering to a point. Cells 
numerous, rather large, rounded, covering the surface of 
the branchlets except along a narrow median space on 
each side. Grooves rarely distinct except near the base. 
Color deep purple ; cells yellow ; axis black. 

Cape St. Lucas, Cal. J. Xantus. (Coll. Smithsonianl 
Institution). 

Family, Plexaurid^e Gray. 

Plexaura friabilis Lamouroux. 

Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

I refer with some doubt to this species, specimens of a 
large dichotomous Plexaura with long, upright, cylindrical 
branches, the terminal ones often undivided for a foot or 
more, and about .3 of an inch in diameter, tapering but 
little at the ends. The cells are often a little prominent 
and evenly crowded ; the axis dark brown, scarcely com- 
pressed, even at the axils ; the ccenenchyma very spiculose 
and friable. 

It resembles in form and general appearance P. crassa 
(Gorgonia vermiculata Lk.) of the West Indies. 

Lophogorgia palma Edw. and Haime. 

Gorgonia palma Pallas, 1766. Gorgonia flammea Ellis and Solander, 
1786. 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope. Not rare in 20 

fathoms, rocks, Oct. 1853. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



POLYPS AND CORALS. 187 

One specimen differs from the ordinary form in having a 
large, very compressed trunk, with the long, subdigitate 
branches much more flattened than usual ; color, in alcohol, 
light gray. „ 

Lissogorgia Verrill. 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. History, 1864. 

In this genus the ccenenchyma is very thin, friable and 
highly spiculose throughout, the spicula conspicuous at 
the surface and covering the verruciform cells, which are 
eight-lobed in contraction. Tentacles strengthened at the 
base by large spicula, which often radiate within the dried 
cells. Axis horn-like, smooth, usually without visible stri- 
ations. Type, L. flabellum (Antipathes flabellum Auth.) 

Lissogorgia flexuosa Verrill, nov. sp. 

Corallum much branched, subflabelliform, the branches 
irregularly pinnate, branchlets slender, divaricate, often 
coalescing ; axis soft and flexible, dark brown ; ccenenchy- 
ma thin, membranous, filled with large fusiform spicula, 
visible at the surface ; polyp cells rather large, rounded, 
verruciform, covered by numerous elongated and pointed, 
imbricated spicula. Color, in alcohol, grayish white. 

Hong Kong. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Muricea sinensis Verrill, nov. sp. 
Plate 5, figures 5, 5a. 

Corallum irregularly dichotomous with elongated, sub- 
clavate branchlets; polyp cells verruciform, rather large, 
somewhat prominent, irregularly crowded, surface granu- 
lose with crowded spicula; external portion of the ccenen- 
chyma hard and coriaceous, rather thick, the surface thick- 
ly covered by small oblong spicula; tentacles strengthened 
by numerous red spicula. Axis, in alcohol, very soft and 
flexible near the ends, slender, dark brownish below ; color 
of the ccenenchyma deep red. Height 8 inches, diameter 
of branchlets .15. 

Hong Kong. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



188 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF 

Muricea ? divaricata Verrill, nov. sp. 
Plate 5, figures 6, 6a. 

Corallum low, much branched somewhat in a plane, 
branchlets slender, elongated, divaricate; covered by the 
very prominent irregularly crowded, sometimes secund, 
polyp cells ; these are mostly .2 of an inch high and spread 
abruptly at right angles to the branches, and are some- 
what claviform, the summits being enlarged. The cce- 
nenchyma is very thin and filled with large, thickened 
spicula, conspicuous at the surface, producing a granulated 
appearance ; the polyp cells are thickly covered by more 
elongated, fusiform spicula, which are irregularly arranged, 
interlaced and conspicuous at the surface, converging at 
the summit of the cells, which are eight-rayed in contrac- 
tion. Color, in alcohol, light ash gray, axis light fuscous, 
soft and flexible. Height three inches. 

Hong Kong. Dr. Wm. Sampson. 

Acanthogorgia coccinea Verrill, these Proceedings, p. 
152. 

Nephthya coccinea Stiinpson, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. June, 1855, 
Vol. 7, p. 375. 

Plate 6, figures 7, la. 

All the specimens observed of this species consist of 
simple clavate stalks, rising from broadly expanded bases, 
which, like the stalk, are densely covered with large, open 
polyp cells, irregularly crowded over the whole surface ; 
the cells are surrounded by numerous, deep red, prominent, 
imbricated, spines, their outward ends long and sharp, but 
irregularly branched at their bases, forming thus a cluster 
of short, secondary spines; axis light brown, slender and 
flexible. Height of the largest specimens 2 inches, diame- 
ter .2. Below each tentacle, imbedded in the external 
membrane, are two rows of linear, crimson spicula, con- 
versant towards each other so as to form a series of V- 
shaped markings with the apex towards the ends of the 
tentacles. 

Hong Kong, China, in 10 fathoms, attached to dead 
shells. "The specimens when contracted look like the fruit 



POLYPS AND CORALS. 189 

of the Sumac of New England ( Rhus typhina L.) Color 
bright red, that of the tentacles and spicula deepest ; polyp 
bodies hyaline, yellowish flesh color." Dr. Win. Stimpson. 

Family, Primnoid.e M. Edwards, emended. 

Primnoa compressa Verrill, nov. sp. 

Corallum much branched in a plane, flabelliform, con- 
sisting of several large branches arising from near the base, 
which give off, alternately from each side, numerous, long, 
slender, acute branchlets, which rise at a very acute angle 
with the main branches and are often again subdivided in 
the same way; branches and branchlets strongly com- 
pressed in the plane of the branches, delicately striated, 
stony, near the base dark brown, the branchlets yellowish 
white, their tips setaceous. Height of largest specimen 24 
inches ; diameter of largest branches .25. Coenenchyma 
and polyps not observed. 

Aleutian Islands. Capt. Gibson. 

Family, Gorgonellid^: Valenciennes. 

Juncella LiEvis Verrill, nov. sp. 

Corallum tall, simple, subcylindrical, rather slender, di- 
minishing in size both at the summit and near the base, 
where the polyps become obsolete ; cells appressed, scarce- 
ly prominent, arranged in two broad bands, leaving a nar- 
row, median, naked space on each side, along which there 
is a well marked groove ; they are placed alternately at a 
distance of about .2 of an inch, in about six vertical rows 
on each side, producing a quincunx arrangement ; axis 
slender, cylindrical, calcareous, white, surrounded by about 
sixteen longitudinal tubes, two of which are larger and 
correspond with the lateral grooves, the others to the rows 
of polyps. Length of the single specimen, imperfect at 
each end, 20 inches ; greatest diameter .25. Color yellow- 
ish brown, in alcohol. 

Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. VOL. IV. Y. 



190 verrill. synopsis of 

Family. Jsidm. 

Pabisis Laxa Verrillj these Proceedings, p. 152. 

Corallurn flabelliforra, loosely branched, openly reticu- 
lated, only a few of the branches coalescent ; branchlets 
spreading nearly at right angles, somewhat elongated, 
curved, obtuse at the ends ; papillse rather large, irregular- 
ly crowded; ccenenchmya thin, roughened by the points of 
minute spicula; axis slender, consisting of white calcareous 
joints alternating with shorter dark brown ones of the same 
thickness, but softer; color, in alcohol, light gray. Height 
of a small specimen 3 inches : width 3: diameter of branch- 
lets .20. 

Off Hong Kong. China, in 15 fathoms, shelly gravel, 
May, 1854. Color, in life, bright light blue. Dr. Wm. 
Stimpson. 

Mopsella japonic a Verrill, nov. sp. 

Low, spreading, dichotomous, branching nearly in a 
plane ; branches slender, diverging at an angle of about 
45,° obtuse at the ends ; cells rounded, papilliforrn. rather 
large, crowded. Color, of all the specimens observed, Ver- 
million with yellow polyps. 

Simoda, Japan. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

This species is most nearly allied to M. coccinea (Isis 
coccinea Ellis and Sol.), but the branchlets do not coalesce 
as in that species, and spread much less abruptly. The 
cells, also, are considerably larger. 

SUBOEDEE, ALCTOSACEA. 

Family, Alcyoxid-E. 

Alcyoxium rubiforme Dana. 

Lobvlaria rubiformis Ekrenberg. 

Arctic Ocean in 35 fathoms. Capt. J. E.odgers. West 
Coast of Behrings Straits in the Laminarian Zone. Dr. 
Wm. Stimpson. 



polyps and corals. 191 

Alcyonium, sp. 

A specimen badly preserved, and too imperfect for iden- 
tification. 

Hong Kong. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Alcyonium? 

The corallum consists of rounded, glomerate clusters of 
large, verruciform polyps, striated at the tops. Color, in 
alcohol, bright red. 

Sea of Ochotsk. L. M. Squires. 

Sarcophyton agaricum Verrill. 
Alcyonium agaricum Stimpson, 1. c. page 375. 

This species forms mushroom-shaped disks, which are 
circular, convex, with entire, revolute margins, and support- 
ed on a central pedicel about one-third as broad as the disk. 

The polyps cover only the upper surface, are rather 
large, three-tenths of an inch long and an eighth of an inch 
distant, the surface between them being covered with mi- 
nute dots. Upper surface of the disk bluish gray, polyps 
lighter with still paler tentacles ; lower surface and pedicel 
dark cream colored. Diameter of disk 1.5 to 2 inches; of 
pedicel .5. 

Kagosima Bay, Japan, not uncommon in 10 fathoms, 
sand, January, 1855. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Nephthya aurantiaca Verrill, nov. sp. 

Corallum thyrsoid in form, consisting of a stout naked 
pedicel, divided above into several short, thick branches, 
which are covered by small, glomerate clusters of crowded 
polyps; cells very small, verruciform, much crowded; their 
bases covered with closely imbricated, red spicula; the 
bases of the tentacles with golden yellow ones. Height 2 in- 
ches ; diameter of pedicel .3. Color of pedicel and bran- 
ches pale pink; polyp cells bright red at base, yellow at 
summit. 

. China Sea in 23° N. lat. Dredged in 28 fathoms, shelly 
gravel. Color pale reddish gray ; tentacles light yellow 
Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



192 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF 

Nephthya thyrsoidea Verrill, 1. c. p. 151. 
Plate 6, figures 8, 8a, 8b. 

Corallum thyrsoid, consisting of a pyramidal head of 
compound, glomerate clusters of polyp cells, supported by 
a short, thick pedicel. The short branches arise from all 
sides of the main trunk and spread abruptly, dividing at 
once into numerous small rounded lobes, which are dense- 
ly covered by the crowded polyps ; cells larger than in the 
preceding, less thickly covered by the spicula, which are 
yellowish gray and quite small. Height of the largest 
specimen, 3 inches, diameter 2, diameter of pedicel .5, 
length of naked part .75. 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope. "Taken commonly 
in small clusters, rarely in large ones, in 20 fathoms, rocks, 
Oct. 1853. Color wine-yellow or light brown ; polyps dark 
purplish just under the tentacles; the latter palish, nearly 
white ; stalks with irregular, transverse, elevated, silvery 
lines of spicula." Dr. Wm, Stimpson. 

Spongodes gigantea Verrill, Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, p. 40. Jan., 1864. 

Large, paniculately branched ; principal branches few 
and large, covered on all parts by short, thick, glomerate 
branchlets, which are themselves divided into numerous 
clusters or small heads of polyps; the polyps are small, not 
crowded, most of them armed with a bundle of long, white, 
prominent spines, some with smaller single ones; bases of 
the tentacles filled with numerous red spicula; the trunk 
is very open, cavernous, the walls membranous, filled with 
slender, white spicula ; the base divided into root-like ex- 
pansions. Height 12 inches or more ; diameter of trunk, 
near the base 3 ; of principal branches 2. Color of trunk, 
in alcohol, brownish gray ; polyps dark red, with conspic- 
uous white spines. 

Hong Kong, China, on rocks in 1 fathom, April, 1854. 
Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PI. 6. 




10 a 





^X 



8 b 




10 I 




Ji 



^€ 




9 5 




9 a 




E. S. Morse, Del. A. Holland. Wood Cut Printer, Boston. L. Sanford, Eng., New Haven. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PL 5. 




E. S. Morse, Del. A. Holland, Wood Cut Printer, Boston. L. Sanford, Eng., New Haven. 



POLYPS AND CORALS. 193 

Spongodes capitata Verrill, Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, p. 40. Jan., 1864. 

Trunk short and thick, dividing rapidly in a dichotomous 
manner, forming a broad rounded clump. Branchlets much 
subdivided, corymbose, the polyps all terminal, small, ver- 
ruciform in contraction, in rounded clusters of forty or fifty; 
with these are often intermingled little groups of three or 
four individuals supported by slender, white spines, one of 
which is longer than the rest, and considerably exsert, sup- 
porting one of the cells on its side. The tentacles and 
polyp walls are also strengthened by slender white spicula. 

Height of a large specimen 4 inches, breadth 5, diame- 
ter of polyps about .05.. 

Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm, Stimpson. 

Spongodes gracilis Verrill, nov. sp. 

Trunk slender, arborescently branched, the branchlets lax, 
a little elongated, furcate, the polyps mostly arising singly 
along their sides in asecund manner, not crowded, scarcely 
clustered, small but quite prominent, supported by several 
slender spines, the walls and tentacles strengthened by 
numerous very slender fusiform spicula of a bright red col- 
or. The trunk and branches are open, membranous, dia- 
phanous, filled with long, slender, curved, fusiform spicula 
of a white color. 

General color light pink. Height 2 inches; diameter 
of trunk .25 ; of polyps .02. 

Loo Choo Islands. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Family, Cornularid^e. 

Anthelia lineata Stimpson, I.e. p. 375. 

Plate 6, figures 9, 9a, 9b. 

Polyps elongated, tapering somewhat towards the disk. 
Tentacles nearly half as long as the body, slender, tapering, 
with a single series of oblong, somewhat irregular papilla?, 
those near the base of the tentacles shorter and nearly ob- 
solete. Body pale brownish with eight, longitudinal, lead- 
colored stripes, tentacles bright blue. Length of body 
about an inch. 



194 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF 

Hong Kong. "Abundant on rocks at low-water mark, 
which it covers with a light bluish scum." Dr. Wm. Stimp- 
son. 

Telesto ramiculosa Verrill. 

Gornularia aurantiaca Stimpson, 1. c. p. 375. (non T. aurantiaca 
Lamx.) 

Plate 6, figures 10, 10a, 106. 

Corallum irregularly branching, the branches and coral- 
lites straight, subcylindrical (clavate when young) marked 
with numerous, fine, longitudinal sulcations. The upper 
portion of the polyps projecting considerably beyond the 
firmer tubes in expansion, pellucid, somewhat constricted 
at the junction with the tubes. Tentacles long and rather 
broad, with a single series of elongated lateral lobes, which 
are themselves tuberculated. Color pale orange, polyps 
transparent with a few linear spicula on the sides, stomach 
crimson. Height 2 inches. 

Hong Kong. Dredged sparingly in 10 fathoms, shelly 
bottom. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Telesto? nodosa Verrill, nov. sp. 

In this species the stalks usually rise half an inch or 
more and then divide at once into a cluster of twelve to fif- 
teen slender corallites or branchlets, which diverge from one 
point. By continued growth another leading polyp arises 
from the cluster and after a short distance produces another 
similar cluster, thus forming an elongated stalk, densely 
ramulous along the sides, except where the intervals be- 
tween the clusters occur, and even there scattered cells of- 
ten appear. Corallites slender, turbinate, a third of an inch 
long, the walls very thin, encircled by numerous elevated 
rings, and finely striated longitudinally. 

Height of the largest specimen about three inches. 

Loo Choo Islands, in pools at low water. Dr. Wm. 
Stimpson. 

Dry specimens only of this species are in the collection, 
and therefore its true characters are somewhat uncertain. 
In many respects, and especially in the transverse rings 
around the tubes, it resembles some species of Tubularia. 



polyps and corals. 195 

Sarcodictyon. 

A species of this genus occurs creeping over dead shells. 
The polyps in alcohol are mostly contracted and form scat- 
tered verrucse about a line in diameter and rather mo re in 
height, connected by slender, fleshy stolons. 

Hong Kong, China. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

Family, Tubiporim:. 

Tubipora rubeola? Q,uoy and Gay. 

Bonin Islands. Dr. Wm. Stimpson. 

I refer to this species, with much doubt, a fragment of 
Tubipora of very light red color, having the transverse 
plates about .25 of an inch apart; the tubes .1 in diameter. 
It is too imperfect to be determined satisfactorily, if, in- 
deed, it be possible to determine species of this genus from 
the dry corals. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate V. 

Figure 1. Pteromorpha expansa Verrill ; a polyp en- 
larged. 

Figure 2. Virgularia pusilla Verrill; a polyp much 
enlarged. 

Figure 3. Veretillum Stimpsoni Verrill ; a polyp 
somewhat enlarged ; 3a, structure of the surface between 
the polyps. 

Figure 4. Kophobelemnon clavatum Verrill ; natural 
size, with the polyps expanded, front view ; 4a, a polyp 
much enlarged, showing outline of stomach, below which 
are, apparently, clusters of eggs ; 46, a tentacle much 
magnified. 

Figure 5. Muricea sinensis Verrill ; a branchlet, natu- 
ral size; 5a, one of the contracted cells magnified to show 
the spicula. This and the next were drawn from nature 
by Mr. E. S. Morse. 

Figure 6. Muricea divaricata Verrill; portion of a 
branch, natural size ; 6a, a contracted cell much magnified, 
showing spicula 



196 VERRILL, SYNOPSIS OF 

Plate VI. 

Figure 7. Acanthogorgia coccixea Verrill ; a polyp 
much enlarged, showing spiniform spicula at the base and 
small spicula below the tentacles ; la, view of a polyp 
from above. 

Figure 8. Nephthya thyrsoidea Verrill ; a cluster of 
polyps from a branch, slightly magnified ; 8a, a polyp par- 
tially contracted, much enlarged to show the spicula; 86, 
one of the spicula greatly magnified. 

Figure 9. Axthelia lineata Stimpson; cluster of 
polyps natural size ; 9a, a polyp enlarged ; 9b, a tentacle 
magnified. 

Figure 10. Telesto ramiculosa Verrill; a group of 
polyps in contraction, natural size ; 10«, an expanded polyp 
much enlarged ; 106, a contracted polyp somewhat mag- 
nified. 



Note. Part I of this paper, including a Synopsis of the Classifica- 
tion of Polyps, herein adopted, was published under a somewhat dif- 
ferent title in the fifth number of these Proceedings, page 145. Part 
III, embracing descriptions of the Actinaria, will appear as soon as 
the necessary plates can be completed. 



HYATT, OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 197 

XIII. Observations on Polyzoa. Suborder Phylactolcemata. 
By Alpheus Hyatt. 

, "With nine Plates. 

[Communicated October 10,* 1864.] 

Introduction. 

The investigations recorded in the following pages are 
the results of observations made on the American species 
of the Phylactolsemata ; with the intention of elucidating 
the structure of the genera, and of presenting the laws of 
their structural combination as fully as this can be ac- 
complished within the limits of the present communication. 

For this purpose synoptical tables have been given, ex- 
hibiting the anatomy of the different divisions, as far as 
our knowledge of the adult animals would permit. 

Had such a plan been possible at the present time, the 
synopsis would have embraced only the anatomy of the 
most complicated species of each generic series; and other 
tables, similarly constructed, illustrating every genus, would 
-have been prefixed, one individual of each species being 
selected for analysis. But the small number of species 
now known in each genus not affording material enough 
for perfecting this system, the tables include only general 
statements of the characters of each genus, and these are 
arranged in a linear series in order to show clearly their 
serial relations. I venture, however, to assert, that, not- 
withstanding these defects, the results obtained by this 
mode of procedure are more exact, than if the usual me- 
thods of describing the anatomy had been followed. 

The advantages of thus analyzing the anatomical fea- 
tures of any natural division are at once apparent. Their 
organization, as a whole, is rendered plain ; and the reader 
is enabled to trace, throughout the structure of the group, 
not only the changes of any organ by itself, but even of 

♦During the proof reading I have embodied in the original text many 
new facts discovered since the 10th of Oct., 1864. and the communica- 
tion, therefore, may be considered as covering a period extending from 
that date to the day of publication. 

essex inst. proceed, vol. iv. z. March, 1S66. 



198 



HYATT, 



the different systems of organs, from their lowest to their 
highest states. 

The laws, also, according to which the changes, or dif- 
ferences in the parts, take place, are better illustrated by 
such a tabular view, than by any other method. 

The manner commonly pursued of describing the mi- 
nute differences between species, or genera, and of simply 
generalizing with regard to their anatomical peculiarities, is 
very unsatisfactory. It does not afford the means for com- 
paring the anatomical composition of the parts of the in- 
dividual in each species, or genus, which is necessary to a 
complete understanding of the' whole, and the differences 
are souo-ht for and described, to the neglect of the agree- 
ments, that are either passed by, or only casually noticed 
in the descriptions of the larger divisions. Such errors are 
avoided by the use of analytical tables, which, besides the 
advantages before described, set forth the similarities as 
prominently, as the differences. We thus never lose sig-ht 
of the initial points of the structure, while the differences, 
or changes, from t ; me to time appearing, stand oat even 
more vividly against the common background of similari- 
ties. 

It is far from my intention to underrate the labors of 
naturalists who devote themselves to the discovery and 
publication of new forms ; their labors are essential to 
the progress of science. The ordinary mode, however, of 
prosecuting these investigations is, perhaps, too disconnect- 
ed, species being habitually regarded in the light of isola- 
ted creations, rather, than as allied to others by the larger 
number of their essential characters. This engenders a 
habit of always looking for differences, and overlooking 
agreements, which the study of series of species, or even 
of series of individuals would correct. 

The facts published in these "Observations" have been 
verified by my own experience, with the single exception 
of the spermatozoa. These I have not yet seen, my obser- 
vations having been made, for three successive seasons, 
principally during the fall and winter months. 

The questions involved in the body of the paper, and 
the difficulties to be overcome in obtaining living Euro- 
pean specimens have obliged me to quote extensively from 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 199 

the works of foreign naturalists. References, however, are 
always made to the original publications, and the state- 
ments used have been, in all cases, sifted of facts that did 
not correspond with my own researches upon closely allied 
American species. 

The nomenclature of Professor Allman's exhaustive 
"Monograph of the Fresh-water Polyzoa" has been adopted 
throughout, with the exception of a few alterations, which 
become necessary, partly in consequence of some ideas of 
my own, with regard to the composition of the organs, dif- 
fering from those of Prof. Allman, and, partly, because I 
here adopt a new view of the relations of the anterior and 
posterior poles of the body, originated by my friend Edward 
S. Morse.* In an article published in these Proceedings 
he homologizes the parts of the animal in the various classes 
of the Mollusca, and arrives at the conclusion, as surpris- 
ing, as it is truthful, that the attached end of a Polyzoon 
is in reality the anterior, and that the peduncular end of a 
Brachiopod is the homologue of this, and, also, anterior. 

It therefore becomes necessary to alter the commonly re- 
ceived nomenclature, and to denominate the attached end 
of a Polyzoon the anterior; the free end the posterior; the 
anal side the dorsal; and the opposite, or so called hsemal 
side, the ventral. 



*A Classification of Mollusca based on the principle of Cephalizatiou. 
Proc. of Essex Inst., Vol. IV, No. VI, p. 1G2. 

Note. I am indebted to Dr. Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, for iden- 
tifying my specimens of Fredericella regina with his species, for tra- 
cings of all the species described by him, and for other valuable infor- 
mation. 1 desire, also, to return thanks to Professor H. J. Clark, of 
Harvard College, Professor A. E. Verrill, of Yale College, Professor 
Alfred Mayer, of Penn. University, Professor Theodore Gill, of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Elliott Smith and Mr. S. I. Smith, of 
Norway, Maine; to all of wliom I am under obligations for important 
assistance. 

My thanks are also due to the Officers of the Smithsonian Institution, 
of Washington, and the Peabody Institute, of Baltimore, for the use of 
books which I could not have otherwise obtained. 

It is but just that I should also express the feelings of gratitude with 
which I cherish the memory of my father, Mr. Alpheus Hyatt, of Bal- 
timore, whose long continued generosity, while living, enabled me not 
only to accomplish this undertaking, but to plan, and prosecute others 
of a similar kind. 

Mr. Edward S. Morse perfected the drawings with the skill of an 



200 



HYATT, 



The unquestioning manner with which I take up these 
views may excite some surprise, but they are founded up- 
on facts which calmed all the doubts I at first entertained, 
and satisfied me entirely of their correctness. Mr. Morse's 
paper, entitled "A Classification of the Mollusc a based on the 
principle of Cephalizalion," fully illustrates the homologies, 
as well, also, as the general plan of that subkingdom. 

Mr. Morse has, also, done me the honor of quoting from 
my manuscript the term Saccata as a new name for the 
Mollusca. Since it has been so auspiciously introduced to 
science, and, as such a definitive term seems to be needed 
to give uniformity and completeness to the nomenclature 
of the four plans, I shall make no further excuse for its em- 
ployment in the future. 

Bibliography and Classification. 

There is no bibliography of the Phylactolaamata, or in 
fact of the Fresh-water Polyzoa taken together, as far as 
our own country is concerned, but, in Europe, they have, 
from the time of Trembley,* their discoverer, attracted much 
attention, and the list of works, that may be consulted with 
profit, is extensive. The principal among these are the 
writings of Dumortier and Van Beneden, Professor All- 



accomplislied draughtsman, and with all the interest of a zoologist and 
personal friend. I am indebted to him both for this, and for many other 
favors that have rendered it possible for me to publish at an early date. 
In fact, my only regret, in connection with this article, is, that a gen- 
tleman of such acknowledged ability, whose time is important to science, 
should not be able to devote it to his own original investigations. 

The lenses employed were made especially for the purpose by Rob- 
ert B. Tolles, of Canastota, N. Y. The one half inch objective having 
an angle of 175° and one fifth of an inch working distance was especi- 
ally well suited for the examination of living animals. 

Mr. J. F. Richardson, of Portland, executed the engraving of the 
plates with the same skill he has shown in other scientific works, and 
with more than usual care. 

The wood cuts are very large for a black ground, and, being printed 
directly from the wood, required all the skill and patience of Mr. Hol- 
land to produce accurate impressions. 

*Memoire pour servir a l'histoire d'un genre des polypes d'eau douce. 
1744. 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 201 

man, and Mr. Albany Hancock.* These experienced 
naturalists surveyed the whole field, and, armed with pow- 
erful modern microscopes, they completely disclosed the 
anatomy and physiology, making nearly all preceding ex- 
plorations interesting only as matters of history. 

Dr. Leidy is the sole authority upon this subject in 
America.f His observations have given us all. the informa- 
tion we at present possess of our native species, besides 
adding two new and singularly interesting genera, Pec- 
tinatella and Urnatella, to the systematic catalogue. Of 
these two, Pectinatella alone belongs to the Phylactolee- 
mata. 

Nothing of a general nature having been published in 
this country, it may, perhaps, be well, before proceeding 
with the structural analysis of the Phylactolsemata, to give 
a sketch of the classification and a description of the dif- 
ferent forms of this suborder. 

The Polyzoa, for a long time confounded with the Radi- 
ata, were first definitely separated by Thompson in 1830, 
and called by him Polyzoa, thus taking precedence of 
Bryozoa, the name afterwards given them bv Ehrenberg 
in 18314 

In 1834, De Blainville, although still continuing to as- 
sociate them with the Radiata, set off the genera Crista- 
tella, Plumatella and Alcyonella as a subclass, styling 
them "Polypiaires douteux."|| 

*Dumortier & Van Beneden. Hist. Nat. d. Polypes composes d'eau 
douce. Nouv. Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. de Bruxelles. Vol. 16. 1843. 

Van Beneden, Recherches sur les Bryozoaires. Mem. de l'Acad. 
Roy. de Belgique. Vol. 21. 1848. 

Dumortier & Van Beneden. Hist. Nat. des polypes com. d'eau 
douce. Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. de Bruxelles, comp. au torn. 16. 1848. 

Albany Hancock. On the Auatomy of the Fresh-water Bryozoa, 
with descriptions of new species. Ann. and Magazine of Nat. Hist. Vol. 
5. 1850. 

Prof. Allman. Monograph of the Fresh-water Polyzoa. Ray 
Society, 1856. 

fDR. Joseph Leidy. Proc. Philadelphia Acad, of Nat. Sciences, 
Vols. 5, 7, and 10. 

iBusK. On the priority of the term Polyzoa. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. 2d Ser. Vol. 10, p. 352. 1852. 

|| De Blainville. Man. d'Actinologie et de Zoophytologie. p. 489. 
Paris. 1834—37. 



202 HYATT, 

In 1837, Gervais divided the Polyzoa into two sub- 
classes, "Polypiaires hypocrepia," and "Polypiaires infun- 
dibulati." The first included the genera with lateral arms, 
and the second those with round lophophores, among 
which he placed Fredericella.* 

In 1848, Fredericella was restored to its proper division 
by Dumortier and Van Beneden, but they committed the 
mistake of uniting it with Paludicella, a genus with a truly 
orbicular lophophore, and devoid of an epistome.y These 
authors, also, recognized the Hypocrepian division, as limit- 
ed by Gervais, separating Fredericella and Paludicella as 
a distinct group. 

Professor Allman in 1856 instituted the order Phylacto- 
laBmata, basing it upon the epistome, which is present in 
all the genera.^: 

He divides the order into two suborders ; Lophopea and 
Pedicellinea, the former including all the Hypocrepian 
forms, and the latter the marine genus Pedicellina. Al- 
though differing from Professor Allman in my estimation 
of the relations of Pedicellina, I have retained his name 
for the Fresh-water genera, from Fredericella to Cristatella 
inclusive. 

In the Suborder Lophopea, he has two grand groups, or 
families, founded upon the characteristics of the cjenoe- 
cium ; one the Cristatellidae, for the genus Cristatella with 
its locomotive ccenoecium ; and the other the Plumatellidae, 
embracing all the remaining genera, that have rooted 
coenoecia. 

There is a partial coincidence between Professor All- 
mans classification and the one I advocate. He makes 
of his Plumatellidae two groups ; one equivalent to my first 
family including Fredericella, because of the obsolete 
arms, and another including precisely the same genera as 
my second family. Thus the classifications virtually agree 
in regard to the number of the principal groups, although 
not with regard to their relative values. 

*Gervais. Recherches sur les Polypes d'eau douce. Annates des 
Sciences Naturelles, 2d Ser. Vol. 7, p. 77. 

fDcMORTiER & Van Beneden. Memoirs de l'Acad. Hoy. de Bel- 
gique. Vol. 21, p. 5. 1848. 

J Allman. Freshwater Polyzoa. p. 10. 



OBSERVATIONS ON POI.YZOA. 



203 



According to this view of their relations, the Phylacto- 
l^mata comprise three families, or subgroups. First; 
the FredericelUdce, founded upon the great differences be- 
tween the lophophore and nervous system of Fredericella, 
and the members of the other families. Second ; the Plu- 
matellidce, which differ from the Fredericellidee in the lopho- 
phore and nervous system, and from the Cristatellidae in 
their coencecial characters. Third ; the Oristatellidce, whose 
coenoecia and mode of development separate them widely 
from both the preceding. 

The following is a scheme of this classification, enumer- 
ating the families and genera by name, and the number of 
species at present known in America, Europe, India and 
Australia. 



■a) W 



.5 -2 

>5 -«; 



fc - 



fk e deeicellid-e . 

plumatellidje. 

Cristatei.lid.k. 




3 


1 







13 




1} 


1 




1 




111 


o 


1 





12 Hi l l :;o 



*Plumatella includes Alcyonella, which is only a variation of the ordinary form of 
the species. 

fA species of Plumatella mentioned, but not named or described, from Melbourne, 
and the vicinity of Richmond. D. Oyly H. Alpin. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d Ser. 
Vol. 6, p. 454. 1800. 

JA species mentioned by Dr. Leidy. Proc, Phil, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Vol. 10, p. 190. 

|| A. statoblast, found near Bombay and described by Mr. J. H. Carter in the Ann. 
and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Vol. 3, p. 341, pi. S, f. 8-15, 1859, supposed by him to belong to 
Lophopus crystallinus. It, however, undoubtedly belongs to a new species of Pec- 
tinatella, and I therefore propose fqr this new species, which is remarkable for its 
spines, furnished with many lateral hooks, growing only from the ends of the stato- 
blast, the name of Pectinatella Carteri. 



204 HYATT, 

FEEDEEICELLA, 

These are plant-like animals with graceful dendritic 
forms, common in our brooks and ponds (PI. 7). They 
cling, immovably fastened by their ectocyst, to the lower 
surfaces of submerged, stones, or floating boards ; and 
thrive best in the darkest places, often carpeting the dismal 
recesses, under the loosened bark of dead branches, with 
their lovely, campanulate corollas. 

Nothing can exceed the exquisite beauty of these small 
"phytozoons"; their symmetrical outlines, the alertness of 
the motions of the polypid.es, and the surprising complexi- 
ty of the internal structure of their transparent bodies rich- 
ly repay the labors of the microscopist. 

Cwnascium. This part of the colony, formed by the tu- 
bular dark brown trunk and branches, is made up of lines 
of little hollow twigs, or cells, each separate cell encasing 
a single polypide, and opening into the preceding cell, or 
parent Polyzoon, at the lower end. Thence the cells 
are generally attached for some distance to the surface, al- 
though frequently the entire branch is free, the lowest cell 
alone being attached. The extremities of the cells bend, 
upwards, and are always free, but vary exceedingly in 
length. The color is due to the ectocyst, which is a thin 
gelatinous excretion, soft, and transparent when first de- 
posited, but acquiring with age a dark brown hue and 
parchment like consistency (PI. 7, figs. 4, 5, D). This ex- 
cretion is the product of the ccencecial endocyst. or true 
body wall of the branches and polypides (PI. 7, figs. 4, 5, 
6, E). The endocyst is continuous throughout the gener- 
al system of branches or coencecium, and the latter may, 
therefore, be regarded as a common tubular cavity, more 
or less cut up into cells. Some scattered, partial divisions, 
made by ring-like folds of the endocyst, open in the centre, 
are found in each colony, but these are not constant, and 
occur only at rare intervals in the branches.* 

Polypide. The free portions of the cells are capped by 
translucent tubes crowned with thread like tentacles radia- 
ting from the periphery of the Lophophore, or floor of the 

*Siinilar to those of Plumateila. PI. 8, fig. G. 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 205 

crown. This is perforated in the centre by the round 
mouth, overshadowed by the tongue like Epistome (PI. 7, 
fig. 5, I', I"), which is an obtuse, upward fold ofthelopho- 
phore, opening below into the neural chamber, or cavity. 
This cavity contains the orbicular nerve-mass suspended 
immediately under the epistomic opening (PI. 7, fig. 5, S). 

The surface of the tentacles, the oral side of the epis- 
tome, the lophophore and the interior of the throat in the 
vicinity of the mouth are covered by cilia (PI. 7, figs. 4, 
H, 5, H"). Constantly vibrating towards the centre of the 
crown, these cilia create a vortex in the water, at the apex 
of which lies the mouth, always open and ready to en- 
gulph the microscopic plants, or Infusoria;, that may be 
caught by the encircling current, and swept into this liquid 
trap (PI. 7, fig. 5, I"). 

The polypides not unfrequently form a sort of cage, by 
interlacing the extremities of their tentacles, and imprison 
the more active of the Infusorise, who would otherwise 
readily escape. Thus inclosed, however, their strength is 
expended in fruitless efforts to break through the tentac- 
ular bars, until finally exhausted and overcome, by the 
power of the miniature maelstrom, they are whirled unre- 
sistingly downward into the funnel shaped throat. 

The tentacles are used not only, as above described, to 
catch the prey, but for a multitude of other offices. They 
are each capable of independent motion, and may be 
twisted or turned in any direction ; bending inwards, they 
take up and discard objectionable matter, or push down 
into the stomach and clear the oesophagus of food too small 
to be acted upon by the parietal muscles. They are also 
employed offensively in striking an intrusive neighbor, and 
their tactile power, sensitive to the slightest unusual vibra- 
tion in the water, warns the polypide of the approach of 
danger. 

Between the lophophore and the coenoecium, the internal 
organization is plainly seen, the pellucid wall of the tube 
offering no obstacle to the eye of the observer. 

The alimentary canal hangs from the lophophore, occu- 
pying the centre of the polypide, and floating freely in the 
rapidly moving blood. The yellowish oesophagus, the 
stomach barred with brown, and the brownish intestine 
essex inst. proceed, vol. iv. a a. March, 1866. 



206 HYATT, 

compose a deeply colored axis relieving and vivifying the 
shadowy outlines of the tube and tentacular crest (PL 7, 
fig. 5, K, K', K"). 

All these delicately proportioned members are balanced 
upon a fold of the endocyst, called the Invaginated Fold 
(PL 7, fig. 5, B), which is retained within the coenoscial 
cell by the Retentor muscles (PL 7, fig. 4, 5, N, N'). These 
together with numerous other sets of small muscles will 
be described hereafter. At present it is only necessary to 
call attention to the Sphincter (PL 7, fig. 6, L), a broad, 
contractile band surrounding the invaginated fold, and the 
large retractors (Pi. 7, fig. 4, fig. 8, M, M', M"), which are 
in two sets, one on each side of the alimentary canal. 
They arise apparently from two common bases, but each 
large trunk subdivides above into many bundles, which 
may be distinguished from each other according to the lo- 
cation of their attachments and divided into three branches. 

The fibres of the first branch, the Gastric Retractor, are 
distriouted to the stomach ; those of the second, the Lo- 
phophoric Retractor, to the oesophagus and oral region ; 
those of the third, the Brachial Retractor, to the bases of 
the arms, and to the endocyst along the line of the Brachi- 
al Collar. The crest is swayed by these muscles in every 
direction ; or, when alarmed, the polypide may withdraw 
by their aid into the larger ccenoecial tube below, very 
much as the finger of a glove may be inverted within the 
empty palm. This is so quickly done, at times, as to 
baffle observation, and the fully expanded polypide, with 
every tentacle stretched to its full length vanishes instant- 
aneously within the ccenoecium. Often, however, the in- 
vagination is more slowly performed, and the motions can 
then be easily followed. 

The polypidal endocyst is first turned inwards, folding 
upon itself, and prolonging the permanently invaginated 
fold below. The tentacles, arriving at the edge of the 
coenoscial orifice, are pressed into a compact bundle by the 
action of their own muscles, and, together with the lopho- 
phore, are dragged into the cell by the continued invagina- 
tion of the endocyst until they are wholly inclosed and at 
rest within the sheath formed for them by the inverted 
walls of the tube. The sphincter muscle then closes the 



OBSERVATIONS ON POI.YZOA. 207 

coenoecial orifice above, and the process of invagination is 
completed. 

The polypide in its exserted state is buoyed up and sus- 
tained by the pressure of the fluids within. Consequently 
when invaginated it displaces an equal bulk of these in 
the closed coencecium, and their reaction, aided by the 
contraction of the muscular endocyst, is sufficient to evagi- 
nate the whole. 

The evagination begins with the relaxation of the sphinc- 
ter, which permits the ends of' the tentacles to protrude. 
These daintily feel about for the cause of the alarm, and, 
if they fail to detect the proximity of an enemy, the whole 
fascicle is cautiously pushed out, and the sentient threads 
suddenly and confidently unfolded. 

The polyzoon reasons from the sense of touch inherent 
in its tentacles, and cannot be induced to expose itself 
above the cnencecium until thoroughly satisfied, by these 
sensitive feelers, that no danger is to be apprehended. In 
fact, these plantlike creatures, singly mere pouches with a 
stomach hanging in the midst, exhibit greater nervous ac- 
tivity and "animality," than we find among the more highly 
organized Ascidia, or shell-covered Brachiopoda. 

PLUMATELLA. 

The species of this genus abound near the shores of our 
ponds, close to the surface, and are generally in company 
with Fredericella (PI. 8). They may be found attached 
to the under sides of flat stones, or floating boards, but do 
not usually seek the narrow, dark recesses in which Fred- 
ericella often occurs. Better fitted to endure the sun's 
rays, they may, occasionally, be seen in positions exposed 
to their full influence. I have been so fortunate as to col- 
lect specimens of P. Arethusa which were growing from 
the ends of the long water grasses ; their tiny branches, and 
living, crystalline flowers glittering in the light, and sway- 
ing to and fro in the open current without protection from 
the heat, even at midday. 

The ccencecium is dendritic as in Fredericella, but the 
growth is generally more luxuriant, extending over larger 
surfaces, and the coencecial cells are wider in proportion to 



208 HYATT, 

their length. The polypide, also, is capable of more ex- 
tended protrusion, and its motions, therefore, are less re- 
strained. The arms, previously indicated in the lopho- 
phore of Fredericella, are fully developed, and stretch out 
on the dorsal side just above the anus, giving a crescentic, 
or horse-shoe shaped aspect to the disk, which is retained 
throughout the succeeding genera. 

The ectocyst may be either transparent or brown in the 
same species, and the polypides may be widely separated, 
as in Fredericella, or be closely aggregated, the branches 
and cells adhering together by means of their gelatinous 
ectocysts. 

L0PH0PUS. 

Lophopus introduces us to a new class of characters. 
The ectocyst, in place of being a thin enveloping sheet, is 
a thick deposit of clear jelly in which the coencecium is 
buried. The branches are lobiform, and the cells even less 
widely separated, or differentiated, than in the aggregated 
varieties of Plumatella. 

Prof. Allman describes Lophopus crystallinus as attach- 
ed to the stems of Lemna, and other fresh water plants, 
but avoiding exposure to bright sunlight. 

These positions must necessarily, however, be less shad- 
ed than those occupied by the majority of the Plumatellae. 

PECTItfATELLA. 

The reproductive and vital energies of the group reach 
their climax in the voluptuous beauty and endless multi- 
plication of the ccenoecia in Pectinatella (Pis. 9, 10, 11, 12). 

The cells of the separate polypides are wholly merged 
in the lobiform branches, and the gelatinous ectocyst, often 
several inches thick, is gathered underneath the coencecia 
(PI. 9, fig. 5, D). It affords a common base for all the 
colonies, and is no longer, as in the preceding genera, con- 
fined to one ccenoecium. 

The tropical aspect and luxuriant growth of the cling- 
ing masses, frequently several feet in diameter, investing 
the summits of submerged stumps, and the branches of 



OBSERVATIONS ON POI.YZOA. 209 

waterlogged timber, are unequalled among the fresh-water, 
or even among the marine Saccata of our climate. 

The communities, assembled in countless profusion up- 
on the gelatinous ectocyst, are crowded together and being 
compressed become irregularly hexagonal in their outlines. 
The polypides upon the lobiform branches, adorn the bor- 
ders of these hexagonal patterns with a dense, glistening 
fringe, speckled with the scarlet coloring of their oral re- 
gions ; and the bare coenoecial trunk (PI. 9, figs. 5, 6, 7, A') 
in the centre shine with a deep, opaline lustre, completing 
the rich, coralline effect of the fringed outlines. 

The protrusion of the polypides is not limited by the in- 
vaginated fold, as in the preceding genera, but they roll out 
nearly the full length of their evaginable endocyst, and re- 
semble columns supported by a simple ovolo and fillet 
(Pis. 10, 12). The fillet corresponds to the invaginated 
fold of the preceding genera, and the ovolo-likebend in the 
endocyst is produced by the contraction of the anterior re- 
tentor muscles. 

In July and August specimens of Pectinatella magnifica 
are very abundant in shallows and in the depths of Pen- 
nissewasse pond, but as the fall advances, those in the 
shallows die, and in October they can live only upon the 
logs in deep, cool water, or in shaded situations. These 
autumnal specimens are old, and being unable to with- 
stand the direct rays of the sun, disappear from all exposed 
positions, where they grow with impunity as strong and 
healthy adults earlier in the season. I have found them 
fifteen or twenty feet below the surface, showing a marked 
departure in this respect from the preceding genera, whose 
species seldom occur below two, or three feet, and are al- 
most invariably near the shore line. 

CEISTATELLA, 

The Cristatellae are by far the most highly organized, 
not onlv of the Phylactolsemata but of all the Polyzoa 
(Pis. 13," 14). 

The ccencecia are neither dendritic, as in Fredericella 
and the Plumatell*e, or lobate, as in Lophopus and Pec- 
tinatella, but naked, depressed sacks, capable of determi- 



210 



HYATT. 



nate motion; their interior divided by walls of reticulating 
muscular fibres into numerous radiating cells and tubes. 
The latter, however, do not meet internally, but leave a 
vacant space in the centre of the ccencecial trunk unoccu- 
pied either bv the polvpides, or the muscular walls (PL 13, 
figs. 2, 3, A'j. 

The polypides extend to the full length of their evagina- 
ble endocyst, and are destitute of an invaginated fold, not 
even possessing a fillet around the upper edge of the cce- 
ncecial orifice as in Pectinatella (PI. 14, fig. 1). They are 
disposed in rows upon the borders, inclosing the clear, 
bare central spaces with an edging not unlike the polypid- 
al fringes of Pectinatella (PI. 13, fig. 1). 

The ectocyst loses the fixed character it still possessed 
in Pectinatella, and is only a transient, gelatinous excre- 
tion, thrown off in great abundance from the common base 
of the colony (PI. 1-3, fig. 3, D). 

The communities are not invariably gathered upon a 
common ectocyst, as in Pectinatella, but are sometimes 
single, as in Lophopus. 

There is, however, a very curious, and remarkable simi- 
larity of one species with Pectinatella. 

The ccencecia of C. opbidioidea herd together within 
confined boundaries from a few inches to a foot or more 
in diameter, covering such favorite resorts with a glairy 
coating accumulated upon the surface by the moving 
bases of the numerous colonies. The aspect of one of 
these settlements, supported upon this common ectocyst, 
is analogous to that of a mass of Pectinatellae ; especially 
to the old age, or degradational period of the life of a mass 
of the latter ; where a large number of colonies still cling 
to a thin sheet of gelatine left from the decay of the great- 
er part of the ectocyst. 

This similarity may be explained by the fissiparous 
multiplication of the ccencecia in both genera and the slow 
progression of Cristatella. The colonies of the last can 
never wander far from their place of origin, unless floated off 
by some accident, and, continually multiplying, they soon 
create a dense population in a comparatively small space. 

The distribution of Cristatella is similar to that of Pec- 
tinatella, thev being generally found together. 



observations on polyzoa. 211 

Reproduction. 

The Phylactolaemata have two modes of reproduction, 
one by buds, and the other by eggs. The former occurs 
in two ways; by statoblasts, either fixed or free, and by 
regular buds, which grow out from the side of each poly- 
pide. The first are the founders of new colonies. The 
last merely increase the number of individuals in each es- 
tablished community. The colonies are, however, some- 
times multiplied by other processes, which cannot be classi- 
fied under either of the above heads. In large specimens 
of Plumatella Arethusa the polypides on the old trunk die 
first and the remnants of the ccenoecia are gradually swept 
away, leaving the branches as so many independent colo- 
nies (PL 8, fig. 1). This, also, is not uncommon with Plu- 
matella diffusa, and is, probably, peculiar to all the species 
of this genus that distribute their branches over a large 
surface. 

I have directed, perhaps, more attention to the old age 
than to any other period of the growth of the individual, 
and among the many curious and novel facts, which this 
comparatively untravelled path of investigation hassled me 
to, there are few more interesting than the above. 

Specimens of Fredericella may be often observed at- 
tached near the ends of their branches by the soft ectocysts 
of their younger polypides^ the ragged end of the branch 
floating freely above. These may sometimes have been 
torn by accident from the parent colony, but in the majori- 
ty of cases they owe their liberation to the decay of the 
original stock. In Pectinatella and Cristatella the march 
of extinction is, also, from within outwards. But, in con- 
sequence of the greater width and the common occupation 
of the ccencecium by the polypides, the decay of those in 
the interior does not effect the vitality of the trunk, and 
their living ccenoecia carry both the quick and the dead 
(PL 9, fig. 11). 

Thus death, which is an active agent in multiplying the 
number of independant colonies in Fredericella and Plu- 
matella, is, probably in Lophopus, and certainly in Pec- 
tinatella and Cristatella, of no avail ; the constrictive pow- 
er of the endocyst being its functional substitute in the 



212 HYATT, 

three last named genera. Although the polypides of the 
Phylactolaemata never display any marks of fissiparity, the 
coenoecia are multiplied by division. 1 have seen thelobi- 
form branches of old colonies of Pectinatella divided from 
the coenoecial trunk by constrictions, which, gradually deep- 
ening, finally separated them from the latter. The form, 
the thickness of the ectocyst, and the vast number of coe- 
noecia upon every mass, indicate, that this selfmultiplica- 
tive mode of propagation is of frequent occurrence among 
the adults. 

Prof. Allman has observed similar phenomena in Cris- 
tatella and Lophopus, showing it to be common to all the 
genera having the thickened gelatinous ectocyst. It ap- 
pears probable, that this method of multiplying the colonies 
would also take place in Fredericella and the Plumatellse, 
if it were not for the toughness of the ectocyst. The par- 
tial divisions continually occuring in the branches of these 
genera and, apparently, restrained only by the stiffness of 
the ectocyst from becoming effective and severing the 
coenoecia, wherever they occur, into separate parts, are the 
homologues of the permanent septa between the cells of 
Paludicella and of the lateral partitions in the marine 
Polyzoa. This homology was suggested to me in observ- 
ing the readiness with which the lobes of Pectinatella were 
cut off; the constrictions occuring irregularly, sometimes 
isolating a whole branch, sometimes only a few cells. If 
the ectocyst was pergameneous in this genus the constric- 
tions would either not take place at all, or form scattered 
partitions, as in Fredericella and Plumatella. Thus the 
same function that produces a constant anatomical char- 
acter in Paludicella, Fredericella, and Plumatella, would 
seem to be the effective cause of the selfmultiplication of 
the ccenoscia in Lophopus, Pectinatella and Cristatella. 

Prof. Allman divides the mode of reproduction by buds 
into two, "non sexual reproduction by gemma?, which at 
once proceed to the full term of their destined develop- 
ment," and "by statoblasts or gemmae in which the develop- 
mental activity remains for a period latent."* 

The statoblasts bud from the funiculus, a cord like pro- 

*Frcsh-water Polyzoa. p. 41. 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 213 

longation of the outer membranes of the stomach, connect- 
ing the lower end of that organ with the bottom of the 
cell in the vicinity of the bases of the retractors. 

The researches of Mr. Hancock, upon the early devel- 
opment of the statoblast, which he supposed, in common 
with other observers of that time, to be a true ovum, and 
those of Prof. Allman, give an almost complete history of 
their growth.* The former found them in Plumatella and 
Fredericella, in the interior of the funiculus, as large nu- 
cleated cells ; and the latter, apparently begining his inves- 
tigation at a later period, as a mass of smaller cells, which 
must have resulted from the division of the primary cell 
of Mr. Hancock. 

They arise within bead like swellings of the funiculus, 
and, enlarging slowly, push out to the surface of the chord, 
and upwards towards the stomach, until finally they hang 
upon the exterior, arranged alternately on either side, the 
youngest being at the lower end (PI. 8, fig. 2, W). 

According to Prof. Allman the contents increase in bulk 
by the formation of new cells, and are enveloped in a 
cellular membrane (Fig. 1, a) with an outer gelatinous 
envelope (PI. 8, fig. 2, W""). Between these, two other 
membranes are secreted, one of which constitutes the horny 
sheath, and the other the annular ring of the statoblast 
(PL 8, figs. 7, 8, 9, W, W"). This sheath and the annulus 
gradually assume a distinct cellular structure, and a horny 
consistency; the former at the same time acquiring a deep 
brown color, and the latter a brilliant golden hue. 

The contents of the statoblast are often contracted, and, 
while in this condition, during the earlier stages of de- 
velopment before the horny casing becomes too opaque, the 
membranes may be analyzed by the aid of the microscope. 

The interior cells are large and colorless. They are 
surrounded by a thin, homogeneous membrane, which, 
when the cellular contents are reduced by contraction, 
seems to be drawn out into numerous, minute, conical pro- 
jections at the points where it is attached externally to the 
overlying membrane (Fig. 1, b). I was unable on account 

*Albaxy Haxcock. Ann. Xat. Hist. Vol. 5. p. 190. 

essex inst. proceed, iv. bb. March, 1866. 



214 



HYATT, 



of the opacity of the sheaths of the specimens of Fredericella 
regina, upon which my investigations were principally 
made, to determine with absolute precision, whether these 
conical projections were tubes, or partly solid muscular 
bands connecting the investing membrane with the overly- 
ing layer (Fig 1, a). 

The cellular contents do not project into the interior of 
the cones, as they might be expected to do, if the latter 
were simply hollow continuations of the investing mem- 
brane. This fact may be considered as favoring the opin- 
ion, that they are partly solid, and, perhaps, muscular, con- 
nective bands, or else there must be another membrane in- 
terior to the one described, which, also, invests the cellular 
contents and prevents the cells from flowing into and fill- 
ing up the conical projections. The overlying layer (Fig. 
1, a) is exceedingly thick, and acts, in all respects, like a 
muscular membrane. It is unconnected with the horny 
sheath, and either lies closely against the latter, or is sepa- 
rated from it; and may be smooth and of equal thickness 
throughout, or corrugated and of unequal thickness, as in 
fig. 1, according to its state of expansion, or contraction. 

The horny sheath is composed of flattened, hexagonal 
cells, the whole surface garnished internally with a thin 
coating of short, horny, brown colored setge (Fig. 1, W). 
This sheath is so exceedingly tough and hard that it is 
difficult to pierce it with the point of a needle. 

The annuli of the statoblasts of Plumatella, and of the 
other genera in which they are found, are made up of more 
prominent and larger hexagonal cells than those of the 
horny sheath. 

In Fredericella the annu- 
lus is not developed, but in 
all the other genera it is, and 
in Pectinatella and Crista- 
tella spines are superadded. 

These spines apparently 
arise from the annulus in 

Fig. 1. Section of the end of a sta- t-j .■ ,11 J„„„..;u.-.^ 

tobiastof fkedekicella eegina; b, Pectinatella, as described 

conical projections on the surface of the Kit- ~T}r T.oirlir hnt thpir 

cellular contents; a, thick, muscular "J Ur ' - L,eld y5 DUX Ine y 

membrane; w', horny sheath. may be traced by a close 




OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 215 

examination of this part, by transmitted light, to their junc- 
tion with the body of the statoblast. From the edges of 
the statoblast they pass through the centre of the annulus, 
coming out on the border of the seam, that divides the up- 
per and lower sides of the annulus. 

Prof. Allman describes the statoblasts of Cristatella as 
surrounded by a ciliated envelope before the spines begin 
to be developed, and remarks, that these impinge upon 
this membranous envelope, which gives way before them 
and disappears. I have been unable to detect any similar 
ciliated membrane in Plumatella or Pectinatella, and, in 
this respect, Cristatella probably differs from all the other 
Phylactokemata. The gelatinous matrix of the statoblast 
of Pectinatella does not reach its full growth before the 
spines are produced, but appears to be carried up on their 
sides as they progress outwards. When the spines are 
fully developed, the reentrant spaces in the envelope be- 
tween them become filled out, and they are buried in the 
gelatine, like those of Cristatella when they first begin to 
protrude from the horny sheath. 

The gelatine is absent from the full grown statoblasts of 
Fredericella and Plumatella, which are found naked in 
the ccencecial cells, whereas those of Pectinatella and Cris- 
tatella are enveloped by it until after the death of the colo- 
ny; losing it only by decay. In the two first this covering 
is not essential, and it is absorbed before the bud is floated 
out of the ccencecium, while in the two last it is needed in 
order to protect the parent from laceration b|> T the pointed 
hooklets of the spines, and it is, therefore, retained until 
lost by the exposure of the bud to external influences. 

Before the spines of Pectinatella appear, and often, even 
before the horny casing shows the deeper shades of the 
brownish coloring that afterwardsdistinguishesit, the stat- 
oblasts are detached from the funiculus. They lie loose 
in the coenoecial cavity from this time until the death and 
decay of the polypides destroy the upper parts of the cells. 
Through the openings thus made, being lighter than water, 
they are readily floated off and pass the winter unprotect- 
ed by any other covering than their cellular casings, al- 
though remaining near the surface, and consequently, in 
the higher latitudes, imbedded in the ice for several months. 



216 HYATT. 

Growth begins at the approach of spring and the edges 
of the sheath are split apart by the increasing bulk of the 
polyzoon, which protrudes between them. The opacity of 
the sheath has hitherto prevented microscopists from as- 
certaining the early history of the development of the 
polypide, and we are obliged to be content with such ob- 
servations as can be made during the later periods of its 
life, when it is partly exposed. 

The organs, when the little animal first makes itself 
visible, are well advanced in growth and the polypide is 
already capable of retraction and expansion. For a time 
it floats freely in the water, Wafted about by the cilia, 
which clothe the whole external, surface, and increases in 
size until the sheaths of the statoblast can no longer con- 
tain it; then, in some appropriate locality, the gelatinous 
ectocyst adheres to the surface, the cilia are absorbed, and 
the polypide enters upon a new phase of life as the founder 
of a community. 

The sides of the sheath and the annulus, although sepa- 
rated from each other, frequently cling to the bud, and may 
occasionally be found adhering to its sides even after the 
colony has attained its full size. 

Besides these floating buds, which might be called free 
statoblasts, there are others, originating in a similar man- 
ner, but from the attached or lowermost sides of the cells 
instead of the funiculus. These remain permanently fixed 
by their external investment to the endocyst, and, on this 
account, I have called them fixed statoblasts. They have 
been described in Plumatella emarginata and Alcyonella 
(Plumatella) Benedeni by Prof. Allman, and by Dr. Leidy 
in Plumatella nitida.* 

It may be well to remark here, that the location of the 
free statoblast in Fredericella is different from what it is 
in all other genera. After dropping in the usual manner 
from the funiculus they become soldered to the sides of 
the parent cells, and being of the same size, are indistin- 
guishable from the true, fixed statoblasts. 

The fixed statoblasts found in Plumatella are much 



*Dr. Leidy. Proc. Philadelphia Acad. Xat. Sciences. Vol. 5. p. 321. 



OBSERVATIONS OX POLYZOA. 217 

larger than the free forms, have no annulus,. and in many 
species the walls of the cells immediately under them be- 
come so compact and hard, that they cannot be removed 
from the surface of the wood or stone to which the cell is 
attached without considerable exertion. 

Certain so called exceptional forms of buds, also, previ- 
ously noticed by Prof. Allman in Alcyonella fungosa and 
Lophopus crystallinus, are very abundant in Cristatella, on 
the interior of the basal membrane* (PI. 13, figs. 2, 3, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 12, X). They are at first small oval bodies near 
the border, jutting out from the endocyst of the tubes lead- 
ing to the second or third line of polypides. Their com- 
position is similar to that of the stato blast. They have a 
thick external membrane and granular contents, but are 
devoid of a gelatinous envelope, and, also, have a large 
vacant spot in the interior which is continually varying its 
shape and position. Simultaneously with them, and con- 
tinuous with their outer envelope, a long ridge springs up 
from the endocyst and the outer membrane of the bud, 
which, becoming membranous, splitting into two portions, 
and connecting with the upper side of the ccenoecium, even- 
tually incloses them in a tube (PL 13, figs. 8, 10, 11, Q,). 
This ridge sometimes passes directly over the centre of the 
bud, and sometimes to one side, but is almost always 
present. It occasionally retains the cord like embryonic 
character, and freeing itself from the endocyst, except at 
the extremities, forms a pseudo-funiculus, suspending the 
bud in the coencecial cavity. The thick external membrane 
becomes in course of time differentiated from the walls or 
ridges, and acquires the horny consistency of the casing 
on the free statoblast, but is never so opaque, or deeply 
colored. As the outer membrane stiffens no change seems 
to be made in the granular contents, but the more con- 
vex face of the envelope sinks, forming an elliptical depres- 
sion, and the greater number of the buds become free (PI. 
13, fig. 12, W). Prof. Allman found them to be hollow, 
and described this elliptical depression as an aperture. I 
was, however, unable to substantiate either of these con- 



"Allmax. Op. cit. p. 40. 



218 HYATT, 

elusions in Cristatella. The rupture of the sheath and the 
consequent escape of its contents is not an uncommon oc- 
currence among the fixed statoblasts of Plumatella; and 
this seems to have been the cause of the emptiness of the 
specimens described by Prof. Allman. From their mode 
of development, and the place they occupy in the ccenoeci- 
um, it is probable that they are the same as the fixed sta- 
toblasts of Plumateila. They differ, however, from the 
fixed statoblasts in being unattached to the endocyst when 
fully grown, but this not being an invariable character, 
and the elliptical depression, which is nothing more than 
the accidental sinking in of one side of the sheath, being 
quite common, even among the free statoblasts of Pluma- 
tella, I see no reason for considering them exceptional 
forms. 

At an early stage of growth, while still floating freely in 
its native element, the statoblastic polypide begins to mul- 
tiply by the process of budding. An internal swelling of 
the endocyst, on the lower side, in the vicinity of the bases 
of the anterior retentor muscles, first shows the position of 
the coming polypide. This elongates into a little hollow 
sack with a thickened rim (PI. 7, fig. 5, Y), upon the up- 
per edge of which, in the Hypocrepian Polyzoa, a slight 
notch is formed by the duplication and pushing out of its 
sides into two loops joined along the centre (PL 13, fig. 
4, Y). A series of minute folds of the membrane on the 
upper sides of the loops are the incipient tentacles, and, as 
they enlarge, the intervening membrane is drawn up with 
them like a thick web ; but this, however, eventually recedes 
externally and becomes the calyx. The loops growing out- 
ward augment their longitudinal diameter at the expense 
of the transverse, and the inner sides of each, approximat- 
ing and at last coalescing, make up the lophophore and 
arms. Preceding the beginning of the tentacles, a trans- 
verse constriction of the body of the little sack draws the 
line between the oesophagus, and the stomach ; and the 
subsequent deepening of this constriction divides off the 
internal cavity, establishing the cardiac and pyloric valves. 
The muscles, which become well differentiated at a very 
early period, are divisible into three pairs : one pair attach- 
ed to the rim, the Brachial Retractors; one to the region 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 219 

of the oesophagus, the (Esophagal Retractors ; and one to 
the region of the stomach, the Gastric Retractors. They 
are active from the first, and appear to drag the polypide 
inwards, stretching the endocyst of the parent, which is 
joined to the loops, into a tube. This tube is the future 
evaginable endocyst of the polypide ; and, as the various 
organs are developing, it is everted little by little, becom- 
ing gradually capable of the adult evagination. 

The tentacles of Cristatella ophidioidea are not fully 
grown, nor the arms divaricated, until long after the evagi- 
nation of the polypide is completed (PL 13, fig. 3, Y). 
At this period the tentacles of the external rows near the 
mouth are the longest, decreasing regularly to the mere 
tubercles on the ends of the arms, and the internal tenta- 
cles are not separated from each other, exhibiting only two 
closely appressed lines of tubercles all of about equal length. 
The division of the arms begins internally, and its progress 
outwards may be followed by the gradually increasing 
length of these interior rows, which retain their tubercular 
character until this division commences (PL 9, fig. 14). 

The mode of reproduction by true ova, although detect- 
ed by Dumortier and Van Beneden, was first fully describ- 
ed by Prof. Allman. They are produced from the gemma 
dot, a bud-like mass on the upper side of the endocyst in 
the neighborhood of the orifice, which, during the fall, 
when not filled with ova, becomes opaque and granular.* 

The testicle, first described by Dumortier and Van Bene- 
den, arises from the funiculus, resembling in its mode of 
formation, according to Prof. Allman, a true bud. The 



*Prof. Allman thus describes the earlier periods of the development 
of the ovum. Monograph Fresh-water Polyzoa p. 33. 

"Development of the Ovum. — I have succecled in tracing the develop- 
ment of the ovum through most of its stages in Alcyouella fungosa. 

In this polyzoon the mature ovum consists of a granular vitellus, 
surrounded by a very evident vitellary membrane, on whose internal 
surface the contents appear frequently to be aggregated in a coarse 
granular layer. It presents a large germinal vesicle, and a very dis- 
tinct germinal spot. After a time the germinal vesicle and the germi- 
nal spot disappear, and the vitellus undergoes segmentation, and after 
the mulberry-like condition thus induced has in its turn vanished, we 
find the contents of the egg have assumed the form of a roundish or 
oval body, richly ciliated on its surface, and provided with a large ceu- 



220 



HYATT. 



nuclei of the cells are of large size and in due time are con- 
verted into spermatozoa. These have been observed swim- 
ming freely in the perigastric cavity into which the full 
grown ova are, also, discharged from the ovary. 

After the segmentation of the vitellus, the egg appears 
as a hollow oval body clothed externally with cilia, and it 
is at this period that most observers have seen and des- 
cribed its peculiarities. 

Mr. Albany Hancock, although confounding it with a 
statoblast which he supposed to be an egg, speaks of one, 
an undoubted ovum, which, he observed forcing its way 
through the closed orifice of the cell, rending and destroying 
the parent polypide in its course.* 

I have, also, seen them during this stage in Plumatella 



tral cavity, which as jet does not open externally. When liberated from 
the outer membrane of the ovum, which still confines it, it swims ac- 
tively through the surrounding water by the aid of the cilia with which 
it is invested. 

As development proceeds, we find the ciliated embryo while still 
confined within the coverings of the egg, presenting in some part of 
its surface an opening, which leads into the central cavity ; and through 
this opening an unciliated, hernia-like sac is capable of being protrud- 
ed by a process of evagination. The unciliated protrusible portion 
would seem to have been derived by a separation from the walls of 
the central cavity, and appears therefore to originate by a process of 
unlinmg, a true chorization. 

Towards the opening, which leads from without into the central 
cavity, the chorization is incomplete, the membrane as it separates 
being here still held to the walls of the cavity by irregular transverse 
bands: these bands check the entire evagination of the membrane, but 
after a time they disappear, and then the unlining and evagination are 
perfect. In the interior of the protrusible portion, and before the dis- 
appearance of the transverse bands, a polypide is developed." The 
further development of this polypide. as described by Prof. Allman, 
does not difl'er materially from those produced from the regular buds 
of the adult cells. 

The same authority thus describes the testicle of Alcyonella (Plu- 
matella) fungosa on page 32 of the work above quoted. 

'•The testicle is composed of a mass of spherical cells, each of which 
contains within it numerous secondary cells, "vesicles of evolution." 
The visible contents of the vesicles of evolution consist, at first, of 
nothing more than a well-defined spherical nucleus, and this is subse- 
quently transformed into a spermatozoal filament, which fin all}' escap- 
es by the rupture of the containing cells. The spermatozoal filaments, 
in this genus, are simple vibrioid bodies without any terminal enlarge- 
ment." 

*Haxcock. Op. cit. p. 18G, note. 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 221 

Arethusa, squirming in the perigastric cavity, and tossing 
the stomach of the polypide about, as if it had been a play- 
thing. They certainly, in this species, evinced sufficient 
power to open a passage through the thin membrane of the 
polypide, although such did not seem to be their object 
at the time. 

No orifices for the expulsion of the ova have been as yet 
positively demonstrated. Meyen chronicles the escape of 
the eggs of Alcyonella (Plumatella) stagnorum from an 
opening in the vicinity of the anus.* But this is, proba- 
bly, erroneous, since, as observed by Mr. Hancock, "the 
great size of the egg forbids the possibility of its escape 
without the destruction of the polypide." 

From the preceding account it may be seen that there 
are four localities, all within the ccenoecium, devoted to the 
function of reproduction. These are, the ovary on the dor- 
sal side of the orifice ; the free part of the endocyst of the 
cell on the abdominal side, bringing forth true buds ; the 
attached portion lower down, giving birth only to fixed 
statoblasts; and the funiculus, generating spermatozoa and 
free statoblasts. The true buds of Fredericella and Pluma- 
tella are numerous, although only one usually matures and 
prolongs the stem: when two or three mature, at the same 
time, the lateral branches are produced. These buds grow 
slowly, forming the ordinary tubular cells. In some varie- 
ties of Plumatella, however, the buds mature more rapidly 
and in greater numbers, while the branch assumes a lobe- 
like form, the polypides, with the cells but half developed, 
crowding the upper surface. This mode of formation, 
which is only a variation of the species in Plumatella, is 
of generic value in Pectinatella, where the polypides are 
invariably arranged upon lobiform branches. In Cristatel- 
la the true buds are more numerous than in any other 
genus, and they mature until the ccenoecium is full grown. 

The gradual increase in the number of the buds, that 
reach maturity, coincides with the decrease in the tough- 
ness of the ectocyst, and its final obliteration in the higher 



*Meyen. Isis. 1828, p. 1228. 

essex inst. proceed, iv. cc. March, 1866. 



222 HYATT, 

genera ; and the absolute number of the buds to the expan- 
sion of the bud producing surface. As has been shown in 
the preceding paragraph, the number of the buds reaching 
maturity, and their absolute number in each cell of Frederi- 
cella, is generally less than in those varieties of Plumatella 
that have a gelatinous ectocyst; and they are less, in the 
latter, than in the Pectin atellap, which have no ectocyst; 
and less in the Pectinatellge than in Cristatella, where the 
ectocyst is wanting, and where the bud producing surface 
is of the greatest extent. 



Composition of the Endocyst. 

In the foregoing remarks the anatomy has been discuss- 
ed, so far as was necessary, in order to give clearness to 
the descriptions of the different genera and the subsequent 
notice of the modes of reproduction. It now remains to 
consider more fully the composition of the body, together 
with the relations and functions of the various organs. 

The endocyst is made up of four layers: (1) an outer 
large celled membrane (PI. 11, fig. 1, E', PL 12, fig. 2, E', 
PI. 13, fig. 16) ; (2) an inner one of smaller cells (PI. 11, 
fig. 1, E"); (3) one of muscular fibre (PI. 11, fig. 1, E'") ; 
(4) an epithelial layer lined internally with muscular fibre 
(PI. 11, fig. 1, W»). 

(1) The first membrane forms the external surface of 
the endocyst of the polypide and of the coencecium. 

The cells on the ccencecia of Fredericella and Plumatel- 
la are hexagonal containing a large brilliant nucleus and 
nucleolus (Figs. 3, 5). Their upper sides are depressed 
by the weight of the superincumbent ectocyst, and their 
longitudinal diameters are not so long as in the cells of the 
same membrane on the evaginable endocyst. 

When fully expanded on the living ccencecium the cells 
are closely pressed one against another; but, if treated with 
alcohol, they contract, and, separating from each other, leave 
wide intervening spaces (Fgs. 2, 4, 5). These spaces have 
been figured by Prof. Allman under the impression that they 
were anastomosing channels, perhaps blood channels ; my 
observations, however, have been too numerous to leave any 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 



223 



doubt of their being what I have stated. The larger cells are 
continually multiplying by division, and there result num- 
bers of small cells which lie scattered here and there in the 
supposed blood channels. Fig. 3 shows a large cell under- 
going the process of division, and below, near the right 
lower corner of the figure, there are two minute cells, un- 
doubtedly created in a similar manner, occupying the in- 
terstices of the membrane. Fig. 5 shows a group of cells 
taken from a point nearer the orifice than those of fig. 2, 
and, also, from a different zooid. These are not so dis- 
figured by contraction and have more angular outlines. 
Fig. 4 shows a group of five cells, from another zooid, more 
highly magnified than either of the above, and more wide- 
ly separated. When the cells are so dispersed the intervals 
are usually more or less filled in by minute cells ; but, in 
this instance, the spaces were vacant and the nucleus of 
immense size, the nucleolus not being visible. 




Mm 



Fig. 2. Fig-. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

Figs. 2 and 5, groups of cells of the first membrane, greatly enlarged, from the 
coenoecium of PLUMATELLA VITREA. 

Fig. 3, one cell still more enlarged showing nucleus and nucleolus. 

Fig. 4, E', cells of first membrane: E'", muscular fibres of the third layer: E"", 
muscular fibres of the fourth layer. 

The cells on the coenoecia of Pectinatella and Cristatella 
do not differ sensibly in their structure from those of Fred- 
ericella and Plumatella. The outer sides, however, being 
free from the presure of an ectocyst, are more convex ; and 
the longitudinal diameters, instead of being less, are greater 
than in the cells of the same membrane in the evaginable 
endocyst. Plate 13, fig. 16, and figures 7, 8, E' present lat- 
eral views of the membrane in the ccenoecia of Cristatella 
and Plumatella: in figure 8 the cellular structure is not 
given, but the relative thickness of the membranes ma'y be 
estimated by a comparison of the two figures. The cells of 
the first membrane of the evaginable endocyst do not vary 



224 HYATT. 

essentially from those on the ccenoecium, except in being 
greater or less than the latter, as mentioned above, and in 
having the power of expanding and contracting their pa- 
rietes. They may swell to twice or three times the normal 
size, and contract again with considerable quickness, as if 
they had collapsed after parting with their fluid contents. 
From the evaginable endocyst they can be followed into 
the calyx, which, in the adult, is merely a web like fold of 
the first membranous layer; and from the calyx into the 
external ciliated membrane of the tentacles. 

The cells on the calyx and tentacles are of about the 
same size as those on the evaginable endocyst. but they are 
not so distinctly hexagonal, unless contracted. The outer 
sides are more convex, than those on the ccenoecium; this 
peculiarity is, also, shared by the cells of the evaginable 
endocyst. The nucleus is large and brilliant. The nucleo- 
lus was not defined. The cilia are prolongations of the 
walls of the cells; each cell bearing one long slender hair 
(Fig. 6). 




Fi< ;. ij. two living cells, with cilia, from near the tip of a tentacle of Feedericella 

BBGIHA. 

The vibrations of the cilia are not constant, and, if a 
tentacle be severed and quickly placed under the micro- 
scope, those that are at rest can be viewed without diffi- 
culty throughout their entire length. 

The cells become smaller on the lophophore, forming a 
denser layer than on the other parts of the zooid. There 
is no break upon the edge of the cesophagus and the cells 
of trie first membrane are continuous with the cells of the 
innermost layer of the alimentary canal. 

(2) The second layer is made up of smaller cells. It is 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 



225 



coextensive with the first, and is the principal membrane of 
the endocyst. The size of its cells does not vary apprecia- 
bly within the limits of the group. As a general rule, 
however, its thickness in the ccenoecium is quite double 
what it is in the evaginable endocyst, and on the outer side 
of the tentacles. On the inner side of those organs, and in 
the lophophore, it becomes as thick as it was in thecosnoe- 
cium. In the arms, also, it is thicker than in the evagina- 
ble endocyst; but its greatest development in this respect 
is attained in the region of the sphincter muscles (Fig. 
8, E"). This membrane is thicker than the first membrane 
in the other parts of the coenoecia of Fredericella and Plu- 
matella, but thinner than the first membrane in the coenoe- 
cia of Pectinatella and Cristatella (Figs. 7, 8, E"). 

(8) The third layer is exceeding- 
ly contractile. The transverse fibres 
of which it is composed are loose- 
ly and irregularly set, but have con- 
siderable muscular power (Figs. 4, 
8, E'"). The coenoecial endocyst 
of Plumatella is sometimes drawn 
in by annular constrictions, hap- 
pening, apparently at will, in any 
part of the wall where the ectocyst 
is sufficiently pliable, which are 
generally referable to the action of 
this muscular coat. Such annular 
constrictions can be occasionally 
traced to rows of small muscles ex- 
tending across the cavity from the 
endocyst to the alimentary canal, 
These muscles, however, could 
not have been the cause of the constrictions in the dead 
Plumatella Arethusa figured in PI. 8, fig. 10. The most 
careful observations of this specimen, with a high power, 
failed in bringing to light any such rows of muscles, and, 
in this case, all the plications, with the exception of those 
brought about by the influence of the retentor muscles (PL 
8, fig. 5), were due to the transverse annular muscles of 
the third layer. 

An involution of this layer aids in forming the base of 




TOOD 



Fig. 7, base of a coenoecial 
wall of a living specimen of 
Cristatella ophidioidea 
viewed from the base, the 
specimen being inverted : E', 
iirst membrane of the endo- 
cyst : E", second membrane 
of the endocyst: E"', third 
layer of transverse muscular 
fibre : E"", epithelial mem- 
brane with longitudinal mus- 
cular fibres. 

or to the invaginated fold 



226 



HYATT, 



the walls in the coenoecium of Cristatella (Fig. 7, E'"), but 
it does not probably extend into their reticulated portion 
(PL 14, fig. 1, Q,). Judging from the thinness of the lat- 
ter, and, from the fact, that all the longitudinal muscles of 
the body appear to be connected more or less with the 
fourth or epithelial membrane, it is quite likely that the 
reticulated portion, or those parts of the coencecial walls 
which lie between the junctions of the walls with the up- 
per and lower internal surfaces of the coenoecial endocyst, 
are composed wholly of longitudinal fibres, encased by the 
epithelium. Around the invaginated fold of Plumateila 
the fibres are thickly disposed and form the so called sphinc- 
ter muscle. This is not a narrow band, as described by 
Prof. Allman, encircling the lower edge of the fold, but a 
local development of the transverse fibres, as broad as 
the fold itself (Fig. 8, E'"). 

In the evaginable 
endocyst this layer 
can be seen, by 
careful focussing, 
through the fourth 
membrane, but only 
with ease, when 
more or less contrac- 
ted. 

In the arms and 
lophophore it is 
thick, and frequent- 
ly, in the former, be- 
comes convoluted 
by the action of muscular bands apparently developed in 
its substance. I was unable to trace this membrane in 
the tentacles, but judging from the great thickness of the 
second tentacular membrane, and the slight increase which 
takes place in the transverse diameter of those organs when 




Fig. 8, Magnified view of the Invaginated fold 
of a living specimen of Pli'.matella diffusa.* 
A"", cuenoecial orifice : D, eetocyst : E', first mem- 
brane of the endocyst : E'', second membrane of 
the endocyst : E'", third layer of transverse mus- 
cular fibre, constituting the Sphincter muscle. 
E"", fourth or epithelial layer, accompanied by 
longitudinal muscular fibres " 



*Xote. Only three membranes are delineated in the coenoecial endo- 
cyst of figure 8. This is owing to my want of success in defining the 
parts of the innermost layer, in the specimen figured, which is undoubt- 
edly made up of two layers, as in the ccenoecium of Cristatella (Fig. 7, 



OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 227 

drawn in, as they often are, to less than one third of their 
full length, I have ventured to assume that it also exists 
there (PI. 11, fig. 1, E"'). 

(4) The fourth or epithelial membrane, lines the interi- 
or, investing all the muscles and the digestive system. It 
is ciliated upon the perigastric region, and upon the in- 
terior of the arms and lophophore, but not in the tenta- 
cles or upon the alimentary canal. On the abdominal side, 
a double layer, or fold, of this membrane, which I have 
named the Brachial Collar, constitutes a partial diaphragm 
reaching about half way round the oesophagus. On the 
dorsal side it is disconnected from the lophophore, and 
hangs into the perigastric space, partitioning off the inside 
of the epistome, and a space below in which the ganglion 
is suspended. There are numerous fibres upon the inner 
side of this diaphragm attached to the oesophagus and en- 
docyst, between the bases of the arms, having sufficient 
contractile power to deeply infold that part of the body 
wall. 

Prof. Allman mentions but two membranes in the en- 
docyst, one, an outer large celled layer, equivalent to my 
first and second membranes, and another, an inner layer, 
equivalent to my third and fourth membranes. Through- 
out its whole extent, the fourth or epithelial layer is lined by 
muscular fibres. These cross the transverse fibres of the 
third layer at right angles (fig. 4, E""). and both were re- 
garded by Prof. Allman as a single inner layer of reticula- 
ted muscles. The longitudinal fibres, however, are inva- 
riably next to the fourth membrane, and remain attached 
to it, whenever, as in the neural diaphragm, it parts from 
the other layers. The transverse fibres, also, never seem 
to be connected with the longitudinal, wherever a good 
definition of either has been obtained. No transverse 
fibres are visible on the neural diaphragm; and on the in- 
vaginated fold (Fig. 8), and the oesophagus (PL 11), no 
longitudinal fibres are visible.* In the two latter they are 



*Xote. Since the printing of the plates, I have, in reviewing these 
pages, changed my opinion and now estimate the longitudinal fibres, as 
of equal importance with the transverse, and consider them a fourth 
]ayer of muscular fibre, the epithelial becoming a fifth membranous lay- 



228 HYATT, OBSERVATIONS ON POLYZOA. 

undoubtedly present, being occasionally seen in a direct 
view; but, when looked for in a lateral section, they are 
too diaphanous and closely adherent to the fourth mem- 
brane to be defined. Their incorporation with this mem- 
brane will also be justified by the description of its func- 
tions in connection with the alimentary canal of Pectina- 
tella. 



er. The endocyst is consequently made up of three membranous and 
two muscular layers ; all the specialized constricting muscles of the 
body being derived from the third layer, and all the longitudinal from 
the fourth layer of muscular fibre. 

The inner and outer tentacular bands, as will be presently shown, 
are inseparable from the latter layer. The retractors, also, notwith- 
standing their disc like structure, can hardly be distinguished from the 
numerous abnormal bands, that occur in some species, connecting the 
endocyst and alimentary canal. These undoubtedly belong to the 
fourth layer, and the retractors may, therefore, be looked upon as hav- 
ing the same relation to the fourth layer that the sphincter has to the 
third. 

The peculiar arrangement of the third and fourth layers retains the 
form of the parts, and gives stability to the entire endocyst. By the 
contraction of the third and relaxation of the fourth the transverse 
diameters of the parts may be decreased, and the longitudinal increas- 
ed; or. by the opposite process, the longitudinal may be decreased, and 
the transverse increased. During the invagination of the potypide, the 
fibres of both are in a state of contraction in the evaginable endocyst 
and in the region of the sphincter; in the ccencecium, however, the}' 
are relaxed. But as soon as evagination begins, they appear to reverse 
this condition. The caeuaecial fibres become contracted and those of 
the same layers in the potypide are stretched to their full length. By 
these reciprocal changes they materially assist the compressed fluids of 
the body in forcing out and expanding the polypide. I have, also, had 
reason to doubt the existence of a neural diaphragm. In examining a 
specimen of Fredericella regina from the side and from above, under 
very favorable circumstances, I was unable to detect the same appear- 
ance of an enveloping membrane just below the nerve mass, that led 
me to the conclusion mentioned ; nor have I had any opportunity of 
verifying my first observations on Pectinatella, which, however, were 
faithfully made with one of Tolle's one half inch objectives. Until 
therefore, Fredericella is shown to be exceptional in this respect by 
further observations on other genera, it is, perhaps, best to regard 
the existence of a neural diaphragm as doubtful. 



[To BE COTIXCED IX VOL. V.] 



INDEX 
To Communications, Vol. IV. 



Acanthogorgia coccinea, 152, 188 
Accipiter Cooperii, 51, 92, 95, 98 

fuscus, 51, 92, 95, 98 
Actinacea, 148 
Actinaria, 147 
Actinida?, 148 
Actiturus Bartramius, 78 
Actodromas Bonapartii, 77, 87, 95 

maculata, 77, 95 

minutilla, 77 

pusillus, 95 
JSgialeus melodus, 86, 93, 96 

semipalmatus, 77, 94 
iEgialitis melodus, 86 

semipalmatus, 77 

vociferus, 77 

Wilsonius, 86 
JEgiothus linarius, 70, 93, 96 
Agelseus phoeniceus, 74, 92, 96 
Aglaope, 31, 33 

americana, 33 

coracina, 31 
Aix sponsa, 79, 93, 96 
Alcyonacea, 148, 190 
Alcyouaria, 14S, 181 
Alcyonella, (note) 203 
Alcyonidse, 148, 190 
Alcyonium? 191 

agaricum, 191 

rubiforme, 190 

sp., 191 
Allen, J. A., Catalogue of Birds 
found at Springfield, 
Mass., 48 

on the Duck Hawk, 153 
Alypia, 23 

Pupa, 24 
Ammodromus caudacutus, 84, 92, 96 

marithnus, 84, 92, 96 

ESSEX INST. PROCEED. IV. DD 



Ammonactis, nov. gen., 160 

rubricollum, 151 
Ampelis cedrorum, 66, 92, 95 

garrulus, 66, 93, 96 
Anas boschas, 78, 95 

obscura, 78, 93 
Anatolmis, nov. gen., 45 

Grotei, nov. sp., 47 
Ancylocheilus subarquata, 87, 94 
Anortliura hyemalis, 68 
Anser erythropus, 88 

Gambelii, 87, 94 

hyberboreus, 87, 94 
Ansetus, 139 
Anthax morio, 127 

ornata, 128 
Anthelia lineata, 193 
Antherophagus, (Byturus) 104, 108 
Anther opbagus, 128 

ochraceus, 128 
Anthophorabia, notes on a new 
species of, 133 

Larva of, 137 

megachilis, nov. sp., 134 

Pupa of, 136 
Anthus ludovicianus, 58, 94 
Antipathacea, 147 
Antipathes flabellum, 187 
Antipathidae, 148 
Antrostomus vociferus, 53, 92, 95 
Apathus, 104, 108, 118 

Ashtoni, 118 

citrinus, 119 

contiguus, 119 

elatus, 120 
Aquila canadensis, 81, 93 
Archibuteo lagopus, 51, 93 

Sancti-Johannis, 51, 93 
Ardea herodias, 76, 93, 96 
Ardetta exilis, 76, 93, 96 

May 28, 1866. 



230 



INDEX. 



Arquatella maritima, 87, 94 
Arvicola riparia, nest of, used by 

Humble Bees, 99 
Astragalinus tristis, 69, 92, 93 
Astreacea, 146 
Astreinse, 147 
Astur atricapillus, 50, 93, 
Aythya americana, 79, 88, 95 

vallisneria, 49, 79. 95 
B 
Balanophyllia capensis, nov. sp., 149 
Balch, D. M., ou native grapes, 140 

on the Socialite at Salem, 3 
Bavtramia laticauda, 78, 93, 96 
Bees, Humble, notes on the habits 
of, 98 

of New England, 107 
Bee, Leaf-cutting, notes on, 105 
Bergidse, 147 
Bernicla brenta, 78, 95 

canadensis, 78, 95 

Hutchinsii, 87, 95 

leucopsis, 88, 96 
Birds, accidental and irregular vis- 
itors, 96 

catalogue of, found at 
Springfield, Mass., 48 

list of. in Mass. not ob- 
served at Springfield, 80 

resident species, 93 

spring and autumn visi- 
tants, 94 

supplemental notes to Mr. 
Allen's catalogue, 97 

summary of Mass. spe- 
cies, 97 

summer visitants, 95 

that regularly breed in the 
State, (Mass.) 91 

winter visitants, 93 
Bombus afrinis, 118 

bimaculatus, 117 

fervidus, 98, 99, 110 

impatiens, 114 

pennsylvanicus, 104, 111 

perplexus, 117 

separatus, 99, 101, 114 

ternarius, 99, 116 

terricola, 112 

vagans, 98, 115 

virginicus, 99, 101, 113 
Bonasa umbellus, 76, 93 
Botaurus lentiginosus, 76, 93, 96 
Brachy otus Cassinii, 52, 92, 93 



Briaridse, 148 

Bryozoa, 201 

Bubo virginianus, 51, 92, 93 

Bucephala albeola, 49, 79, 94 

americana, 79, 94 
Buteo borealis, 51, 92, 93 

lineatus, 51, 92, 95, 98 [98 

pennsylvanicus, 51, 92, 95, 
Butorides virescens, 76, 93, 96 
Byturus, (Autberophagus), parasite 
in Nests of Humble 
Bees, 104, 108 
C. 
Calidris arenaria, 95 
Caruptolamius labradorius, 88, 94 
Cardinalis virginianus, 85, 96 
Oarpodacus purpureus, 48, 69, 92, 96 
Caryophyllidae, 147 
Castiniares, 21 
Castnia, 22 
Cataractes lomvia, 91, 94 

ring via, 91, 94 

troille, 91, 94 
Cathartes atratus, 81, 96 

aura, 81, 96 
Centrophanes lapponicus, 70, 84, 

94, 96 
Centurus carolinus, 48, 53, 96 
Cerianthidse, 148 

Cerianthus orientalis, nov sp 151 
Certhia americana, 68, 92, 93 
Ceryle alcyon, 54, 92, 93, 95 
Chsetura pelasgia, 53, 92, 95 
Chalcis sp., 133 
Charadrius virginicus, 77, 94 
Chaulelasmus streperus, 79, 95 
Chondestes grammaca, 84, 96 
Chordeiles popetue, 54, 92, 95 
Chrcecocephalus atricilla, 90, 94 

Philadelphia, 80, 94 
Chrysomitris pinus, 70, 92, 93 

tristis, 69 
Circus hudsonius, 51, 92, 93 
Cistothorus paiustris, 83, 92, 96 

stellaris,68, 83, 92, 96 
Cnidaria, 145 
Coccygus americanus, 48, 52, 92, 

95 97 

erythrophthalmus, 52, 92,95 
Colaptes auratus, 53, 92, 95 
Collyrio borealis, 66, 93 
Colymbus arcticus, 91 

septentrionalis, 80, 94 

torquatus, 80, 93 



INDEX. 



231 



Conops, 108, 123 

rufipes, 124 

Contopus borealis, 54, 92, 95 
virens, 54, 92, 95 

CoraUidsB, 148 [181 

Corals, descriptiou of new species, 
of the North Pacific Ex- 
ploring Expedition, 18 1 

Cornularia aurantiaca, 151, 194 

Cornularidse, 148, 193 

Corvus amei'icanus, 75, 92, 93 
carnivorns, 48, 75, 96 
ossifragus, 85, 96 

CoturnicUlus Henslowii, 48, 71,92,96 
passerinus, 71, 84, 92, 96 

Cotyle riparia, 65, 92, 95 

Cristatella, 203, 209 

figure of ccenoecial wall, 225 
ophidioidea, 210 

Cristatellida?, 203 

Ctenucha, 33 

americana, 33 
Cressonana, 33, 35 
Larva, 36 
LatreiUaua, 33 
Pupa, 38 

semidiaphana, 33 
virginica, 33, 36 
virgo, 33 

Cupidonia cupido, 85, 93 

Curvirostra americana, 70, 93 
leucoptera, 70, 93, 96 

Cyanospiza cyanea, 73, 92, 96 

C}'anura cristata, 75, 93 

Cyathaxonidsa, 146 

Cyathophyllidae, 146 

Cyclolitidae, 146 

Cystiphyllidse, 146 
D. 

Dafila acuta, 79, 94 

Dendroeica asstiva, 63. 64, 92, 95 

Blackburnite, 62, 64, 92, 95 
canadensis, 62, 64, 92, 95 
castanea, 62, 64, 94 
coerulea, 64, 83 
coronata, 62, 64, 94 
discolor, 64, 92, 95, 97 
maculosa, 63, 64, 94 
palmarum, 63, 64, 94 
pennsylvanica, 63, 64, 95 
pinus, 65, 64, 92, 95 
striata, 63, 64, 94 
tigrina, 48, 63, 64, 94 
virens, 61, 64, 92, 95 



Dipterous larvae in uest of Hum- 
ble Bees, 104 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 74, 92, 96 
Duck Hawk, habits of, 153 

eggs of, 153 
Dytes cornutus, 80 
E. 
Ectopistes migratoria, 75, 93, 96 
Edwardsia brevicornis, 151 

clavata, 150 

collaris, 150 

rubricollum, 151 
Elselolite, analysis of, 5 
Emerson, George H., on Magnetite 

and an unknown mineral 

at Xahant, 6 
Empidonax acadicus, 54, 92, 95 

flaviventris, 55, 94 § 

minimus, 54, 92, 95 

Traillii, 54, 92, 95 
Eremophila cornuta, 69, 93 
Ereunetes pusillus, 87, 95 
Erismafcura rubicla, 79, 94 
Eucyrtus varicornus, 133 
Eudryas, 24 

grata, 27 

Earva, 27 

Pupa, 29 

unio, 27 
Eupsammia Stimpsonii, no v. sp., 150 
Eupsammidse, 147 
Eusmillidae, 147 
Euspiza americana, 84, 96 
Euthlypis canadensis, 65, 92, 94 

E. 
Falco anatum, 50, 92, 93, 153 

candicans, 81, 96 

peregrinus, 153 
Florida coerulea, 86, 96 
Fredericella, 203, 204 

Eegina, figure of stato- 
blast, 214 

figure of living cells with 
cilia, 224 
Fredericellidse, 203 
Fulica americana, 78, 93 
Fulix affinis, 88, 95 

collaris, 88, 95 

marila, 88, 95 
Fungacea, 146 
Fungidse, 146 

G. 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 68. 92,96 
Gallinago Wilsonii, 77, 93, 96 



232 



INDEX. 



Gallinula galeata, 87, 96 

martinica, 87, 96 
Gambetta flavipes, 77, 95 

melanoleuca, 77, 95 
Gavzetta candidissima, 85, 96 
Gernmiporidae, 147 
Geothlvpis Philadelphia, 59. 94 

trichas. 59, 92, 95 
Gerai'dida?, 148 
Gorgonacea, 148, 186 
Gorgonellida?, 148, 189 
Gorgonia flammea. 186 

palma, 186 

venosa, 186 
Gorgonidse, 148, 186 
Graculus carbo. 89. 94 

dilophus, 89, 94 
Grapes, native, 140 

" analysis of, 142 
Guiraca coerulea, 84 

ludoviciana, 73. 92, 96 
H. 
Hsematopus palliatus, 86, 96 
Halisetus leucocephalus, 51, 92, 93 
Halocampa brevicornis, 151 

capeusis, nov. sp., 151 
Harelda glacialis, 49, 79, 95 
Harporhynchus rufus, 68, 92, 96 
Harrisina, nov. gen., 31 

Sanborni, nov. sp., 32 
Helminthophaga celata, 48, 60, 94 

chrysoptera, 61, 82, 94 

peregrina, 48, 61, 94 

pinus, 61, 82, 94 

ruficapilla, 59, 61, 92, 95 
Helmitherus Swainsonii, 82, 94, 

vermivorus, 61, 82, 92, 95 
Helospiza Lijicolnii, 72, 94, 96 

palustris, 73, 92, 96 
Herodias egretta, 76, 96 
Heterocyathus alternata, n. s., 149 
Heteropus ventricosus, 139 
Himantopus nigricollis, 86 
Hirundo bicolor, 48, 65, 92, 95 

horreorum, 65, 92, 95 

lunifrons, 65, 92, 95 
Histrionicus torquatus, 88, 94 
Humble Bees, habits of, 98 

additional notes on, 104 

of New England, 107 

parasites of, 107 
Hyatt, Alpheus, on Polyzoa, sub- 
order Phylactolsemata, 197 
Hydrochelidon flssipes, 91, 95 



Hvdi'ochelidon plumbea, 91 
Hylotomus pileatus, 82, 92, 93 [98 
Hypotriorchis columbarius, 50, 94 

I. 
Ibis Ordii, 86, 96 

Icteria viridis, 48, 59, 92, 95, 96, 98 
Icterus Baltimore, 74, 92, 9G 

spurius, 75, 92, 96 
Ilyanthidse, 148 
Isiclae, 148, 190 
Ixoreus nsevius, 82 
J. 
Juncella heves, nov. sp., 189 
Junco hyemalis, 71, 92, 94 

K. 
Kophobelemnon clavatum, 152, 185 

L. 
Lanivireo flavifrons, 67 

solitarius, 67 
Larus argentatus, 80 

delawarensis, 90, 94 

leucopterus, 90; 94 

marinus, 90, 94 

Smithsonianus, 80, 94 
Leaf-cutting Bee, notes on, 105 
Leioptilum, 182 

undulatum, nov. sp., 182 
Leptogoi'gia cuspidata, n. s., 186 
Limosa fedoa, 87, 95 

hudsonica, 87, 95 
Lissogorgia, 187 

flabellum, 187 

flexuosa, nov. sp., 187 
Lithophyllidse, 147 
Lobularia rubiformis, 190 
Lophodytes cucullatus, 80, 94 
Lophogorgia palma, 186 
Lophophanes bicolor, 83 
Lophopus, 203, 208 

orystallinus, 208 
Lophoseriche , 146 
Lycomorpha, 43 

Pholus, 45 
M. 
Mseandrinidae, 147 
Macrorhamphus griseus, 86, 94 
Madreporacea, 147 
Madreporaria, 145 

perforata, 147 

rugosa, 146 
Madreporidse, 147 
Magnetite at Nahant, 6 
Malthaca perlucidula, 32 
Mareca americana, 79, 95 



INDEX. 



233 



Mareca Penelope, 88, 96 
Megachile, notes on, 105 
centuncularis, 106 
• Melanerpes erythrocephalus, 53, 92 
Melanetta velvetina, 49, 79, 94 [95 
Meleagris gallopavo, 85 
Meloe, 108 

angusticollis, larva of, 129 
Melospiza Lincolnii, 48, 72 

melodia, 72, 92, 93, 96 
palustris, 78 
Mergellus albellus, 89 
Mergulus alle, 91, 94 
Mergus americanus, 79, 93 

serrator, 80, 93 
Merulinidre, 146 

Metridium flmtariatum, now sp., 150 
Microgaster, 122 

nephoptericis, nov. sp., 122 
Micropalama kimantopus, 95 
Mimus carolinensis, 68 

polyglottus, 48, 67, 92, 96 
Mineral, unknown, at Nahant, 6 
"Minyiadse, 148 [104, 139 

Mites in nests of Humble Bees, 
Mniotilta varia, 59, 92, 95 
Mollusca, classification of, 162 
Molothrus pecoris, 74, 92, 96 
Monodontomerus, 1-33 
Mormon arctica, 91, 94 
Mopsella japonica, nov. sp., 190 
Morse, E. S., on the classification 

of the Mollusca. 162 
Muricea divaricata, 188 

sinensis, nov. sp., 187 
Myiarchus crinitus, 54, 92, 95 
Myiodioctes canadensis, 65 

minutus, 83 

mitratus, 83 
Myopa atra, 124 
Myrmarides, new genus of, 133 

N. 
Nephopteryx, 120 

Edmandsii, nov. sp., 120 

Larva, 121 

parasitic in nests of Bom- 
bus, 104, 108 

Pupa, 121 
Nephthya aurantiaca, nov. sp., 191 

coccinea, 152, 188 

thrysoidea, 151, 192 
Nettion carolinensis, 79, 95 

crecca, 88, 96 
Numenius borealis, 87, 95 



Numenius hudsonius, 87, 95 
longirostris, 87, 95 
Nyctale acadica, 52, 92, 93 

Richardsonii, 48, 52, 93, 96 
Nyctea nivea, 52, 93, 97 
Nyctiardea Gardeni, 76, 93, 96 

O. 
Ochthodromus Wilsonius, 86, 96 
Oculiuidffi, 147 
Oidemia americana, 89, 94 
Oporornis agilis, 59, 82, 94 
Ortyx virginiana, 76, 93 
Osmia, 107 
Otus americanus, 51, 92, 93 

Wilsonianus (note), 51 
Oxyechus vociferus, 77, 93, 96 

P. 
Packard, Jr., A. S., Humble Bees 
of New England and 
Parasites ; with notices 
of a new species of An- 
thophorabia, and a new 
genus of Proctotrupi- 
dse, 107 
on the Family Zygsenidse, 7 
Pandion carolinensis, 51, 92, 94 
Parasites in nests of Humble 

Bees, 104 
Parisis laxa, nov. sp., 152, 190 
Parula americana, 59, 92, 95 
Parus atricapillus, 69, 92, 93 

hudsonicus, 83, 93, 96 
Passerculus savanna, 70, 92, 96 
Passerella iliaca, 73, 94 
Pavonaridse, 149, 184 
Pectinatella, 203, 208 

Carteri (note), 203 
magnifica, 209 
Pedetefethya Holbolli, 80 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, 89 
Pelidna americana, 77, 94 
Peli'onetta perspicillata, 89, 94 
Pennatula tenua, 183 
Pennatulacea, 149, 181 
Pennatulidse, 149, 181, 
Peregrine Falcon, eggs of, 153 

habits of, 153 
Phalaropus fulicarius, 86, 94 
hyperboreus, 86, 94 
Wilsonii, 86, 94 
Phellia clavata, 150 
collaris, 150 
Philohela minor, 77, 93, 96 
Philoros, 33 



234 



INDEX. 



Phylactolamiata, Bibliography and 
Classification of, 200 

Comp. of Endocyst, 222 

Reproduction of, 211 

species in America, 203 

species in Australia, 203 

species in Europe, 203 

species in India, 203 
Picoides arcticus, 48, 52, 93, 90 

hirsutus, 82 
Picus pubescens, 52, 92, 93 

villosus, 52, 92, 93 
Pinicola canadensis, G9, 93 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 74, 92, 96 
Plauesticus migratorius, 58 
Plectrophanes lapponicus, 70 

nivalis, 70, 94 
Plexaura friabilis, 186 
Plexauridse, 148. 186 
Plumatella, 203, 207 

Arethusa, 207 

diffusa, figure of invagin 
ated fold of, 226 

vitrea, figure of groups of 
cells of, 223 
Plumatellidse, 203 
Podiceps coruutus, 80, 94 

cristatus, 80, 94 

arriseigena, 80 

Holbollii, 80, 94 
Podilymbus podiceps, 80, 95 
Polioptila coerulea, 69, 83 
Polypi, 145 
Polyps, classification of, 145 [181 

description of new species, 

new species of, 149 

of the North Pacific Ex- 
ploring Expedition, 181 
Polyzoa, 197 

Bibliography and classifi- 
cation of, 200 
Pooecetes gramineus 70, 92, 96 
Poritidae, 147 
Porzana Carolina, 78, 93, 96 

novseboracensis, 78, 87, 95 
Primnoa compressa, no v. sp., 189 
Primnoidae, 148, 189 
Procellaria glacialis, 89, 95 
Procris, 31 

americana, 31 
Progne purpurea, 66, 92, 95 
Pteratomus, nov. gen., 137 

Putnamii, nov. sp., 138 
Pteromorpha expansa, nov. sp., 181 



Ptilosarcus, 183 

Gurneyi, 182 
Puffinus anglorum, 89, 94 

fuliginosus, 89, 94 

major, 89, 94 
Putnam, F. W., Notes on the habits 
of humble bees, 98 [105 

Notes on Leaf-cutting Bee 
Pyranga sestiva, 83, 96 

rubra, 65, 92, 95 
Pyromorpha dimidiata, 32 

Q. 
Querquedula discors, 79, 95 
Quiscalus major, 85, 96 

versicolor, 75, 92, 96 
R. 
^allus crepitans, 87, 96 

virginianus, 78, 93, 96 
Recurvirostra americana, 86 
Regulus calendula 58, 94 

satrapa, 58, 93 
Renillidse, 149 

Rhyacophilus solitarius, 77, 95 
Rissa tridactyla, 90, 94 

S. 
Saccata, a new name for the Mol- 

lusca, 103, 178 
Sarcodictyon, 195 
Sarcophyton agaricum, 191 
Sarcoptilus Gurneyi, 183 
Sayornis fuscus, 54, 92, 95 
Scepsis, 33, 40 

fulvicollis. 33, 43 
Scolecophagus ferrugineus, 75, 94 
Scops asio, 51, 92, 93 
Setophaga ruticilla, 65, 92, 95 
Sialia sialis, 58, 92, 95 
Sitta canadensis, 69, 93 

carolinensis, 69, 92, 93 
Seiurus aurocapillus, 61, 92, 95 

ludovicana, 61 

novaeboracensis, 61, 92, 95 
Sodalite at Salem, 3 

analysis of, 4 
Somateria mollissima, 89, 94 

spectabilis, 89, 94 
Spatula clypeata, 88,. 95 
Sphyropicus varius, 53, 92, 95 
Spizella monticola, 72, 92, 94 

pusilla, 72, 92, 96 

socialis, 72, 92, 96 
Spongodes capitata, 193 

gigantea, 192 

gracilis, nov. sp., 193 



INDEX. 



235 



Squatarola helvetica, 93, 96 
Stauracea, 146 
Staurida?, 146 
Stercorarius cepphus, 90, 94 

parasiticus, 90, 94 
Stercorarius pomarinus, 90, 94 
Sterna arauea, 90, 96 

caspia, 91 

frenata, 90, 95 

fuligiiiosa, 90, 96 

hirundo, 90, 93, 96 

macroura, 90, 93, 94 

paradisea, 90, 96 

Trudeauii, 91 
Stephanoseris lamellosa, n. s., 149 
Strepsilas interpres, 86, 94 
Strix americana, (note) 51 
Sturnella magna, 74, 92, 96 
Stylinidae, 147 
Stylophoridse, 147 
Stylops, 108, 139 

Childreni, 130 
Sula bassana, 89, 94 
Surnia ulula, 81 

Symphemia semipalmata, 77, 93, 96 
Syrnium cinereum, 52, 81, 93, 96 

nebulosum, 52, 92, 93 
T. 
Tachina, 128 
Telesto aurantiaca, 151 

nodosa, nov. sp., 194 

ramiculosa, 151, 194 
Telmatodytes palustris, 68, 83 
Tetrao canadensis, 85, 94, 96 
Thalassianthidse, 148 
Thalassidroma Leachii, 80, 93 

pelagica, 89 

Wilsonii, 89 
Tinnunculus sparverius, 50, 92, 93 
Trichodactylus, 189 
Tringa alpina var. americana, 77 

Bonapartii, 87 

canutus, 86, 94 

maculata, 77 

maritima 87 

"Wilsonii, 77 
Tringoides macularius, 77, 93, 96 
Tryngites rufescens, 78, 95 
Trochilus colubris, 53, 92, 95 
Troglodytes sedon, 68, 92, 96 

americanus, 68 

hyemalis, 68, 93 



Tubipora rubeola, 195 

Tubiporida;, 148, 195 

Turdus Alicise, 48, 56, 57, 58, 94 
fuscescens, 56, 57, 92, 95 
migratorius, 58, 92, 93, 95 
mustelinus, 55, 56, 92, 95 
Pallasii, 56, 58, 92, 94, 97 
Swainsonii, 49, 56, 58, 94 

Tyrannus carolinensis, 54, 92, 95 
U. 

Unknown mineral at Nahant, 6 

Uria arra, 91 

grylle, 91, 94 

Utamania torda, 91, 94 
V. 

Veretillidae, 149, 184 

Veretillum baculatum, n. s., 152, 185 
clavatum, 152, 185 
Stimpsonii, n. s., 152, 184 

Verrill, A. E., Classification of Pol- 
yps, 145 
Polyps and Corals of the 
North Pacific Exploring 
Expedition, 181 

Vireo flavifrons, 67, 92, 95. 

gilvus, 67, 92, 95 [95 

novaeboracensis, 67, 83, 92, 
olivaceus, 66, 67, 92, 95 
philadelphicus, 67 
solitarius, 67, 94 

Vh'eosylvia olivacea, 66 

Virgularia pusilla, nov. sp., 184 

Volucella, unknown larva allied to, 

126 
W. 

Wilsonia minuta, 83, 95 
mitrata, 64, 83 
pusilla, 64, 94 
X. 

Xema Sabinii, 90 

Xenidse, 148 

Z. 

Zenaedura carolinensis, 75, 93, 96 

Zoanthacea, 147 

Zoanthidse, 147 

Zonotrichia albicollis, 71, 94 
leucophrys, 71, 94 

Zygsena exulans, 20 [7 

Zygsenida?, notes on the family of, 
Larva, 19 
Pupa, 20 

Zygaeninae, 29 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PL 7. 




Prof. II. J. Clark, E. S. Morst, and A. Ilyatt. from Xat. E. B. M..rse. on Wood. J. F. Richardson. Portland. Eng 

A. Holland. Boston, Printer. 



PLATE 7. 

Feedesicblla regina Leidy, Mss. 

Pig. K* One colony, life size, with all the branches attached. (Gor- 
ham, Me.) 

Fig, 2. Two branches of one colony : one attached and one free. 
(Cambridge, Mass.) 

Fig. 3. Attached branch of one colony. (Gorham, Me.) 

Fig. 4. Magnified view of one adult zooid. (Norway, Me.) D, ecto- 
cyst ; E, endocyst ; V, funiculus ; M, gastric retractors ; M', lophophoric 
retractors; M", brachial retractors; N, anterior retentors ; N\ posterior 
retentors ; F, brachial collar; G, calyx ; H, tentacles. 

Fig. 5. t Section of a young specimen, showing the internal structure 
and the limited extent of the invaginated fold. (Cambridge, Mass.) D, ecto- 
cyst ; E, endocyst ; B, invaginated fold ; Y, bud ; N, anterior retentors ; K 
oesophagus; H", cilia; K'", oesophagal valve; K', stomach; K"", posi- 
tion of intestinal valve ; K ", intestine ; K, anus ; I, lophophore ; I ', epis- 
tome; I", mouth; H, tentacles; F, brachial collar; S, nerve mass. 

Fig. 6.} Lateral view of an invaginated specimen, showing the shape of 
the ccenoecial orifice, A "", orifice ; L, region of the sphincter ; D, ecto- 
cyst ; E, endocyst. 

Fig. 7. View of the same from above* 

Fig. 8. Front view of a zooid, showing the incipient arms and the rela- 
tive positions of the muscles. M ', lophophoric retractors ; M ", brachial re- 
tractors ; I ', epistome. 

*This figure was drawn and presented to me by Mr. Mcrse. 

tThis figure is part of a study drawing made by Prof. H. J. Clark, and oblig- 
ingly placed at my disposal by him. 

JAil figures with no locality mentioned must be referred to the habitat 
(last named ; thus in PI. 7, Figs. 6, 7 and 8 are all from the same locality as Fig, 5. 



PLATE 8. 
Plumatella Aeeihcsa Hyatt. 

Pig. I. General view of one colony, life size, with most of the poly- 
pides retracted. (Norway, Me.) Three apertures in the ectocyst of the 
main trunk indicate the former positions of as many living polypides, and 
show this colony to have been a branch of a much larger colony, from 
which it has been separated by the death and disappearance of the original 
stock. 

Fig. 2. One polypide evaginated, with a younger polypide from the 
same cell invaginated. D, ectocyst, E, endocyst; Y, bud; M, gastric re- 
tractors ; M ', lophophoric retractors ; M ", brachial retractors ; M, trunks of 
the retractors. P, brachial collar; V, funiculus; W, statoblasts; W", 
gelatinous envelope ; N, anterior retentors ; N ', posterior retentors ; A "", 
ccencecial orifice ; L, region of the sphincter. 

Pig. 4. View of the ccencecial orifice of fig. 2, from above, showing 
the four broad plications of the invaginated fold. The crenulations on the 
border are produced by the contraction of the sphincter, and do not indi- 
cate cellular structure. 

Fig. 5. Special view, showing the arrangement of the retentor mus- 
cles around the invaginated fold of the evaginated zooid in fig. 2. The five 
anterior rows of the posterior retentors are contracted, and have drawn the 
external wall into five slightly crenulated folds. N, anterior retentors ; N', 
posterior retentors ; L, region of the sphincter. 

Pig. 6. View of the partial division between the cell of fig. 2 and 
the preceding polypides, formed by an infolding and thickening of the endo- 
cyst. D, ectocyst ; E, endocyst. 

Pigs. 7, 8, 9. Upper and lower sides and profile view of the statoblast. 
W ', horny sheath ; W ", annular sheath ; W "", gelatinous envelope. 

Fig. 10. View of a dead and half decayed specimen, showing the pe- 
culiar constrictions of the cell occasioned by annular muscular bands. D 
ectocyst; E, endocyst; H, tentacles ; I", mouth; L, region of the sphinc- 
ter; K', stomach ; M, trunk of the retractors. 

Plumatella diffusa Leidy. 

Pig. 11. An old colony of life size, with but few living polypides. 
(Cambridge, Mass.) 

Pig. 12. Enlarged lateral view of a branch from a younger colony, 
showing different degrees of invagination. First cell on the left has even 
the upper pliable part of the ectocyst drawn in ; second cell is vacant, the 
polypide and softer parts having entirely decayed ; third, fourth and 
sixth cells show different degrees of invagination. 

Fig. 13. Enlarged view of another variety of this species with all the 
polypides retracted. 

Fig. 14. Enlarged ventral view of the expanded crest of a polypide 
from fig. 13. M', lophophoric retractor; M", brachial retractors. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PI. S. 




A. Hyatt, from Nat. E. S. Morse, on Wood. J. F. Kiehardson. Portland Rn* A. Holland. Boston. Printer. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV 



PL 9. 




V Hvatt. from Xat. F. 3. Morse. 1 Wood. J F. Richardson. Portland F.ng. A II. .Hand. Boston, L'rinter. 



PLATE 9. 

Plumatelia vitrea Hyatt. 

Fig. 1 . Enlarged view of five groups on one branch, corresponding to 
the first five on the left of the branch below, fig. 2. (Cambridge, Mass.) 

Fig. 2. View of one branch, natural size. 

Fig. 3. Shows the great extent to which the polypide is often evagi- 
nated. D, ectocyst ; E, endocyst ; B, invaginated fold ; K ', stomach. 

Pectin atella magnifica Leidy. 

Fig. 4. Outline of a mass gathered on the stump of a dead branch. 
(Norway, Me.) The outline of the branch where it is covered by the mass, 
is indicated by a dotted line. This figure shows the general aspect of the 
mass, the great thickness of the ectocyst, and the general arrangement of 
the colonies. A, outlines of ccencecia ; D, ectocyst. 

Fig. 5. The outline of a colony, natural size, from a large mass, show- 
ing the radiating and tripartite character of the lobes. A ', ccencecial trunk ; 
A ", ccencecial lobes, divided into three minor lobes. 

Fig. 6. Ideal transverse section of the same, with the polypides ex- 
panded. W, statoblasts ; A', ccencecial trunk ; C, polypide. 

Fig. 7. The colony represented in the outline of fig. 5, after being 
treated with alcohol. C ', dead and retracted polypides ; A ', ccencecial 
trunk ; A ", ccencecial lobes ; W, statoblasts. 

Fig. 8. Younger colony, showing the central polypide. 

Fig. 9. Young colony, showing the genesis of five polypides, the pro- 
gemtors of an equal number of branches; from the central polypide. 

Fig. 10. A young colony enlarged, showing the arrangement of the 
polypides. (Cambridge, Mass.) 

Fig. 11. A very old colony; the ccencecial trunk occupied by numer- 
ous statoblasts, and the half absorbed remains of dead polypides. W, 
statoblasts ; C ', dead polypides. 

Fig. 12. Ventral view of a closely retracted polypide, showing the 
positions and relations of the three pairs of retractors. (Norway, Me.) K', 
bottom of the stomach ; K, part of the oesophagus ; M, gastric retractors ; 
M ', lophophoric retractors ; M ", brachial retractors ; N, anterior retentors. 

Fig. 13. Lateral view of a retracted polypide, showing the aspect of 
the fourth membrane and of the retractors during the process of invagina- 
tion. J "", fourth membrane of the alimentary canal ; M, gastric retrac- 
tors ; M ", brachial retractors ; V, funiculus ; K, oesophagus ; K', stomach; 
K", intestine ; I, lophophore ; H, tentacles. 

Cristatella ophidioidea Hyatt. 
Fig. 14. View from above of the lophophore of an immature polypide. 
The arms are still joined near the extremities, and the tentacles and calyx 
along the line of the juncture remain undeveloped. (Norway, Me.) 



PLATE 10. 
Pectinatella m.agnifica Leidy. 

Fig. I. Enlarged view of one polypide situated at the end of a lobe. 
(Norway, Me.) The full adult growth of the terminal tentacles is not yet 
attained. They become about one-third longer in the adult. A ", cavity 
of the coenoecial lobe ; D, common ectocyst ; E, endocyst of the coenoecium 
and polypide ; J, hepatic folds ; M ', lophophoric retractors ; M ", brachial 
retractors ; N, anterior retentors ; N ' posterior retentors. 

Pigs. 2, 3, 4. The upper and lower side, and profile of the statoblast. 
W ', horny sheath ; W ", annular sheath ; W '", spines. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



n. 10. 




A. Hyatt, from Nat. E. S. Morse, on Wood. J. F. Richardson, Portland Eng. A. Holland, Boston, Printer. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PL 11. 




A. Hyslt. from Nut. K. S. Morse, on Wood. J. F. Kioliardion, Portland Enz. A. Holland. Boston. Printer 



PLATE 11. 
Pectinatella magnifica Leidy. 

Fig. l.# Enlarged longitudinal section exhibiting a portion of the left 
arm and the left side of the tcdy, of a p olypide. The ganglion, however, is 
from the right side of the body, towards the observer, and is supposed to be 
pressed inwards, and away from the observer, in order to show its relation to 
the neural partition and the polypidal nerve. (Norway, Me.) H, tentacles ; 
H', tubular interior of the tentacles ; G, calyx; H", cilia; O, bases of the out- 
er tentacular bands ; ', fibres of the inner tentacular bands, seen from the 
outside; I', epistome ; P, one-half of the median muscle of the epistome ; 
P ', left lateral muscle of the epistome; E, parietal fibres, probably abnor- 
mal, enveloped by the fourth membrane; I, lophoj hore ; I", mouth; E' 
the first, E", the second, E'", the third, and E"", the fourth membrane 
of the endocyst; F, brachial collar ; F' neural partition; K, oesophagus ; 
K', stomach; K", intestine; K'", cesophagal valve; K"", intestinal 
valve; K, anus; J', the first, J", the second, J'", the third, and J"", the 
fourth membrane of the alimentary canal;. S ', right ganglion; T, right 
lophophoric nerve trunk severed near the base ; T ', right epistomical nerve 
trunk ; T ", right brachial nerve trunk severed near the base ; T '", right, 
polypidal nerve trunk. 

Fig. 2. Enlarged ganglion of another specimen from the same colony 
as fig. 1, showing the extreme variability of the ganglia and nerve trunks. 
T, right lophophoric nerve trunk; T', right epistomical nerve trunk; 
T", right brachial nerve trunk; T'", right polypidal nerve trunk. 

Fig. 3. Shows the same ganglion contracted, the nerve trunks indica- 
ted by the same letters. 

* This figure is composed from numerous drawings of different individuals. The 
number of the membranes in the tentacles, as has been explained in the text, was 
inferred but not observed. 



PLATE 12. 
Pectin, atella magsifica Leidy. 
Fig. l.# Front view of a polypide nmch enlarged, with the arms re- 
moved, showing the under side of the lophophore. (Norway, Me.) E, en- 
docyst; B, invaginated fold; H', tubular base of the tentacles; Z, clear 
spaces in the endocyst ; L ', brachial contractors ; M, position of the lopho- 
phoric flexor ; I ', outline of the epistome ; S, nerve mass ; T, lophophorie 
nerve trunks ; T ", brachial nerve trunks ; T '", polypidal nerve trunks ; K, 
oesophagus; K'", cesophagal valve; K', stomach; K "", intestinal valve; 
K ", intestine ; K, anus ; M ', lophophorie retractor ; M ",' brachial retrac- 
tors; F, brachial collar; N, anterior retentors; N', posterior retentors. 

Fig. 2. Lateral view of a portion of the inside of one of the arms, 
showing the fibres of the inner and outer tentacular bands. H, bases of the 
tentacles ; Z, clear spaces in the endocyst ; I, lophophore ; E ', the first, 
E », the second, E '", the third, and E "", the fourth membrane of the en- 
docyst ; O, bases of the outer tentacular bands ; ', fibres of the inner ten- 
tacular bands. The third membrane, E '", is lifted from the second, E ", by 
the action of the lower fibres of the brachial contractor, which also form the 
knee-like ridge at L '. 

* This figure is composed from numerous drawings of diflerent individuals. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV 



PI. 12. 




A. Hyatt, from Nat. E. S. Morse, on Wood. J. F. Richardson, Portland, Eng. A. Holland, Boston, Printer. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



Pi. 1; 




A. Hyatt, from Nat. E. S. Morse, on Wood. J. F. Richardson, Portland Eng. A. Holland, Boston, Printer. 



PLATE 13. 

Ckistatella ophidioidea Hyatt. 

Fig. I. A colony of natural size in its natural position. The polypides 
are figured at the ends only, the outline of the colony between them being 
indicated by dotted lines. (Norway, Me.) 

Fig. 2. Enlarged view of the underside of one-half of a young colony 
with the ectocyst and endocyst removed from a portion of the base, disclos- 
ing the stomachs of the polypides and the bases of the muscular walls. On 
the border are the buds attached to the upper side of the endocyst, and in 
the centre is the inverted cone formed by the interior edges of the muscular 
walls. On the left, the uncovered portion, the white lines show the posi- 
tions of the muscular walls, but on the right, the covered portion, they 
show only the temporary external folds of the endocyst caused by the con- 
traction of tlie ccencecium. The relations and positions of all these parts 
are best explained by reference to the ideal section of this colony, as depicted 
in fig. 3, the lettering being the same in both ; with the exception of K ', 
stomachs of adult polypides jjartially retracted, andt, stomach of an evagi- 
nated polypide in fig. 2 ; and D, ectocyst in fig. 3. 

Fig. 3.'* E, endocyst; C, stomach of polypides wholly retracted ; Q, 
muscular walls ; Y, buds ; Y ', immature polypides, capable of ev agina- 
tion ;t X, fixed statoblasts ; A ', coenoecial trunk. 

Fig. 4. View from above of a portion of the border of the same col- 
ony when expanded to about twice the vertical height of fig. 3. Lettering 
same as in preceding figures, with the exception of A", coencecial tubes, and 
A "", coenoecial orifices. Some of the latter are closed, and some, indicated 
l>3 r dotted lines, are open ; the polypides, however, are omitted from the lat- 
ter, in order to give a better view of the ccencecium. 

Fig. 5. Enlarged coenoecial cell of the first row, the orifice closed 
over the invaginated polypide. A"", coenoecial orifice; Q, attachments of 
the muscular walls of the cell; N, anterior retentors. 

Fig. 6. Transverse section of the same, viewed from the ventral side. 
A "", coenoecial orifice ; Q, muscular walls ; N, anterior retentors ; H, tenta- 
cles. 

Fig. 7. View of a fully invaginated polypide of the first row, from 
below, with the endocyst removed from that side. The gastric and part of 
the lophophoric retractors, have been entirely omitted. A "", coencecial ori- 
fice ; Q, muscular walls ; M, trunk of retractor muscles ; K ', stomach. 

* When this figure was drawn, I had, as I supposed, observed three rows of full 
grown polypides on the coencecium as in fig. 2. This, however, is probably errone 
ou3, and I doubt whether at any lime of the life of the colony, there are more than 
two living rows of fully grown polypides and one row of immature polypides. In 
this section, therefore, the innermost rows should have been represented in a re- 
tracted condition, the polypides dead and partly absorbed. 

t For a magnified view of crest from above, see PI. 9, fig. 14. 



Fig. 8. A tube isolated and viewed from the lower side. Y, bud at • 
tacbed to the upper endocyst ; X, young, fixed statoblast attached to the 
lower endocyst ; Q, coenoecial walls ; Q, base of membranous ridge ; E, en- 
docyst. 

Fig. 9. Two figures of the same statoblast, showing the variations in 
the form and position of the vacant spot in the statoblast of fig. 8. 

Fig. 10. View of the same from the upper side, showing the membra- 
nous ridge crossing the statoblast and apparently connecting with the endo- 
cyst on the upper side. 

Fig. 1 1 . An older specimen, in which the ridge has formed a tube. 

Fig. 12. A still older specimen, from the interior of the coenoecium, 
showing the elliptical depression in the horny sheath. 

Fig. 13. View of the lophophore from above, with the tentacles and 
calyx removed, showing the distribution of the nerves. H, bases of the ten- 
tacles ; G, calyx ; M, lophophoric flexor ; U, lophophoric nerve branches ; 
U ', tentacular nerve branches ; I ', epistome ; I", mouth. 

Fig. 14. Epistome isolated and viewed from above, showing the mus- 
cles. P, median muscle ; P ', lateral muscles. 

Fig. 15. Lateral view of a portion of the interior of one arm with the 
lophophore removed, showing the outer and inner tentacular bands, and the 
membranes of the endocyst in an alcoholic specimen. O, outer tentacular 
bands ; ', inner tentacular bands. 

Fig. 16. Direct and profile views of a group of cells from the first mem- 
brane of the coencecial endocyst of fig. 2. 

PLATE 14. 
Cristate i, la ophidioidea Hyatt. 

Fig. 1 . Magnified view of an adult polypide in its cell. E, endocyst • 
Q, muscular walls of the cell ; M, gastric retractors ; M ', lophophoric re- 
tractors ; M", brachial retractors; N, anterior retentors ; Z, clear space* 
in the endocyst between the bases of the outer tentacular bands ; O, bases 
of outer tentacular bands. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. Upper and lower side, and profile view of statoblast. 
W, horny sheath; W", annular sheath ; W", spines. Of the last, there 
are in nature twenty-two short, and thirty-two long ones. 

Fig. 5. View of the anus, showing its oblate form, and also the great 
breadth of the intestine, when compared with the resophagus and the upper 
part of the stomach in the background; K, oesophagus ; K', stomach; 
K", intestine ; K, anus. 

Fig. 6. Section of stomach, showing the hepatic folds. J, hepatic 
folds. 

Fig. 7. Oblique view of the tip of a tentacle, showing the fan-shaped 
attachments of the tentacular bands. 



Proceedings Essex Institute. Vol. IV. 



PL 14. 




A. Hyatt, fiom Nat. E. S. Morse, on Wood. J. K. Richardson . Portland Eng. A. Holland. Boston. Printer 



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